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CDMA 1X Traffic Measurement Analysis

Issue 2.0

Huawei Confidential. All Rights Reserved

Course objectives
After studying this course, you should be able to:

This slide mainly introduces the important traffic measurement index at BSS side, method and relevant analysis. It emphasizes on traffic measurement index of BSC R002B03, and gives a brief description of new traffic measurement of R003C03.

Internal Use

Chapter 1: Traffic measurement system architecture Chapter 2: BSC traffic measurement index Chapter 3: Major index analysis

Internal Use

Traffic measurement system architecture

M2000

M2000

BAM

BAM

SPU FMR

RMU PPU

PCU BPU

Host computer

Internal Use

M2000

A high-level NMS, M2000 is placed in provincial office to manage data collection of local network in the province and generate traffic measurement reports. M2000 performs management of NE such as BSC and MSC, and it can manage several NEs simultaneously. M2000 supports the network management function, including: Centralized configuration management; Centralized fault management; Centralized performance management.

Internal Use

OMC

OMC manages the local running equipment and the traffic measurement task. Provide the interface between M2000 and NE Register task Delete task Maintain task Query the value of real-time counter Display traffic measurement reports

Internal Use

OM

Realize the connection between host service modules and BAM. The OM collects original index, and stores all the values of original counter. Every index would be refreshed in time, and reported on timed basis (once half an hour). The main processing boards of traffic measurement task are SPU, RMU, PPU, FMR and PCU. Some examples: The SPU collects basic call indexes, and reports them to RMU once a minute. Then RMU reports these indexes (such as measurement of general performance) to BAM. Some indexes are reported to BAM directly from SPU, for instance, the index of carrier channel management. PCF data processing measurements are made in the CBPU and the data is collected by the CPCU. Carrier performance measurements of PCF uplink packet are made in the CPPU and the data is collected by the CRMU. BSC data processing measurements are made in the CFMR and the data is collected to the CSPU and then to the CRMU.

Internal Use

R003C03 database traffic measurement

Current traffic measurement system is based on task registration. After R003C03 version, traffic measurement system of BSC will be based on database. BAM stores original indexes in database (storing time: 30 days) Database has no measurement unit BAM provides simple browse function for database Performance management of AirBridge is cancelled The performance management mode of M2000 remains unchanged, that is, it is based on task registration. M2000 obtains original index from BAM, works out the calculation index and display it. Operations of M2000 remain the same.

Internal Use

Chapter 1: Traffic measurement system architecture Chapter 2: BSC traffic measurement index Chapter 3: Major index analysis

Internal Use

Organizing mode of performance management

counter 1

counter 2

counter 3

counter 4

counter 1

counter 2

counter 3

counter 4

Measurement Unit 1

Measurement Unit 2

Measurement Unit 1

Measurement Unit 2

Measurement object 1

Measurement object 2

Measurement function set A

Internal Use

Contents of BSC traffic measurement


Measurement set

Measurement unit
Success ratio of paging Location update times SM traffic Success ratio of CS call set-up Success ratio of PS call set-up CS call-drop ratio PS call-drop ratio Traffic channel congestion ratio Traffic Success ratio of intra-BS handoff Hard handoff success ratio of intra-BS signaling point Hard handoff success ratio between signaling points of intra-BS Inter-BS outgoing hard handoff success ratio Inter-BS incoming hard handoff success ratio Success ratio of inter-BS soft handoff Decision calculation of hard handoff
Internal Use

BSC integrated performance measurement

Contents of BSC traffic measurement


Measurement set

Measurement unit
Success ratio of CS call set-up of carrier Success ratio of PS call set-up of carrier CS call drop ratio of carrier PS call drop ratio of carrier Traffic channel congestion ratio of carrier Carrier traffic

Measure of carrier performance

Intra-BS soft handoff success ratio of carrier Hard handoff success ratio of intra-BS signaling point of carrier Success ratio of hard handoff between signaling points intra-BS of carrier Success ratio of intra-BS outgoing hard handoff of carrier Success ratio of inter-BS incoming hard handoff of carrier Success ratio of inter-BS soft handoff of carrier Internal Use

Contents of BSC traffic measurement

Measurement set Measurement of carrier power control

Measurement unit

Link information measurement

Channel load statistics Performance measurement of carrier channel Total number of control channel Intact traffic channel

Internal Use

Chapter 1: Traffic measurement system architecture Chapter 2: BSC traffic measurement index Chapter 3: Major index analysis

Internal Use

Preparations before traffic measurement analysis

Ensure correct version and good compatibility. If there is defect in this version, you should take mitigation measures. Ensure every BTS works well, and forward channel and reverse channel are in normal state. Ensure whether the BTS coverage in case of zero load or load conforms to original plan. Ensure whether the antenna is well connected. Ensure dialing test is normal after the activation of BTS. Ensure correct coverage of single BTS and project installation. Master the sensitive radio functions activated in network, including: Load control, Cell breathing, Special handoff algorithm, Special channel allocation algorithm, Special power control algorithm.
Internal Use

Precautions for traffic measurement index analysis


Systematically:

From the top down, from whole to part Filtering method is adopted. Analyze the cell with exceptional index, and implement classification and then analysis to each sector carrier.
Integration:

Query trend for index change for more than a week and everyday trend.
Relativity:

Relation between traffic measurement indexes.

Internal Use

Other tools
Though traffic measurement data is the most basic one for network optimization, other measures are still required to solve network problems.

Drive test Signaling tracing (subscriber interface tracing, and debugging console)

CSL CDR RFMT Alarm

Internal Use

Introduction to major indexes

Call set-up success ratio Call drop ratio Congestion ratio Traffic Link information measurement

Internal Use

Call set-up success ratio


Measurement unit index
CS calling attempt times CS assignment attempt times CS traffic channel preparation times CS capture success times of reverse traffic channel preamble

Index type original original original original original calculation calculation

Calculation method
accumulation accumulation accumulation

Calculation formula CS calling attempt times - CS assignment attempt times CS assignment attempt times - CS traffic channel preparation times CS traffic channel preparation times -CS capture success times of reverse traffic channel preamble

accumulation

CS call set-up success times

accumulation

Success ratio of CS call set-up

CS call set-up failure times (MSC rejection)

CS allocating call resources failure times

CS capturing reverse traffic channel preamble failure times

calculation

CS traffic channel signaling exchange failure times

calculation

CS capture success times of reverse traffic channel preamble - CS call set-up success times

Success ratio of CS call set-up

calculation

100*(CS call set-up success times /CS calling attempt times)

Internal Use

Call set-up success ratio


MS ACH
Origination Msg

BSC
CM Service Request Assignment Request Base Ack Order

MSC
Call attempt Assignment attempt

TCH PCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH

Null Traffic Data ECAM Traffic Channel Preamble

Traffic channel preparation

Capture success of reverse traffic channel preamble

Base Ack Order Idle TCH Data MS Ack Order

Service Connect Msg Service Connect Complete Assignment Complete Call set-up success Internal Use

Causes of call set-up failure

MSC

rejection:

Include MSC rejection and A-interface link disconnection. MSC rejection may result from the continuous calling of illegal users and wrong number. Calling early release also causes large number of MSC rejection events for the called party. (It occurs frequently in current network and the failure cause of this part may be excluded in R003C03.) When there is exceptional index, Check whether the configuration of CCM_T_WT_ASSG_REQ is correct, Check whether the connection of A-interface link is normal, Further analysis of the MSC.

Internal Use

Causes of call set-up failure


Resource

allocation failures: Resources allocation failure means that the BSC fails to request for the resources required for various calls, and the resources include radio resources, terrestrial circuit resources, and various hardware resources.

Call resources allocation failure differs from total congestions in traffic channel congestion measurement. The latter only denotes the radio resource allocation failure of RRM, which is a part of call resources allocation failure. The measurement of traffic channel congestion ratio also includes handoff measurement, while it only indicates call set-up here. Exceptional index is generally caused by radio resource allocation failure. You can analyze the cause together with the measurement of traffic channel congestion ratio and check the configuration of admission threshold and alarms. Obtain the specific cause through analyzing cause value released from CSL.
Internal Use

Causes of call set-up failure


Capture

failure of reverse traffic channel preamble:

MS cannot receive ECAM message or fails in demodulating forward traffic channel due to the weak forward signal. The BTS cannot receive TCH preamble from the MS due to the weak reverse signal. Wait timeout of the BTS timer. Causes and solutions: Imbalance between uplink and downlink. This can be solved through adjusting radio coverage and system parameters. Low configuration of forward transmit power. You can check the configuration for initial transmit power of forward traffic channel and configuration for maximum transmit power. Improper reverse link access parameter leads to access failure. For instance, NOM_PWR, INIT_PWR, PWR_STEP, RLGAIN_ADJ, and RLGAIN_TRAF_PILOT. Improper configuration of CCM_T_WT_TCH_PREAMBLE timer. Due to improper configuration for traffic channel search window of BTS, reverse service frame cannot be captured. Other causes such as few resending attempts of assignment message, improper resending interval and external interference.

Internal Use

Causes of call set-up failure


Signaling

exchange failure:

It is similar with the capture failure of reverse TCH preamble. However, reverse link is in the process of close loop power control. When BTS demodulates reverse traffic channel, it also enters the process of forward power control. Besides the processing similar to capture failure of reverse TCH preamble, you also can perform the following: In the reverse link, check the reverse power control step length (REV-_PWR_STEP); In the forward traffic channel, check the forward power control step length and the configuration of frequency parameters. In the forward link, check the configurations of timers CCM_T_WT_MS_ACK_ORD, CCM_T_WT_SRV_CONN_CMP_MSG, and CCM_T_WT_STATUS_RSP_MSG. It is found that the resending events of layer-2 message are few and resending interval is inappropriate.

Internal Use

Introduction to major indexes

Call set-up success ratio Call drop ratio Congestion ratio Traffic Link information measurement

Internal Use

Measurement of call drop ratio


When

call drop occurs to the branch in other BSCs, no measurement is performed, neither at the local BSC nor the target side. case of multiple branches, the measurement of carrierclass call drop ratio is as follows: If the initial access cell is in current active set, call drop measurement is performed in access cell. If the initial access cell is not in current active set, query all the branches occupied by the user through a function, and call drop measurement is performed on the branches (sector carrier) searched first. The branches are searched in a random way, so the average value is not calculated.

In

Internal Use

Call drop ratio


Measurement unit

index
Times of CS call drop (too many Erasure frames) Times of CS call-drop (markov call) Times of CS call-drop (reverse frame can not be received)

Index type original original

Calculation method
accumulation

Calculation formula -

accumulation

original

accumulation

Times of CS call-drop (Abis interface)

original original original

accumulation

CS call-drop ratio

Times of CS call-drop (A2 interface)

accumulation

Times of CS call-drop (others)

accumulation

CS call-drop ratio

calculation

100*(Times of CS call drop (too many Erasure frames) +Times of CS call-drop(markov call) + Times of CS call-drop(reverse frame can not be received)+ Times of CS call-drop(Abis interface)+Times of CS calldrop(A2 interface) + Times of CS call-drop (others) )/Times of CS call setup success

Internal Use

Call drop - radio link

MS Call process

CCM
TCH ERR

FMR

MSC

Clear request Clear cmd Clear complete

Call release

Internal Use

Call drop - radio link


TCH

ERR cause value: Cause value 5: There are more than 270 Erasure frames in 300 reverse frames when all branches of FMR are combined. Cause value 4: Receive 300 ideal frames consecutively in the reverse link. Cause value 6: Markov FER is too high. Default value: 95% erasure frames of 500 frames (10 seconds). (Configured on the debugging console) Cause value 2: Certain branch does not receive the frame within 80ms.

Cause

of traffic measurement failure corresponding to that of TCH ERR: Too many Erasure frames ------cause values 4, and 5 Markov call ------cause value 6 Fail to receive frames ------ cause value 2

Internal Use

Call drop - radio link


Poor

Ec/Io. If the forward link cannot be demodulated, it triggers MS call drop. MS turns off the transmitter, leading to call drop.

Perform test in association with the receive level: If Ec/Iois poor, receive level is low and the coverage must be poor. It is possible that this place is far away from the BTS or there is obstruction in the transmitting path. This problem can be solved by improving the coverage through BTS antenna adjustment. If Ec/Io is poor, but receive level is normal, forward interference exists. The forward interference includes interference between BTSs and external interference. Forward interference data could be obtained through tests with instruments (such as power meter YBT250).

Internal Use

Call drop - radio link


High

reverse FER. The reverse FER data could be obtained through traffic measurement of carrier power control. Great attenuation in the reverse link transmission leads to high reverse FER and if the FER of forward link is also high, it means that the transmission attenuation of the BTS is over-high. Possible cause: The place is far away from the BTS. The solution is adding BTS. Level of forward link signal is normal, but the reverse FER is too high. It means that the BTS coverage is normal. Possible cause: Insufficient reverse power . Solution: Adjusting system parameters. For example, adjust the reverse power control threshold Eb/Nt. If the MS transmit power reaches the maximum, it is invalid to adjust the power control threshold Eb/Nt, because the MS borders on reverse coverage. The reverse power does not reach the maximum, but the reverse FER rises. It is generally caused by fast fading. Large amount of users or serious reverse interference would possibly lead to high reverse FER.

Others

causes: Interference. Improper configuration of handoff parameter. Incorrect search window. Incorrect neighbor cell.
Internal Use

Introduction to major indexes

Call set-up success ratio Call drop ratio Congestion ratio Traffic Link information measurement

Internal Use

Congestion ratio
Measurement unit

index

Index type original original original original original original original

Calculation method

Calculation formula

Request times of traffic channel allocation

accumulation

100*(1-traffic channel allocation success times/Request times of traffic channel allocation)

Traffic channel allocation success times

accumulation

Traffic channel allocation failure times(walsh insufficiency) Traffic channel allocation failure times(low forward power) Traffic channel allocation failure times(low reverse power) Traffic channel allocation failure times(channel insufficiency) Traddic channel allocation failure times(others)

accumulation

accumulation

Traffic channel Congestion ratio

accumulation

accumulation

accumulation

Traffic channel congestion ratio

calculation

Internal Use

Traffic channel congestion


Call :

MS

BSS
Origination Message

MSC
CM Service Request

Assignment Request IS-2000 TCH Setup Procedure Assignment Failure

Internal Use

Traffic channel congestion

Handoff :

MS

RRM

CCM
Setup leg err
Radio resource

Soft Handoff Request


Handoff direction message

MS ACK order Handoff Completion Message BS Ack Order Soft Handoff Complete

Internal Use

Traffic channel congestion

WALSH insufficiency WALSH insufficiency would not occur in case of normal traffic, and it may occur in data service request.

Insufficient forward power Forward common channel takes up too much power. There are too many users, so forward power is exhausted. Improper configuration of forward admission threshold. Insufficient reverse power Convert users of RC voice

and data services to be equivalent users of RC3 voice service. During channel allocation, check whether the total number of equivalent RC3 voice service users exceeds REV_MAX_USER (Reverse user admission threshold). If so, it indicates that channel allocation fails, and reverse power is insufficient. include hardware problem and high proportion of soft

Channel insufficiency Possible causes may

handoff.
Others

Internal Use

Introduction to major indexes

Call set-up success ratio Call drop ratio Congestion ratio Traffic Link information measurement

Internal Use

Traffic
Measurement unit

index
CE occupation duration -voice FCH CE occupation duration -packet FCH CE occupation duration -packet SCH WALSH occupation duration Traffic channel occupation duration(exclusive of handoff) CE traffic strength -voice service FCH

Index type original original original original original


calculation calculation calculation calculation calculation

Calculation method
accumulation accumulation accumulation accumulation accumulation

Calculation formula CE occupation duration-voice FCH / (60*granularity) CE occupation duration-packet FCH /(60*granularity) CE occupation duration-packet SCH /(60*granularity) WALSH occupation duration /(60*granularity) Traffic channel occupation duration(exclusive of handoff)/(60*granularity) 100*((CE occupation duration-voice FCH +CE occupation duration-packet FCH-Traffic channel occupation duration(exclusive of handoff) )/(60*granularity))/(Traffic channel occupation duration(exclusive of handoff)/(60*granularity)) Internal Use

Traffic

CE traffic strength -packet service FCH CE traffic strength -packet service SCH WALSH traffic strength Traffic strength of traffic channel(exclusive of handoff)

Soft handoff proportion

calculation

Soft handoff proportion

Soft

handoff proportion = [CE traffic carried on traffic channelTraffic carried on traffic channel (excluding handoff type) / Traffic carried on traffic channel (excluding handoff type) *100%

Internal Use

Introduction to major indexes

Call set-up success ratio Call drop ratio Congestion ratio Traffic Link information measurement

Internal Use

Link information measurement

Measurement unit

index

Index type

Calculation method

Calculation formula

Mean Eb/Nt

original

mean

dB

Mean RSSI
Link Information measurement

original

mean

dB

Mean FER of carrier reverse link

original

mean

Mean transmission power of carrier

original

mean

dBm

Internal Use

Judge whether reverse interference exists through RSSI value


To

judge whether interference exists, check the RSSI mean value in case of zero load. For new office with few users, RSSI level is generally less than 105dBm in case of zero load. When there are multiple ongoing services, the mean value of RSSI is no more than 95dBm. addition, we can judge whether interference exists through received FER quality, and check further whether interference source exists by using a spectrum analyzer. is obvious that the RSSI peak cannot be easily obtained after a long measurement period. We can query the interference roughly based on the numerical value of RSSI obtained through traffic measurement. Connect to BTS through telnet to query RSSI value in each second if certain carrier is doubted with serious interference.

In

It

Internal Use

New traffic measurement function of R003C03

Newly added functions: Distinguish the calling from the called party in terms of call set-up attempts and successes. Call setup events of IWF service are also distinguished. Measurement of registration requests and successes. Occupation duration of SCH at various rates for forward RC3 and RC4 as well as for reverse link. Measurement of occupation and collision ratio of ACH and PCH Measurement of set-up and release causes of the carrier TCH. (Improved because call drop ratio measurement is not performed for each branch of the call). Modifications: Modify MSC rejection into A1 interface failure during call set-up. Exclude such causes as illegal call, and calling early release, which lead to MSC rejection and finally call setup failure.

Internal Use

Internal Use