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The job of the coal yard department is to transport the coal from
wagons to the bunker in the power plant.

The coal is transported to the power station by road or rail and is

stored in the coal storage plant.

The coal is brought to the power plants through the N type

railway wagons. Mostly the coal comes from Chhattisgarh region and also from Austria.

The rack which transports the coal consists of mostly 58 wagons which
contain about 3500-4000 tones of coal.

When the plant operates on its full load conditions it needs 3 racks that is
about 1200 tones of coal.

When the rack enters the plant it passes through the WEIGH BRIDGE
which records the amount of coal loaded in the rack.


The wagon tippler is used for tipping the
wagon in order to empty the coal from the wagon.

The coal from the wagon goes to the chamber

where there is a net.

So coal smaller than the net goes to hopper

from which it goes to belt conveyor system.

The coal bigger than the net is hammered

manually and become smaller and follow the same path.

Coal is supplied to apron feeder through the conveyer belt. Apron feeder is rugged and dependable and is designed to receive and
control the flow of material from bins and hoppers.

From the apron feeder it goes to tribal conveyor. From that it goes to double roll crusher which converts big coal into
small lumps.

From there it goes to shuttle conveyor which shifts the coal for feeding
from one belt to other when there is a problem in that belt.

Coal transfer to conveyor belt 11A/11B to conveyor belt 12A/12B in transfer
tower .

In transfer tower at the end of 11A/11B there is intime magnetic


Magnetic separation is a process in which magnetically susceptible material

is extracted from a mixture using a electromagnetic force.

Ims is half of electro magnetize of rotating bed hence it can extract iron
particles from coal and prevent boiler from damage.


The coal comes from the belt conveyor 2a/2b goes to the crusher where there
are two large cylinders which crush the coal. From there if there is need for coal in the bunker, the crushed coal is transferred to the belt 5a/5b. If not it is transferred to the belt 3a/3b to the stacking area by gate system which can open or close manually or electrically. If there is no wagon and we need coal in the bunker then coal is taken from the staking area through belt 4a/4b to 5a/5b.


The coal coming from the belt conveyor 12a/12b goes to the crusher where
there are two parts in the crusher; 1- roller screen, 2- ring grinders.

Roller screen is suitable for separating coarse, wet, sticky and clay raw

coal which is smaller directly goes to the belt feeder and bigger lumps go to
the ring grinder which crush the coal and send it to the belt feeder.

If there is need of coal in the bunker it will go to the belt 16a/16b.if no need
in the bunker and the coal is imported then it will go to the stacker reclaimer belt no.13a/13b..


It stacks the coal when not needed in the bunker and reclaims the
coal when wagon is not available and need of coal rises in the bunker. When the coal is local then it will go to the stacking hopper through belt 14a/14b and will be reclaimed through belt 15a/15b. From the rusher the coal is transferred to the bunker where it is transferred to the mill as per requirement.

When two belts are offset to each other then the coal is transferred from on
belt to another belt by vibrating feeder as per its name it vibrate and so the coal is transferred through offset belts.

Vibrating Feeders protect the belt conveyors from damage by feeding the
material onto the belt conveyors from storage hoppers, silos, surge hoppers and dumpers at a controlled rate.

A Vibrating Feeders are operated by employing pulsating current. This

current when passed through stator, creates a series of interrupted pulls on the armature.

After transfer tower 5 and/or junction tower 2 coal is supplied to
coal mill from bunkers.

Each bunker has six coal mills, hence there are total eighteen coal

From the feeder machine coal is supplied to bunker here also it

taking care of coal size.

Diagram of a Typical Coal fired Thermal Power Station

Regenerative feed heating Cycle: single reheat 2 HP and 3 LP Heaters

. The terms regenerative and recuperative frequently apply to heat recovery processes involving energy that would otherwise be rejected in so fashion. The term regenerative describes a stage of feed water heating with steam thus, returning best to the steam cycle from which it came. Required for the heating process has an opportunity to generate an increment of power en route to the heater. For maximum cycle efficiency, the feedwater tempereture on entry to the boiler would equal the temperature of the boiler water itself. Since this was noted to be an infinite number of heat addition steps, it is not practical nor it is attempted. Regenerative feedwater heating can include low-pressure heaters upstream of the deaerator, the deaerator itself, and high-pressure units between the deaerator and the boilers

Boiler and Accessories

Boiler and Accessories





LDO comes through tankers and is stored in the main LDO storage tank. By using a centrifugal pump it is transferred from the tank to the boiler furnace. At the fuel feeding station in the power plant LDO+AIR are sprayed in the furnace through the guns or igniters. So the fuel burns and helps in raising temperature of the furnace. The calorific value of LDO used is 10,700kcal/kg.


FO comes through railway wagons. As it is very thick so we have to provide some amount of heat to convert it into liquid form of oil for tripping action. Then it is taken to the FO storage tank from where it is fed to the boiler furnace. At the fuel feeding station of the plant FO+STEAM are ignited in the furnace through igniter. This is done after the ignition of LDO. The tapping for the steam is taken from PRDS header of the plant. The steam used has a pressure of 16kgf/cm2. The calorific value of FO used is 10,400kcal/kg.


Raw coal from the raw coal bunker is supplied to the Coal Mills by a Raw Coal
Feeder. The Coal Mills or pulverizer pulverizes the coal to 200 mesh size. The powdered coal from the coal mills is carried to the boiler in coal pipes by high pressure hot air. The pulverized coal air mixture is burnt in the boiler in the combustion zone. Generally in modern boilers tangential firing system is used i.e. the coal nozzles/ guns form tangent to a circle. The temperature in fire ball is of the order of 1300 deg.C.

Coal Mill
In coal-fired power plants coal mills are used
to Pulverize and dry the coal before it is blown into The boiler furnace. The coal is fed into the coal mill through a central inlet pipe where gravity is used to lead the coal to the bottom of the mill, where the grinding table and some heavy rollers pulverizes the coal to the particles.

The primary air flow to the furnace is fed

through the mill, with the purpose of heating and lifting the coal particles out of the mill into the furnace. If the particles are too heavy they will drop to the bottom of the mill and will be pulverized once more. The coal particles are heated to 100 degrees Celsius. The primary air temp is controlled by controlling the position of an air mixer which mixes heated outside air and cold outside air. THE BOWL MILL It consists of a rotating and grinding bowl at the base of the mill which is motor driven. There are three rollers aligned at 120 degrees to each other as shown in the fig. These rollers help in crushing the coal up to 200 mesh fineness.

Firing Method
Tangential Fire in chamber Different chamber at diff. elevation

Arrangement of fuel input in furnace

Coal is pulverized in mills at a fineness of 70% thru 200 mesh. Dried
powdered coal is conveyed to furnace (at a temperature < 95-100oC)

Total coal flow is distributed among running mills and fed thru coal
burners at 20-25 m/sec.

Coal flow is arranged in tiers. Maximum heat release rate must not
exceed plain area heat loading. It generates excessive NOx and making ash fused.

Heat Generation in furnace

Heat input in the furnace
QFurnace MWElect


Efficiency of thermal power plants is 37%-45% for different types

of cycle For typical conventional P.F. boilers, coal flow rate is 290-350 T/hr For 500 MW units 120-145 T/hr For 200 MW units

It is located below the LPSH in the boiler and above pre heater. It is there to improve the efficiency of boiler by extracting heat from flue gases to heat water and send it to boiler drum.

Boiler Drum
leaving the economizer, the feedwater reaches the drum, which is a cylindrical vessel at the top of the boiler circulation through downpipes into the boiler

From here the water flows by natural Saturated steam collects here ready to go
to the superheater

Drum does the important function of

separating steam from a mixture of steam and water

Air Pre-heater
The heat carried out with the flue gases
coming out of economizer are further utilized for preheating the air before supplying to the combustion chamber.

It is a necessary equipment for supply of

hot air for drying the coal in pulverized fuel systems to facilitate grinding and satisfactory combustion of fuel in the furnace

Power plant furnaces may have a
re-heater section containing tubes heated by hot flue gases outside the tubes.

Exhaust steam from the high

pressure turbine is rerouted to go inside the re-heater tubes to pickup more energy to go drive intermediate or lower pressure turbines.

Fan or draught system

In a boiler it is essential to supply a
controlled amount of air to the furnace for effective combustion of fuel and to evacuate hot gases formed in the furnace through the various heat transfer area of the boiler.

This can be done by using a chimney or

mechanical device such as fans

Natural draught
When the gas within the stack is hot, its specific weight will be less
than the cool air outside; therefore the unit pressure at the base of stack resulting from weight of the column of hot gas within the stack will be less than the column of extreme cool air.

The difference in the pressure will cause a flow of gas through

opening in base of stack. Also the chimney is form of nozzle, so the pressure at top is very small and gases flow from high pressure to low pressure at the top.

Mechanized draught
There are 3 types of mechanized draught systems

1) 2) 3)

Forced draught system Induced draught system Balanced draught system

Balanced draught
In this system both FD fan and ID fan are provided.

The FD fan is utilized to draw control quantity of air from atmosphere

and force the same into furnace.

The ID fan sucks the product of combustion from furnace and

discharges into chimney.

The point where draught is zero is called balancing point.

Balance Draught System


FD Fan





Back pass





ID Fan


+ 150


- 73

- 221

+ 36

DM Plant Block Diagram


TYPE Horizontal Tandem Compounded Axial flow Reheat turbine GENERATOR SPEED: 3000rpm REACTION 90 % - IMPULSE 10 % (MIXED) NO OF STAGES HP cylinder 8 IP cylinder 24, double flow LP cylinder 20, double flow Number of extraction 6

How does the steam turbine work?

Impulse stage whole pressure drop in nozzle (whole enthalpy drop is changed into kinetic energy in the nozzle) Reaction stage pressure drop both in stationary blades and in rotary blades (enthalpy drop changed into kinetic energy both in stationary blades and in the moving blades in rotor)


1 steam pipeline 2 inlet control valve 3 nozzle chamber 4 nozzle-box 5 outlet 6 stator 7 blade carrier 8 casing

9 rotor disc 10 rotor 11 journal bearing 13 thrust bearing 14 generator rotor 15 coupling 16 labyrinth packing 19 steam bleeding (extraction)

21 bearing pedestal 22 safety governor 23 main oil pump 24 centrifugal governor 25 turning gear 29 control stage impulse blading

High Pressure Turbine
Boiler Reheater

High pressure steam at 540C and After expanding through the high pressure turbine the exhaust steam is returned to the 147 bar pressure passes through the boiler at 335C and 35 bar pressure for high pressure turbine. The exhaust reheating before being used in the steam from this section is returned to intermediate pressure turbine. the boiler for reheating before being used in the next section of the turbine The Reheater reheats the steam from a set. temperature of 335C back to 540C The blades in the high pressure turbine are the smallest of all the turbine blades, this is because the incoming steam has very high energy and occupies a low volume. The blades are fixed to a shaft and as the steam hits the blades it causes the shaft to rotate.

Intermediate Pressure Turbine

On leaving the boiler Reheater, steam enters the intermediate pressure turbine at 560C and 40 ksc pressure (1 ksc = 14.22 psi ) From here the steam goes straight to the next section of the turbine set

The steam has expanded and has less energy when it enters this section, so here the turbine blades are bigger than those in the high pressure turbine
The blades are fixed to a shaft and as the steam hits the blades it causes the shaft to rotate Low Pressure Turbine From the intermediate pressure turbines, the steam continues its expansion in the three low pressure turbines. The steam entering the turbines is at 300C and 6 ksc pressure

To get the most work out of the steam, exhaust pressure is kept very low, just 50 mille-bar above a complete vacuum
The tip speed of the largest blades with the shaft spinning at 3,000 revolutions per minute is 2,000 kmph

What is Ash Handling?

Ash handling refers to the method of collection, conveying, interim storage &
load out of various types of ash residue left over from solid fuel combustion processes.

The most common types of ash include bottom ash, bed ash, fly ash and ash
clinkers resulting from the combustion of coal, wood and other solid fuels

Ash handling systems may employ pneumatic ash conveying or mechanical

ash conveyors

What is Ash?
Burning of pulverized coal in the furnace results in the generation of large
quantity of ash.The average ash content in Indian coal is 40%

Ash is oxidized form of the mineral matters present in coal.

Typical ash composition : SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO etc. Two types are: Bottom Ash Fly Ash

Bottom Ash
The ash which is directly collected from bottom of boiler is called bottom

Bottom ash directly falls down in water filled hopper due to gravity.

The percentage of bottom ash is 20% of total ash.

Fly Ash
Fly ash, also known as flue-ash, is one of the residues generated
in combustion, and comprises the fine particles that rise with the flue gases percentage of fly is 80% of total ash.

Fly ash is collected from : ESP hoppers

Air preheaters hoppers

Economiser hoppers

Ash Collections

Wet Ash Handling System

Ash generated below furnace of is called
the bottom ash. It is Non- Combustible part of Combustion

The clinker stick to hot side walls of

furnace and fall themselves into water, and get cooled.

The clinker lumps crushed to small sizes by

clinker grinders and water is mixed with ash.

By means of jet pumps ash is transported in

slurry pipe lines to the ash slurry sump for further disposal.

Dry Ash Handling System

If fly ash is discharge in atmosphere, it will
create heavy air pollution thereby resulting health hazards. Hence it is necessary to precipitate ash from flue gases.

Precipitation of ash has another advantage,

it protects the wear & erosion of ID fan.


achieve the above objectives, Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) is used. As they are efficient in precipitating particle form submicron to large size.

Electrostatic Precipitator

Dry Fly Ash Extraction and Transportation System

Advantage of Silo System

Saving of water Energy Efficient High reliability Long Plant Life

Least maintenance



A chimney is a structure which provides ventilation for hot flue gases or smoke from a boiler to the outside atmosphere. Chimneys are typically vertical, or as near as possible to vertical, to ensure that the gases flow smoothly, drawing air into the combustion in what is known as the stack, or chimney effect. The chimney is 94.5 meters' high and 50,000 tonnes of reinforced concrete were used to make it It consists of flues each of which serve typically two or three boilers (two units) Induced Draught (ID) Fan Two induced draught fans draw gases out of the boiler The gas has already passed through the air heaters and precipitators before it has reached these fans The heat from the flue gases or smoke is used in the air heaters to heat up the primary and secondary air.