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Signal and noise on WLAN

Presented By : Arul jaga raja


yogesun
vazumuni
vijalakshmi
Submitted to: MR.RAVI SHANKER
WLAN
 A wireless local area network (LAN) is a
flexible data communications system
implemented as an extension to, or as
an alternative for, a wired LAN.

 (RF) technology, wireless LANs transmit


and receive data over the air.
Wireless LAN Architecture
(continued)

Figure 3-41: An infrastructure WLAN


Network+ Guide to Networks,
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Wireless LAN Architecture

Figure 3-42: Wireless LAN interconnection


Network+ Guide to Networks,
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Wireless LAN Configuration
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LAN/WLAN World
 LANs provide connectivity for
interconnecting computing resources at
the local levels of an organization
 Wired LANs
 Limitations because of physical, hard-
wired infrastructure
 Wireless LANs provide
Flexibility
Portability
Mobility
Ease of Installation
WLAN technology
 Manufacturers of wireless LANs have a
range of technologies to choose from
when designing a wireless LAN solution.
 Narrow band.
 All band (spread spectrum).
 Infrared.
 Signal range covers.
Narrow Band
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 A narrowband radio system transmits


and receives user information on a
specific radio frequency.
 Narrowband radio keeps the radio signal
frequency as narrow as possible just to
pass the information.
 Efficient use of radio spectrum; save
bandwidth.
 ex: television, AM, FM.
 Licensed: FCC
Narrowband, Broadband,
and Spread Spectrum
Signals
Broadband: uses relatively wide band of
wireless spectrum
 Offers higher throughputs
 Spread spectrum: use of multiple
frequencies to transmit a signal
 Frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS)
 Direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS)

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Spectra Comparison
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Forms of Radio-based
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Wireless LAN
 Wireless Local Bridge
 Infrastructure

 Ad Hoc
Radio-Based Wireless LANs
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 Most widely used method


 Adv: penetrating walls and other obstacles
with little attenuation.
 Disadv: security, interference, etc.

 3 approaches:
 ISM band
 Narrow band

 Spread spectrum
IEEE 802.11a and IEEE
802.11b
 IEEE 802.11a
Makes use of 5-GHz band
Provides rates of 6, 9 , 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54
Mbps
Uses orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
(OFDM)
 IEEE 802.11b
802.11b operates in 2.4 GHz band
Provides data rates of 5.5 and 11 Mbps
Complementary code keying (CCK) modulation
scheme
For more information:
SPREAD SPECTRUM
Spread Spectrum
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Modulation
 Definition: “spread” a signal’s power
over a wider band of frequency.
Spread Spectrum
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 Disadv: This contradicts with the goal of


conserving bandwidth.
 Adv: less susceptible to electrical noise
(especially from narrow band sources)
 InWorld War II, US Army uses spread
spectrum to avoid hostile jamming.
(invented by Hedy Lamarr, an actress)
 To spread a signal, there are two ways:
 directsequence (DSSS)
 frequency hopping (FHSS)
Direct Sequence Spread
Spectrum (DSSS)
 Use bit sequence to
represent “zero” and
“one” (Fig. 2-5)
 Also referred to as
“chipping code”.
 Longer chipping codes are
more resilient to noise.
 Minimum length = 10 (by
FCC)
 IEEE 802.11 uses 11 chips
per data bit.

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FHSS
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 Hopping Code: to determine the order of


hopping frequencies
 The receiver must “listen” to incoming
signals at the right time at the right
frequency.
 FCC regulation: at least 75 frequencies,
with max. dwell time 400ms.
 Adv.: very resilient to noise.
 Orthogonal hopping codes: a set of
hopping codes that never use the same
frequencies at the same time (can be on-
ALL BANDS
Broadband
 (BW) is an emerging wireless technology
that allows simultaneous wireless
delivery of voice, data, and video.
 BW is considered a competing
technology with Digital Subscriber Line
(DSL).
 BW comes in two : (LMDS) &(MMDS).
 Both operate in FCC-licensed frequency
bands.
Bluetooth:
 It’s range wireless links between mobile
PCs, mobile phones, and other portable
handheld devices, and connectivity to
the Internet.
 If Bluetooth becomes an adopted
technology, current WLANs will already
be migrating to the 5 GHz band.
ISM Bands
In 1985, FCC modified part 15 to
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stimulate the use of wireless networks.


 ISM=Industrial, Scientific, and Medical
 Unlicensed, you can freely install and
move.
ISM Spectrum Availability
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 Only 2.4 GHz is the world-accepted ISM


band.
 902 MHz is easier in manufacturing.
Ultra Wide Band
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 Very low power: 200uW
 Very wide bandwidth: 3.1-10.6 GHz
 First designs: strings of pulses
 First standard: 802.15.3-2002
 New proposals in 802.15.3a:
 Xtreme Spectrum DS-CDMA
 MultiBand OFDM

 New Motorola DS-UWB


 Infrared Technology
 A third technology, little used in
commercial wireless LANs, is infrared.
 Infrared (IR) systems use very high
frequencies.
 IR cannot penetrate opaque objects. is
either directed (line-of-sight) or diffuse
technology.
 High performance directed IR is
impractical for mobile.
Characteristics of infrared-
based connections
 Infrared radiation can't penetrate walls.
This makes it easier to build a cell based
network.(office building).
 Objects in an office environment have
Good reflection properties(40%-90%).
 No multipath fading.
 weak: Multipath dispersion, security.
Infrared Transmission
 Transmitted by frequencies in the 300-
GHz to 300,000-GHz range
 Most often used for communications
between devices in same room
 Relies on the devices being close to each
other
 May require line-of-sight path

 Throughput rivals fiber-optics

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Antennas
 Radiation pattern describes relative
strength over three-dimensional area of
all electromagnetic energy the antenna
sends or receives
 Directional antenna issues wireless
signals along a single direction
 Omnidirectional antenna issues and
receives wireless signals with equal
strength and clarity in all directions
 Range: geographical area anNetwork+
antenna or
Guide to Networks,
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wireless system can reach 4e
Signal Degradation
 Fading: change in signal strength
resulting from electromagnetic energy
being scattered, reflected, or diffracted
after being issued by transmitter
 Wireless signals experience attenuation
 May be amplified and repeated
 Interference is significant problem for
wireless communications
 Atmosphere saturated with electromagnetic
waves
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Signal Propagation

Figure 3-39: Multipath signal propagation


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Ranges of Technologies
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References
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 Articles:
 “A Long-Term View of Short Range Wireless”,
IEEE Computer, June 2001
 “Wireless Data Blaster”, Scientific American,
May 2002
 Primary Standards:
 IEEE 802.11 series, Wi-Fi
 IEEE 802.15.1-2002, Bluetooth
 IEEE 802.15.2-2003, Co-existence
 IEEE 802.15.3-2002, High Rate PAN
 IEEE 802.15.4-2003, Low Rate PAN
 IEEE 802.16-2001, Fixed Wireless Broadband