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DW200705

Introduction

1

STATISTICS

The

The

Data it self

science which study about the collection, organization, analysis, and made conclusions of data in the numerical forms.

DW200705

Introduction

2

as in the term GIGO – garbage in garbage out . Geological hypothesis: (a) Is there a significance difference in composition between granite from two intrusion bodies? (b) Is there a regular cyclicities properties in a sequence of limestone thin layers? © What can we estimate the permeability of sandstone layers from a well bore log data (wireline logging)? Data DW200705 Introduction 3 .DATA QUALITY has an important role.

There are a combination form between low/high precision with low/high accuration . ACCURATION: a measure is called accurate if their results close to a right given value.PRECISION and ACURATION PRECISION: a measure is called precise if we repeat it on a object will give the same value. DW200705 Introduction 4 .

49. 57. 55. 50. 50. 47. 57. 50 (suppose true value Low 54. 58. 55. 55 Low 55. 52 DW200705 Introduction 5 . 62. 49. 52. 51. 53. 56. 52. 55. 50. 55. 50.PRECISION and ACCURATION Precision High Accuracy High 49. is 50) 54. 57. 52. 47 60. 44.

weight of matter.TYPES OF GEOLOGICAL DATA (1) RATIO SCALE DATA The ratio scale data is a common measure such as length. however the Kelvin’s degree is a ratio scale data . DW200705 Introduction 6 . INTERVAL SCALE DATA Zero point is not data termination. it is a good and without problem data. such as the temperature in Celsius or Fahrenheit degrees. the zero point not an end.

for example azimuth. it need special process because 0 o = 360 o DW200705 Introduction 7 . It must be careful in bivariates or multivariate analyses. DIRECTIONAL DATA The data are expressed in the form of angle.TYPE OF GEOLOGICAL DATA (2) CLOSED DATA These data in the form of percentages or ppm (part per million). or other form which indicates a proportion to a fixed value.

for examples: counting some objects such as the number of fossils in 1 cm2 of outcrop. Analyzing of ordinal data generally use the non-parametric statistics which analyze the data based on rank order. DISCRETE DATA All those above data has continue properties. subtracted or dividing processes. The discrete data.TYPE GEOLOGICAL DATA (3) ORDINAL SCALE DATA It is a poor quality data. Richter’s earthquake intensity scale that based on the degree of damages. DW200705 Introduction 8 . For example the Mohs’s hardness scale. commonly in the form of integer. interval scale is not regular and just shows the rank position then it can not be used for added.

for example minerals. e.q. It was sometimes analysis in binary forms. DW200705 Introduction 9 .TYPE OF GEOLOGICAL DATA (4) NOMINAL OR CATEGORIAL DATA These data are in the forms such as name. Analysis commonly made by multivariable method. if there is no fossil we note as 0. fossils which must be converted to numerical data. if there is a fossil we note as 1.

TYPE OF GEOLOGICAL DATA (5) RATIO SCALE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 INTERVAL SCALE -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DW200705 Introduction 10 .

TYPE OF GEOLOGICAL DATA (6) CLOSED 0% 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100% ORDINAL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 DW200705 Introduction 11 .

TYPE OF GEOLOGICAL DATA (7) N 360 o 0o W E 360 = 0 . ? DIRECTIONAL DW200705 S Introduction 12 ..

TYPE OF ANALYSIS (1) UNIVARIATE METHODS Each variable analyzed in isolation. the data can be portrayed as a series of points along an appropriately scaled line x x x x x x x x x 0 5 10 15 20 25 DW200705 Introduction 13 .

x x x x x 0 DW200705 5 10 15 X Introduction 14 . and a data set can be portrayed as a 2D scatter. for the purpose of investigating the relationship between the data points and/ or the relationship between the variables.TYPE OF ANALYSIS (2) BIVARIATE Y 40 30 20 10 x x METHODS Two variables analyzed together. The two measurements made on one object give coordinates of a point in a two dimensional (2D) space.

with one variable happening to be time. Often. Some can be treated as simple bivariate data. the situation is conceptualized as a continuously varying curve 0 1 5 10 15 Time 20 25 DW200705 Introduction 15 .TYPE OF ANALYSIS (3) X 4 3 2 1 TIME SERIES METHODS Sequences of data in time (or space) can be in various forms.

with or without altitude or depth. and as regarded as varying continuously over the area. grid references or latitude/ longitude.TYPE OF ANALYSIS (4) 20 10 SPATIAL ANALYSIS Three (or four) variables analysed together. two (or three) of which are spatial coordinates. 40 40 DW200705 Introduction 16 . The other variable is geological measurement of interest.

the data may be imagined as points in an mdimensional space. The prime objective is to reduce the dimensionality so that the shape of the data scatter can be viewed. Relationship between variable can also be investigated. If these are m variables.TYPE OF ANALYSIS (5) MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS General methods applicable to any number of variables analyzed simultaneously. DW200705 Introduction 17 . and usually applied to more (often many more) then three variables.

Sample and Population Population SAMPLE DW200705 Introduction 18 .

Sampling Strategies (1) RANDOM DW200705 Introduction REGULAR 19 .

Sampling Strategies (2) CLUSTERED DW200705 Introduction UNIFORM 20 .

Sampling Strategies (3) TRAVERSE DW200705 Introduction 21 .

THANK YOU DW200705 Introduction 22 .

DW200705 Introduction 23 .

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