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CHAPTER 2

 Plant Cell

 Animal Cell

Cellular components of animal and plant cells.
Cell Wall (In plant cells only) Characteristic 1. Rigid outer layer that surrounds the plasma membrane. 2. Composed of cellulose, a tough and fibrous carbohydrate. 3. permeable. Function 1. Give a shape. 2. Provides mechanical support . 3. Protect the plant cell.

Vacuole (usually in plant cell) Characteristic 1. Spherical or oval shaped sac filled with fluid called tonoplast. 2. Fluid is known as cell sap. 3. In microorganism have contractile vacuoles and food vacuoles. Function 1. Store food 2. Regulate water balance in cells. 3. Turgidity of cell give support to plant 4. Contractile vacuoles help regulate amount of water.

Centrioles (in animal cell only) characteristic 1. Function 1. . dense. Small cylindrical structure Function 1. Synthesis cilia and flagella of small organism. nucleolus and chromatin. spherical organelle enclosed by a nuclear membrane. Exist in pair near the nucleus 2. Form spindle fibres during cell division 2. Large. 2. Controls all activities of the cell. Synthesis of ribosomes and DNA. Nucleus Characteristic 1. Contain nucleoplasm . 2.

The energy released is store in the form of ATP) Ribosome characteristic 1. Involved in cellular respiration. (glucose broken down with help of enzymes. Synthesis of protein such as enzymes . Spherical organelles 2. release energy. Consist 2 subunit containing protein and RNA Function 1.Mitochondria Characteristic 1. Cylindrical or oval shaped Function 1.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Characteristic 1. Consist of an extensive flattened membrane folded repeatedly to form a large network of interconnected tubes and sacs. . Function 1. Smooth ER synthesis lipids and is the centre for detoxification of drugs. Smooth ER which has no ribosomes. Rough ER which has ribosome on its surface. 3. 2. Rough ER transport proteins made by ribosome to one part of the cell to another 2.

As a processing packaging and transporting centre of carbohydrates. consist of a stack of flattened membrane sacs. Jelly like medium Fucntion 1. phospholipids and glycoproteins. protein. Place where biochemical reactions occur . Functions 1. Cytoplasm Characteristic 1.Golgi apparatus characteristic 1.

Functions 1. Breaking down the bacterial cell wall. 3. Spherical 2. Bounded by single membrane 3. . Contains hydrolylic enzymes.Lysosomes Characteristic 1. lipids polysaccharides and nucleic acids. 2. Eliminate damage organelles to renew it self. Break down complex organic molecules such as proteins.

Chlorophyll traps sunlight and converts light energy into chemical energy during photosynthesis. Contains the green pigment chlorophyll. Functions 1. Disc shaped structure 2.Chloroplast (in green plants) Characteristic 1. .

endoplasmic. cytoplasm. mitochondria. Comparing the structure of animal and plant cell Animal cell Similarities Plant cell Both animal and plant cells have plasma membrane. . ribosome. reticulum. nucleus. Golgi apparatus.

absent Food storage .Animal cell Not fixed Different Shape Plant cell Fixed Absent Cell wall Absent Present Present Vacuoles If present are small Chloroplast Carbohydrate are stored in the form of glycogen granules Present Centriole Has large vacuoles filled with cell sap Carbohydrate are stored in the form of starch grains.

excrete. reproduce and grow. . Unicellular organism can feed. move. respond to stimuli.Organism which are made up of only cell are called unicellular organism. respire. Euglena sp. Paramecium sp. Examples of unicellular organism are Amoeba sp. Chlamydomonas sp 1. 2. 3.

Amoeba sp. Structure 1. outer layer called ectoplasm and inner layer is called endoplasm. Soil water . Cytoplasm is divide into two layers. Enclosed by plasma membrane 3. Has nucleus. 4. Habitat 1. Does not have definite shape 2. 2. Freshwater environment such as in lakes and ponds.

Reproduce asexually 2. Binary fission during favourable conditions 3. Formation of spores during unfavourable (environment not conducive) conditions.Reproduction 1. .

Locomotion 1. Moves by extending the pseudopodium to the direction in wants to move. Pseudopodia is known as ‘false feet’ . 2.Respiration  Exchanges of respiration gases through the plasma membrane by diffusion.

Pseudopodia extend to surround food. algae and other microorganisms. engulf it to form a food vacuole. Feeds through phagocytosis process. Feeds on bacteria. . 3.Feeding 1. Then digest the food by a enzymes called lysozymes. 2.

.Excretion 1. It moves away from unfavourable stimuli such as acidic or alkaline solutions. Moves towards favourable stimuli such as food using pseudopodia. Then contract to expel its content when vacuole is filled to a maximum size. Osmoregulation is carried out by contractile vacuole. 2. bright light and high temperature. Water diffuses into the cell by osmosis and fill the contractile vacuole. Response to stimuli 1. 3. 2.

. Multicellular organisms begin life as a single cell. The cell of the embryo grow changes shape and differentiate to carry out specific function. 2.Cell specialisation in multicellular organism Multicellular organism are organisms which are made up of more than one cell. 1. 4. The zygote divide repeatedly to form identical cells which form ball of cells known as embryo. 3. a zygote which is formed when an ovum is fertilised by a sperm.

 Example is specific function of: a) White blood cell? b) Nerve cell? c) Red blood cell? d) Sperm cell? .

6. 3. 2. A tissue is group of similar cells performing a particular function. All system work together to make up an organism. 4. An organ is a group of tissue that performs a specialised function. cell of the same type which carry out a common function are organised into tissue. . 5. Several organs are found within a system. Different type of tissue group together to form an organ.Cell organisation in multicellular organism 1.

a) b) c) d) There are 4 main types of tissues in animals. Epithelial tissue Muscle tissue Nerve tissue Connective tissue .Cell organisation in animals Tissue 1.

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a) Epithelial tissue  Consist of one layer or more cell. Function i. Epithelial tissue at the lining of intestine  Secretes digestive enzymes  Absorb nutrient . Epithelial tissue at the outermost layer of the skin  Protect the underlying tissue and organs  Prevents dehydration of the skin ii.  Cells of an epithelium tightly interconnected and form a continuous layer over body surfaces(skin and Mouth)and inner linings of cavities(digestive tract and lungs).

Epithelial tissue at the lining of trachea  Consist modified structures called cilia. Smooth muscle Cardiac tissue Skeletal muscle . Epithelial tissue at the lining of lung  Allows efficient exchanges of respiratory gases iv. a) b) c) Muscles tissue Most abundant tissue 3 type of tissue. b) 1. 2.iii.

Smooth muscle  Responsible for involuntary body activities such as the peristaltic movement along digestive tract. Skeletal muscles  Involved in voluntary movements  Contract an relax to move the bones Cardiac muscle  Contract to pump blood to all parts of the body .

c) Nerves tissue  Composed of neurones or nerve cell. Functions:  To detect stimuli and transmit electrical signals called nerve impulses to muscle or glands.  Nerve tissue control and coordinates activities of the body.  Neurone consist of a cell body and nerve fibres called dendrites and axons. .

•Found in the dermis and organ. 1. ear and covers the ends of bones at join. 1. Bone Blood cells Adipose tissue •Tightly packed cell stores fat. Act as an energy reserve. Provides protection to organs and support the body. Provide support to the nose. Dense fibrous connective tissue Cartilage •Strong flexible connective tissue. . transporting and protective functions. Join bones together at join (ligament) 1. 2. Provide insulation and protection. 2. Act as cushions to absorb pressure. Has regulating. Connect muscles to bones (tendons) 2.d) Connective tissue Type of connective tissue Function Loose connective tissue Binds epithelia to underlying tissue and holds organs in place.

Adipose tissue Loose connective tissue Bone tissue Bone tissue Cartilage .

Organs  Formed by two or more tissue  Working together to perform particular function Example of organs include: i. Eyes vi. ears . Lungs iv. Skin iii. Heart ii. Kidney v.

Skin  Is a organs because consist of various type of tissue joined together . Physical trauma and Water loss. . epithelial and muscle tissue) Function  Covers the body to protect  Act as barrier against infection. nerve.  Two main layer .  epidermis (outer layer made up of epithelial tissue)  dermis (composed of connective.

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 Consist of 11 system .System  Consist several organs that work together to perform a common function.

Located at the tips of roots and buds of shoots. 2.Cell organisation in plants Tissue  Two type of tissue a) Meristematic tissue b) Permanent tissues a) Meristematic tissue consist of small cells . thin walls. Actively dividing cells 3. no vacuoles. large nuclei. . dense cytoplasm. 1.

Vascular tissue i.b) Permanent tissue  Mature tissue  3 type of permanent tissue Epidermal tissue ii. . Epidermal tissue  Outermost layer covers the stem.  Flat and large vacuoles  Covered waxy waterproof called cuticle. and root of young plant. Ground tissue iii. i. leaves.

 Function of cuticle?  1  2  3  Root epidermal cells have long projection called root hair to increase the surface area for water absorption. .  Guard cell found among epidermal cell to control the opening and closing of stomata.  Guard cell containing chloroplast.

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 Give support and shape to plant .ii. Ground tissue consist of parenchyma tissue. Parenchyma tissue  Found in organs of plant  Thin primary wall  Large vacuoles Function  Store sugar and starch. collenchyma tissue and sclerenchyma tissue.

Function  Give support and  mechanical strength to mature regions of a plant . young stem and petioles Sclerenchyma tissue  Have cell wall  Thickened by lignin.Collenchyma tissue  Thickened cell wall Function  Support non woody plant.

Vascular tissue.  Consist of Xylem and Phloem Xylem  Consist mainly of xylem vessels joined together end to end.iii.  Provide support and mechanical strength to the plant. .  Consist cytoplasm Function  Transport of water and dissolved minerals salts from the roots to other part of the plant.

 Arranged end to end to form long continuous tubelike structure.Phloem  Consist mainly of sieve tubes. . Function  Transport organic compounds such as carbohydrate and amino acids to other part of the plant.

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Organs and systems in plant .

 Flowering plant consist of root system and shoot system. flowers.  Shoot system consist of stems. leaves.  Root system consist of all the root of a plant. and fruit.  stem and branches act as a support system for the plant. . buds.

The interstitial fluid forms the internal environment of an organism. The cells obtain the substance required for biochemical reactions from the interstitial fluid.Regulating the internal environment The internal environment of multicellular organism 1. . 4. Intercellular space between cells is filled with a fluid called the interstitial fluid. 3. 2. The internal environment is the environment within the body of an organism.

1. . The physical and chemical factors of the internal environment must be maintained regardless of the conditions outside of the cell in order for cell to function optimally Physical factors : a) Temperature b) Blood pressure c) osmotic pressure 1.The necessity for maintaining an optimal internal environment. Chemical factors: a) Salt b) Sugar content c) pH value 2.

 These changes are regulated by the homeostatic mechanisms which maintain the internal environment so that the metabolic process can proceed at optimum rates. temperature and osmotic pressure.  Eg. metabolism of the body is affected by the changes in the chemical factors and physical factors. .Homeostatis  The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment for the cells to function optimally.  Glucose and oxygen.

 The mechanism that govern homeostasis is called the negative feedback mechanism. Any increase or decrease will trigger the homeostasis mechanism to raise it back to normal. .

 The involvement of various system in maintaining an optimal internal environment Receptor Factor value increase Control centre Negative feedback mechanism Effector Normal condition Factor value increase Negative feedback mechanism Normal condition Receptor Control centre Effector .

muscular system.  When the temperature rises above the normal level. circulatory system.  This information is transmitted to hypothalamus at the centre in the brain. nervous system. The blood vessels dilate and allow more blood to flow near the surface of the body . body temperature  Is regulated by the integumentary system. the receptors in the skin detect the changes.  The hypothalamus activated blood vessels and sweat glands. Example. and endocrine system.

.  The sweat glands are activated by the nervous system to produce more sweat that will lower the body temperature through evaporation. This will increase heat loss to the external environment.