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THE ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT.

Examples of environmental problems: pollution. waste generation.    The environment as a natural resource ( e.g. forest. clean air. oil. sound ecosystem etc) The environment is therefore vital to supporting life. extinction of natural resource etc. beautiful views. minerals etc) The environment as amenities (e.g. . absorbing waste and providing inputs for production.

3. 2. . 4.1. The concept of Sustainable development Population and resources Poverty Economic growth Rural development Urbanization The global economy The nature and pace of greenhouse gasinduced climate change. 6. 7. 8. 5.

   This has become perhaps the most important approach to considering the environment and development. Also the issue of environmental accounting is key to achieving this . The Brundtland Report (1987) defines it as development that seeks to meet the needs and aspiration of the present without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs.

With our present path of accelerating environmental degradation. the problems are more and population rates can not fall as the poor are often dependent on large families for survival .    The number of peoples needs can not be met by earth’s finite resources. we would compromise the ability of the present and future generation to meet their needs A slowing of population growth rates can help ease this pressure on resources But in LDC.

For environmental policies to succeed in LDCs. they must first address the issue of landlessness. lack of access to institutional resources. Lack of information and credit often prevents the poor from making resource investment that would help preserve the environment assets from which he drives his livelihood. Environmental destruction and high fertility go hand in hand.    High fertility is blamed for problems that are attributable to poverty itself. . poverty.

   Evidence indicates that the very poor cause considerable environmental destruction as a result of poverty. However. At one point. . the environmental Kuznets curve comes into play. there is likely to be a net increase in environmental destruction. as income and consumption levels of everyone else in the economy also rise.

    Agriculture is the back bone of most LDCs and this takes place in the rural and remote areas. Inputs and other infrastructure needs to be directed towards this sector. Also poverty alleviation measures must target women’s economic status. Women are also the caretakers of rural resources and provide much of the labour for agric so they must be integrated into environmental programs. .

the more difficulty it will be to deal with these problems. . net global environmental degradation likely to worsen. Some trade-offs will be necessary for sustainable development Also using resources more efficiently can provide a number of environmental changes Many essential changes will require substantial investment in pollution abatement technology and resource management The poorer the country.     As the world population grows and income rise.

Also the window within which very large future costs can be averted is beginning to close The developed countries must take the lead and bear most of the cost but LDCs will also need to play a significant role in limiting GW .   Environmental scientists and economists are increasingly appreciating that the impacts of global warming are likely to be felt earlier than expected.

7. Proper resource pricing Community involvement Clearer property rights and resource ownership Improving economic alternatives for the poor Raising the economic status of women Policies to abate industrial emissions Proactive stance toward climate change and environmental degradation . 5. 4. 6. 2.1. 3.

Trade liberalization Debt relief Financial and technological assistance . 3.1. 2.

1. 3. Reduce harmful emissions Develop clean technologies for themselves and for LDCs through Research and development Import restrictions . 2.

. Total surplus = consumer surplus + producer surplus or simply the total willingness to pay – the total production cost.   Consumer surplus:=the total willingness to pay – the amount the individual actual pay Producer surplus= the amount that producers actual receive – the total production cost.

 Unintentional side-effects of production and consumption that affect a third party either positively or negatively. .

2. Pigou) Coasian bargains ( Ronald Coase) Marketable Permits Administrative or legal action. . Pigovian taxes and subsidies ( A. 3.1. C. 4.