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Thermodynamics

• Thermodynamics is the study of the effects of work, heat, and energy on a system • Thermodynamics is only concerned with macroscopic (large-scale) changes and observations

Getting Started

• All of thermodynamics can be expressed in terms of four quantities

– Temperature (T) – Internal Energy (U) – Entropy (S) – Heat (Q)

• These quantities will be defined as we progress through the lesson

The statistical part treats the aggregation of atoms. Nothing is examined at the atomic or molecular level.Classical vs Statistical • Classical thermodynamics concerns the relationships between bulk properties of matter. not the behavior of any individual atom . • Statistical thermodynamics seeks to explain those bulk properties in terms of constituent atoms.

Snow. P. You can’t get out of the game . You can’t even break even 3. the three laws of thermodynamics can be (humorously) summarized as 1.Introduction According to British scientist C. You can’t win 2.

0 You can’t win (1st law) • The first law of thermodynamics is an extension of the law of conservation of energy • The change in internal energy of a system is equal to the heat added to the system minus the work done by the system ΔU = Q .1.W .

Slide courtesy of NASA .

1 Process Terminology • • • • Adiabatic – no heat transferred Isothermal – constant temperature Isobaric – constant pressure Isochoric – constant volume .1.

1.1. W is negative (work is done on the system) so ΔU is positive.1 Adiabatic Process • An adiabatic process transfers no heat – therefore Q = 0 • ΔU = Q – W • When a system expands adiabatically. • When a system compresses adiabatically. W is positive (the system does work) so ΔU is negative. .

if ΔT is zero.1.2 Isothermal Process • An isothermal process is a constant temperature process. ΔU = 0 • Therefore. Any heat flow into or out of the system must be slow enough to maintain thermal equilibrium • For ideal gases.1. Q = W – Any energy entering the system (Q) must leave as work (W) .

ΔU.1. but calculating the work done by an ideal gas is straightforward W = P·ΔV • Water boiling in a saucepan is an example of an isobar process . W.3 Isobaric Process • An isobaric process is a constant pressure process. and Q are generally nonzero.1.

it will do no work on its surroundings.4 Isochoric Process • An isochoric process is a constant volume process. W = 0 ΔU = Q • Heating gas in a closed container is an isochoric process . When the volume of a system doesn’t change.1.1.

(SI units of J/kg·K) .2 Heat Capacity • The amount of heat required to raise a certain mass of a material by a certain temperature is called heat capacity Q = mcxΔT • The constant cx is called the specific heat of substance x.1.

314 J/mol·K .1 Heat Capacity of Ideal Gas • CV = heat capacity at constant volume CV = 3/2 R • CP = heat capacity at constant pressure CP = 5/2 R • For constant volume Q = nCVΔT = ΔU • The universal gas constant R = 8.2.1.

0 You can’t break even (2nd Law) • Think about what it means to not “break even”. no matter how efficient you are. will have a tiny bit of waste. Every effort you put forth.2. • The 2nd Law can also be stated that heat flows spontaneously from a hot object to a cold object (spontaneously means without the assistance of external work) .

Slide courtesy of NASA .

1 Concerning the 2nd Law • The second law of thermodynamics introduces the notion of entropy (S).P.2. a measure of system disorder (messiness) • U is the quantity of a system’s energy. • Another C. Snow expression: – not knowing the 2nd law of thermodynamics is the cultural equivalent to never having read Shakespeare . S is the quality of a system’s energy.

it becomes extremely “disordered” (greater Entropy) – playing the movie in reverse would show pieces coming together to form a whole egg (decreasing Entropy) – highly unlikely! .2 Implications of the 2nd Law • Time marches on – If you watch a movie. how do you know that you are seeing events in the order they occurred? – If I drop a raw egg on the floor.2.

3 Direction of a Process • The 2nd Law helps determine the preferred direction of a process • A reversible process is one which can change state and then return to the original state • This is an idealized condition – all real processes are irreversible .2.

4 Heat Engine • A device which transforms heat into work is called a heat engine • This happens in a cyclic process • Heat engines require a hot reservoir to supply energy (QH) and a cold reservoir to take in the excess energy (QC) – QH is defined as positive.2. QC is negative .

2. but here would be a good place to elaborate on: – Otto Cycle – Diesel Cycle – Carnot Cycle • Avoid all irreversible processes while adhering to the 2nd Law (isothermal and adiabatic only) .4.1 Cycles • It is beyond the scope of this presentation.

2 The Carnot Cycle Image from Keta .Wikipedia .2.4.

2.4.1 Carnot explained • Curve A (1 → 2): Isothermal expansion at TH – Work done by the gas • Curve B (2 → 3): Adiabatic expansion – Work done by the gas • Curve C (3 → 4): Isothermal compression at TC – Work done on the gas • Curve D (4 → 1): Adiabatic compression – Work done on the gas .2.

2.4.2. the work is negative • The area enclosed by the four curves represents the net work done by the engine in one cycle .2 Area under PV curve • The area under the PV curve represents the quantity of work done in a cycle • When the curve goes right to left.

2.5 Engine Efficiency • The thermal efficiency of a heat engine is e = 1 + QC/QH • The “engine” statement of the 2nd Law: – it is impossible for any system to have an efficiency of 100% (e = 1) [Kelvin’s statement] • Another statement of the 2nd Law: – It is impossible for any process to have as its sole result the transfer of heat from a cooler object to a warmer object [Clausius’s statement] .

you can’t break even! .6 Practical Uses • Automobile engines.you heat the air outside to cool the air inside – See. refrigerators.2. and air conditioners all work on the principles laid out by the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics • Ever wonder why you can’t cool your kitchen in the hot summer by leaving the refrigerator door open? – Feel the air coming off the back .

0 You can’t get out (3rd Law) • No system can reach absolute zero • This is one reason we use the Kelvin temperature scale.3. but you never have to worry about dividing by zero in an equation! • There is no formula associated with the 3rd Law of Thermodynamics . Not only is the internal energy proportional to temperature.

1 Implications of 3rd Law • MIT researchers achieved 450 picokelvin in 2003 (less than ½ of one billionth!) • Molecules near these temperatures have been called the fifth state of matter: Bose-Einstein Condensates – Awesome things like super-fluidity and superconductivity happen at these temperatures – Exciting frontier of research .3.

then A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each other • Allows us to define temperature relative to an established standard .0 The Zeroth Law • The First and Second Laws were well entrenched when an additional Law was recognized (couldn’t renumber the 1st and 2nd Laws) • If objects A and B are each in thermal equilibrium with object C.4.

Slide courtesy of NASA .

and Kelvin temp scales . Celsius.1 Temperature Standards • See Heat versus Temperature slides for a discussion of these two concepts.4. and the misconceptions surrounding them – Heat is energy transfer – Temperature is proportional to internal energy – Fahrenheit.

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