YOUNG LEARNERS

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Presented by : Mohamad Khalilizul Syahmie bin Nordin @ Nordey 2) Muhammad Rizal bin Che Din 3) Sahibul Amin bin Wardi 4) Muhammad Zulafiq bin Zulkafli

PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING YOUNG LEARNERS
Reference : Mary Lou McCloskey

1) Offer Learners Enjoyable, Active Roles in the Learning Experience

• Setting where the teacher and the materials are the primary source of language • Yet, the input must be provided in childappropriate ways • Overuse of direct teaching of young learners in the classroom group risks the fallacy that ‘input’ will automatically lead to ‘intake’. Thus, direct teaching is not effective for young learners. • Young learners need active involvement in the construction of concepts.

Help Students Develop and Practice Language Through Collaboration

• Children are Social Learners. • Ensure students have access to vocabulary and structures they need. • Rich exposure to many kinds of literature is a very effective way to model high quality, academic language. • We should provide opportunities for learners to communicate with us and with one another

Use Multi-Dimensional, thematically Organized Activities

• Thematic Organization offers us opportunities to cycle and recycle related language and concepts so that we can support children as they develop the complex connections that lead to learning.

Provide Comprehensive Input with Scaffolding
• Provide tasks and concepts that children can accomplish or acquire with just a little instruction and support. • Scaffolding activities – reading story aloud, providing graphic organizers, and shared writing with children from the graphic organizer.

Integrate Language with Content
• Students learning two languages in school in a bilingual setting curriculum can be integrated across languages. • The children in L2 classroom encounter same concept they do in L1 classroom but with new labels. • In a L2 setting, teaching language through content meant that the students’ academic learning is not delayed while they learn language.

Validate and Integrate Home language and Culture
• Continued development of children’s home language will only support development of a new language. • When a child “breaks the code” or “joins the literacy club” and understands the basic concepts of reading in one language, this does not need to be re-learned in the target language. • Rather, students now need to learn only new words, new sounds, and new written codes – no small task, but a much easier one than learning to read in a new language when a child doesn’t have literacy concepts.

Provide Clear Goals and Feedback on Performance
• Children want to do right. They need to know when they’ve achieved a goal and when they still have more to learn. • We must establish clear language and content goals for learners and provide learners with feedback on their progress toward those goals. • We can also, in developmentally appropriate ways, encourage learners to begin to evaluate their own progress toward accomplishing goals to help them become independent, selfmotivated learners.

TESTING AND EVALUATION (CYLE)
Reference : Laura MacGregor (Sophia University)

Introduction of CYLE
• Cambridge Young Learners of English (CYLE) • have three levels, known as Starters, Movers, and Flyers • The Starters test was originally targeted for 7 yr. old children who have studied English for about 100 hours; • the Movers test was designed for 8-11 yr. old children who have studied for 175 hours; • and the Flyers test was made for 9-12 yr. old children with 250 hours of English study

Listening Test Secions
• The listening segments of each test contain 20-25 questions, covering 4-5 different question types, and taking 20-25 minutes to complete. • The final section of each level requires examinees to listen to a dialogue, then color and draw according to what they hear.

Reading/Writing Test Sections
• Reading and writing tests contain 25 items for Starters, 40 items for Movers, and 50 items for Flyers. They are 20-40 minutes long and cover 5 - 7 different tasks. • They also ask examinees to read short paragraphs (with illustrations) and write word or phrase answers (both with and without prompts) to comprehension questions.

Speaking Test Sections
• The purpose of the speaking test is to identify examinees' interactive listening ability, pronunciation, and ability to produce words and phrases • Depending on the level, the speaking tests contain 2-4 tasks and take 5-9 minutes. • At the Starters level, examinees point to identify objects, place picture cards according to directions, say the names of objects, say colors and numbers, and answer simple questions about themselves (i.e., "How old are you?").

Test Scoring
• A strong motivational feature of this test is that there is no pass or fail. • All examinees receive a certificate to award their efforts and abilities. • One obvious weakness in this score reporting system, at least thus far in the test's short history, is that there is no indication of what these shield scores mean, and therefore the scores cannot be translated into descriptions of what the examinee is and is not able to do.

Examiners
• Examiners for the speaking tests are trained in a one-day workshop which is free to participants • Candidates need not be native English speakers, but they must hold a higher degree and must be working as an English teacher.

Assessment

Nonverbal Responses
• At the early stages of learning, before the emergence of speech, children should be instructed and assessed largely through the use of physical performance responses and pictorial products. • These tasks require simple directions to carry out. As an assessment technique, this type of response may help lower the level of anxiety normally associated with evaluation, as students see it as a natural extension of learning activities.

Oral Interview
• Use visual cues in oral interviews at the early stages of acquisition. • Thus a student may be asked to choose pictures to talk about, and the teacher's role is to guide the student by asking questions that require the use of related vocabulary. • This technique works well during the early speech and speech emergence stages.

Role Play
• This informal assessment technique combines oral performance and physical activity • Kelner (1993) believes that roleplay can be an enjoyable way of informal assessment that could be used effectively within a content-based curriculum. • Children of all ages, when assessed through this technique, feel comfortable and motivated, especially when the activity lends itself to cooperative learning and is seen as a fun way of learning

Written Narrative
• Assessment of the written communicative abilities of children could be achieved through purposeful, authentic tasks, such as writing letters to friends, writing letters to favorite television program characters, and writing and responding to invitations.

Presentations
• Presentations are important for assessment because they can provide a comprehensive record of students' abilities in both oral and written performance • presentations give the teacher some insights into student's interests, work habits, and organizational abilities. • Presentations cover a wide range of meaningful activities, including poetry readings, plays, roleplays, dramatizations, and interviews.

Student-Teacher Conferences
• Conferences and interviews provide opportunities for one-on-one interactions where the teacher can learn about a student's communicative abilities, emotional and social well-being, attention span, attitudes, pace of learning, and strengths and weaknesses

Self-Assessment
• K-W-L charts: With this type of chart, individual students provide examples of what they know, what they wonder, what they have learned. • Learning logs: A learning log is a record of the students‘ experiences with the use of the English language outside the classroom, including the when and the where of language use and why certain experiences were successful and others weren't.

LESSON PLANNING

What is important to take into account when you plan your lessons?
• Who am I teaching? • How old are they? • What is their level of English? • How long is the class? • What do I want to teach them today?
• • • • • a new skill a rule or formula a concept/fact/idea an attitude or a value a combination of two or three items.

• What materials do I need? • What did they learn in their last class? • What are you planning to teach them in the next class? • How are you going to recycle the content of past classes in this class?

About the class Class/age/# of students Level of English/ book Time About the content Main Aim-? Any possible problems and their solutions. Grade 4A 6-7 year olds. 34 Beginner. English for You 1 Unit 2A 40 minutes

My plan

My Plan What do I want the students to have learnt/practiced by the end of the class? What do I think could go wrong or cause a problem. How will I solve the problem?

What materials do I need? Lesson Stages Usual class routine – 5 minutes

Remember to take all the things you will need for the class. My Plan It is helpful in Very Young Learner classes and Young Learner classes to have a set routine to begin the class. Do all the students come in and sit down? Perhaps you take the register? (Do you have a register game for when you take the register? I play the colour game. I ask the students to tell me something that is blue or green or yellow etc. “Baobin, blue” “The sky” “Yanhui, red” “An apple” etc.)

Warm up - 5 minutes

This should be an activity that is familiar to the students and is fun and motivating. It should recycle some language from a previous class if possible. It should be fairly simple so that the children can feel good about their ability.

Presentation – 10 minutes

This part of the lesson is important. You are going to introduce the new language. Perhaps you will use pictures, flashcards, a story or even a puppet to help you.

Practice Activity 1 – 5 minutes

This will be a controlled practice activity. An activity that the class works on together like a class competition in teams or some speaking drills.

Practice Activity 2 – 5 minutes

This will be a less controlled practice activity. Perhaps the students will work in pairs or groups for this activity. Maybe they will even work alone if they are doing some writing or colouring. After an activity where the students have being working in pairs or alone, it is a good idea to bring the class together with a familiar activity or song. This will refocus the students and change the pace of the class.

Familiar Activity – 5 minutes

End of class routine – 5 minutes

What do you normal do at the end of the class? Do all the students line up at the door? Do you give out the homework activity?

After the class Integration with the next class

My plan What will you recycle from this lesson for the next class. I usually work out what my warmer activity will be for the next class now. Then I won’t forget what the language is I want to recycle. Would you like to make a note about any student who needs help in your class or who didn’t participate very well or who didn’t do their homework. Write them down before you forget.

Notes for the file

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