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EMR Interaction with ATM & Earth Surface
Dr. Nisfariza Mohd Noor email@example.com
Effect of the Atmosphere
• EMR is used in RS. • Remember when EMR (sun) illuminates, it has to travel through Earth’s atm, some radiation is absorbed and scattered in the atm. • Particles and gases in the atmosphere can affect the incoming light and radiation. These effects are caused by the mechanisms of scattering and absorption.
Effects of Atmosphere Incidence Radiation Scattering & Absorption Atmosphere .
interaction caused the EMR to be redirected from its original path. and the distance the radiation travels through the atmosphere. – How much scattering? Depends on several factors including the wavelength of the radiation. .Scattering • Scattering – when particles or large gas molecules present in the atm. the abundance of particles or gases.
particles are very small compared to the wavelength of the radiation. Rayleigh scattering is the dominant scattering mechanism in the upper atmosphere. • Causes shorter wavelengths (UV) of energy to be scattered much more than longer wavelengths. . These could be particles such as small specks of dust or nitrogen and oxygen molecules.1) Rayleigh Scattering • When .
• At sunrise and sunset the light has to travel farther through the atmosphere than at midday and the scattering of the shorter wavelengths is more complete. the shorter wavelengths (i. blue) of the visible spectrum are scattered more than the other (longer) visible wavelengths.Example of Rayleigh Scattering • Sky appears "blue" during the day.e. this leaves a greater proportion of the longer wavelengths to penetrate the atmosphere. As sunlight passes through the atmosphere. .
• Mie scattering occurs mostly in the lower portions of the atmosphere where larger particles are more abundant. Dust.2) Mie Scattering • When – particles about the same size as the wavelength of the radiation. and dominates when cloud conditions are overcast. smoke and water vapor are common causes of Mie scattering which tends to affect longer wavelengths than those affected by Rayleigh scattering. . pollen.
This type of scattering causes fog and clouds to appear white to our eyes because blue.3) Non Selective Scattering • When . . green. Water droplets and large dust particles can cause this type of scattering.the particles are much larger than the wavelength of the radiation. • Nonselective scattering gets its name from the fact that all wavelengths are scattered about equally. and red light are all scattered in approximately equal quantities (blue+green+red light = white light).
. In contrast to scattering. carbon dioxide. this phenomenon causes molecules in the atmosphere to absorb energy at various wavelengths. and water vapor are the three main atmospheric constituents which absorb radiation.Absorption • Absorption is the other main mechanism at work when electromagnetic radiation interacts with the atmosphere. • Ozone.
and reflection (R). These are: absorption (A). • There are three (3) forms of interaction that can take place when energy strikes. The proportions of each will depend on the wavelength of the energy and the material and condition of the feature.Target Interactions • Radiation that is not absorbed or scattered in the atmosphere can reach and interact with the Earth's surface. or is incident (I) upon the surface. transmission (T). . The total incident energy will interact with the surface in one or more of these three ways.
. and reflection (R). or is incident (I) upon the surface.not absorbed / scattered in the atm can reach and interact with the Earth's surface. • Three forms of interaction that can take place when energy strikes. transmission (T). absorption (A).EMR Interaction with the Earth • Radiation .
most interested in measuring the radiation reflected from targets. (example) chlorophyll in plants reflects green light. . Two types of reflection : (1) specular reflection and (2) diffuse reflection – reflected light is what we know as colour. – In RS.Reflection • Reflection (R) – when radiation "bounces" off the target and is redirected.
. such as heat i.e.Absorption • Absorption (A) – occurs when radiation (energy) is absorbed into the target – the incident energy is not reflected or transmitted but is transformed into another form. a rock. or absorbed by chlorophyll in the process of photosynthesis.
what is not absorbed or reflected will be transmitted) (example) an ultraviolet filter on a camera absorbs UV rays but allows the remaining energy to expose the film (visible EMR). – Changes in density of medium can also slow the velocity resulting in refraction such as light through a prism .Transmission • Transmission – occurs when radiation passes through a target (energy propagates through a medium.
Target Interactions I(λ) = R (λ) + A (λ) + T(λ) • • • • • I = tenaga insiden R = tenaga yang dipantulkan A = tenaga yang diserapkan T = tenaga yang ditransmisikan λ = kesemua komponen tenaga adalah fungsi panjang gelombang .
Target Interactions .
Specular Reflection • When a surface is smooth we get specular or mirrorlike reflection where all (or almost all) of the energy is directed away from the surface in a single direction. .
• Most earth surface features lie somewhere between perfectly specular or perfectly diffuse reflectors.Diffuse Reflectance • Diffuse reflection occurs when the surface is rough and the energy is reflected almost uniformly in all directions. .
Specular & Diffuse Reflectance .
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