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TRENDS in the PERIODIC TABLE

A trend is a pattern or a repetition of particular properties.
Trends of the periodic table include Atomic Mass, Atomic Radius, Net Nuclear Charge, Ion Size, Metallic or Non-Metallic Property, Electro-negativity, 1st ionization energy

The periodic table is arranged in a certain way to keep elements with similar properties close together

GROUPS vs. PERIODS
Groups go up and down.
Periods go left and right.

Groups share many similarities.
Periods show periodically (regularly) changing properties.

The Periodic Table has a lot of information on it, available for you to use, if you know where to look and what it all means.

The Regents Reference Charts are your friends, play with them.

THERE ARE SEVERAL BASIC TRENDS (or patterns) THAT WE NEED TO RECOGNIZE AND UNDERSTAND. .

Ion Size (cations and anions) 5. Atomic Mass (in amu) (size in picometers) 2.These Trends are… 1. Electronegativity 7. Atomic Radius 3. 1st Ionization Energy levels . Net Nuclear Charge (how many protons are in the nucleus of an atom?) 4. Metal Properties and Non Metallic Properties 6.

• He was able to predict the missing elements and their properties once the table was put together. .Demetri Mendeelev • Developed the first real periodic table which ours is based upon.

chemists were able to discover gallium. By looking specifically for this missing “eka-aluminum”. ionic formula. His predictions were quite close to the actual values of the various properties he quoted.Mendeelev was a genius! Many of his predictions came true. and others. . density. A missing element in his table made him believe that an element with certain properties belonged there. such as mass. such as the existence of “eka-aluminum” which we know as gallium.

with few exceptions. The Period Trend is that atomic mass increases too. .Our FIRST Trend Atomic Mass Atomic mass goes higher from element to element. The Group Trend is that atomic mass increases.

our Periodic Table has a non-regular shape.Because of specific properties.. . The elements are arranged by properties rather than a way just make the table be uniform in shape..

The Alkali Metals are in Group 1 but Hydrogen is not in this group. .

Alkaline Earth Metals are in Group 2 .

This slide left intentionally blank. and you know why. .

12 .TRANSITIONAL METALS are in Groups 3 .

INNER TRANSITIONAL METALS are at the bottom and fit in as shown .

NON-METALS are at the right hand side of the table .

Noble Gases are at the far right. group 18 .

you find: The Group Trend for atomic radius is that it increases down a group. The Period Trend for atomic radius is that it decreases left to right.OUR SECOND TREND Atomic Radius or Atom Size If you follow along Table S for atomic radius. .

. not getting bigger. The additional positive charge from the additional protons pulls the electron orbital slightly tighter for each atom going across the period. They gain electrons in the same energy levels.Period Trend for Atomic Radius Li 2-1 Be 2-2 B 2-3 C 2-4 N 2-5 O 2-6 F 2-7 Ne 2-8 •• • • • • • • Atoms get smaller as you go across a period.

SHOWS Atomic Sizes for Groups and Periods .

with 80 electrons and 80 protons. Protons hang tight (no joke) with the neutrons in the nucleus. and since each is positively charged. the NET NUCLEAR CHARGE is how many protons are there in the nucleus. which are ALL POSITIVE. Hold onto your hat. a neutral atom. It also has 121 neutral neutrons in the nucleus with the 80 protons. So. NET nuclear charge = +80. the only charge particles in the nucleus are the protons. Example: Mercury is number 80. and be psyched that this is “REQUIRED” learning.This is too easy to even discuss much. Electrons fly around outside the nucleus in orbitals. . Since the neutrons are neutral (hence their name!). So. that is the answer. Each atom is neutral because it has the SAME number of protons & electrons.

or most non-metallic.Someone. and you have to be able to compare up to 4 elements at a time and see which is closer to either Fr or He. somehow. . They also came to the conclusion that Helium was to become known as the “most non-metallic” element. bottom left hand corner of the Periodic Table. and decide which is the most metallic. determined that “the most metallic metal” was Francium. You have to remember that.

1st IONIZATION ENERGY The NEXT TREND is [what the heck was that again?] .

It is the amount of energy needed to remove a valence electron from an entire mole of atoms and make them all into +1 ions.First Ionization Energy. it would take (look at Table S now) 520 kJ/mole . For example… To turn a mole of Li atoms into a mole of Li+1 ions.

Please get Table S out now.FIRST IONIZATION ENERGY the units are kilo-Joules per mole or kJ/mole There is a whole list of them on your TABLE S. .

it would take 496 kJ for the mole. . making each one of those Avogadro’s Number of atoms into a Na+ ion. find Sodium • Na has a first ionization energy of 496 kJ/mol • That means to take an outer electron from an entire mole of sodium atoms.Look at Table S.

FIRST IONIZATION ENERGY FOR SOME SELECTED ATOMS Na Mg Al Si P 496 kJ/mol 736 kJ/mol 578 kJ/mol 787 kJ/mol 1012 kJ/mol Going across the 3rd period. the trend for 1st Ionization Energy is to INCREASE. what about Mg to Al then??? .

“the trend” is that first ionization energy increases when going across any period.The Mg .Al EXCEPTION is one of those unusual places where the periodic table cannot manage to be perfect for all properties. But it’s an exception to wear a color like these guys! . It’s a trend to wear a tuxedo to the high school prom. Still.

Ionization Energy • just so you know. • each is measured with the unit kJ/mol • the “first” is the energy required to remove the first electron • the “second” is to remove an additional electron from the mole of ions (+1 cations into +2 cations.) . this is not in Regents Chemistry. second and third ionization energy levels. there are first.

.Another Trend – Ionic Sizes Atomic size • atoms get bigger going down a group • atoms get smaller going across a period • Cations are always smaller than atoms because the cations lose a whole orbital when they form. • Anions are bigger than the atoms they started as. because by adding electrons into the outer orbital. they must stretch a bit larger to accommodate those extra negative charges that push against each other.

K+1 +1 Cs -1 Br is larger than +1 K -1 is bigger than Cl when going down a group the ions get bigger Cs+1 Cs +1 This is true for cations & anions .

.GOING ACROSS A PERIOD CATION S get smaller ANIONS get smaller too.

DO NOT MEMORIZE. think. pick a few atoms and put the numbers onto your periodic table and show yourself the trend.electro-negativity. If you forget the trend. and about atomic sizes and about the last trend that we’ll cover . .TABLE S in your reference charts has all the data about 1st ionization energy levels. Be sure to use a few though in case you pick a quirky exception (like the Mg to Al bump in 1st ionization energy.

Impress your friends with new sayings like: “Your electro-negativity is really getting on my nerves. It’s a really cool word and you are going to know it real soon too.” or “My goodness! I can feel your electro-negativity all the way over here!” .Say it to yourself a few times in your head.

Electro-negativity the measure of the attraction an atom has to gain an electron in a chemical reaction. It’s measured on the Linus Pauling electro-negativity scale. .

based upon Fluorine and at 4.0 • Pauling set this standard. All other atoms are compared to that one.0 just because. • All the other electronegativity values are relative to Fluorine’s . • It’s a totally arbitrary scale. because he could.Fluorine and E-N • Fluorine tops out the scale at 4.

A remarkable man who insistently addressed certain crucial human problems while pursuing an amazing array of scientific interests.Dr. He is the only person ever to receive two unshared Nobel Prizes. Pauling was almost as well known to the American public as he was to the world's scientific community. Because of his dynamic personality and his many accomplishments in widely diverse fields. one for Chemistry (1954) and for Peace (1962). . Linus Pauling That’s him at age 2. Dr. it is hard to define Linus Pauling adequately.

Linus Pauling always emphasized the importance of having a full and happy personal life. To have met this man must have been quite an honor. revised three times since its first printing in 1947. In addition to the general recognition as one of the two greatest scientists of the 20th century. he was usually acknowledged by his colleagues as the most influential chemist since Lavoisier. he would have made a fine guest for dinner. . the 18th-century founder of the modern science of chemistry. His introductory textbook General Chemistry.

Electro-negativity is on Table S. Fluorine is given the rating of 4. you can look it up anytime you want to. You don’t have to memorize the trend. .0 on the E-N scale.Electro-negativity is the amount of pull that an atom has for another electron in a bonding situation. the highest Electronegativity of all elements. Fluorine has the greatest desire of all atoms for that electron gain.

It is all about HOW CLOSE IS THE ATOM TO FLUORINE which determines the relative electro-negativity.• Going down a group the trend is towards LOWER E-N values. • Going across a period the trend is towards higher E-N values. .

they do not ALWAYS hold true. Use your Table S to determine trends. do not guess or foolishly try to memorize so much material when the answers are right in your hand.REMEMBER… Trends are just trends. READ CHAPTER 14 ASAP .