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BUS BAR PROTECTION AND LBB PROTECTION.

By Y. k. Pandharipande.

BUS BAR PROTECTION AND LBB PROTECTION


PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS Stability

High Speed Operation Selectivity Reliability Sensitivity Suitable for Use with moderate CT Ratings. Extendable to changes in Bus Bar configuration & addition of Circuits.

BUS BAR PROTECTION AND LBB PROTECTION


BUS BAR PROTECTION
CIRCULATING CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL PRINCIPLE

CURRENT DISTRIBUTION EXTERNAL FAULT

CURRENT DISTRIBUTION INTERNAL FAULT

BUS BAR PROTECTION AND LBB PROTECTION


BUS BAR PRIOTECTION
A. HIGH IMPEDANCE TYPE

Relay Branch made High Impedance to limit differential current due to unequal CT saturation on external fault. Requires exclusive CT core of identical ratio and rating. Simple in design and execution.

BUS BAR PROTECTION AND LBB PROTECTION


BUS BAR PROTECTION
B. LOW IMPEDANCE (BIASED) TYPE

Through current Bias increases differential pick-up on external fault to ensure stability. Tolerant to CT mismatch and can use shared core. Comparatively more complex in design and execution. Practical schemes provide CT saturation detectors to enhance stability.

BUS BAR PROTECTION AND LBB PROTECTION


BUS BAR PROTECTION (87)
HIGH IMPEDANCE SCHEME

If B CT fully saturates on external fault, Vs = If/n (Rct + 2Rl) Volts. Relay Branch Impedance = Vs/Is, where Is = Setting current of Relay. External Stabilising Resistor RST = Vs/Is VA /Is, where VA = Relay VA burden at setting current.

BUS BAR PROTECTION AND LBB PROTECTION


BUS BAR PROTECTION (87)
HIGH IMPEDANCE SCHEME- Typical Setting Workout.

Max. Through fault Current (If) = 20,000A (Prim) / 20A(SEC)

Vs = 20 (5 + 1) = 120V
Stabilising Resistor (RST) = 120/0.2 1.0/0.2 = 600 - 25 = 575 ,
(assuming relay VA burden = 1 VA)

BUS BAR PROTECTION AND LBB PROTECTION


BUS BAR PROTECTION
HIGH IMPEDANCE SCHEME Typical Setting Workout.

Primary Fault Current setting (assuming number of circuits connected to Bus Bar, N=10) = CT Ratio (Is + N. Im) = 1000 (0.20 + 10 x 0.03) = 500A.

BUS BAR PROTECTION AND LBB PROTECTION


BUS BAR PROTECTION (87)
HIGH IMPEDANCE SCHEME Need For Metrosils.

Peak Voltage across CT Secondary for Max. Internal Fault = 2 2 [Vk x (Vp Vk)] Vk = 240V, Vp = 20 (575 + 25) = 12000V Peak Voltage = 22 [(240 x (12000-240)] = 5300V

BUS BAR PROTECTION AND LBB PROTECTION


BUS BAR PROTECTION
HIGH IMPEDANCE SCHEME Need For Metrosils.

If Peak voltage exceeds 3000V threatening secondary insulation, Metrosils (Non-linear resistors) are used to limit voltage to safe value (within 1000V) on internal fault. Metrosil offers high resistance at lower voltage levels which drastically reduces at higher voltages, thereby quenching the voltage across relay branch. Typical Metrosil Equation V = C x I ( C = 900 , = 0.25)

BUS BAR PROTECTION AND LBB PROTECTION


BUS BAR PROTECTION
HIGH IMPEDANCE SCHEME -CT SUPERVISION (95)

Required to detect CT open circuit on load to prevent maloperation. Connected for alarm & short CT bus wires on operation. Time delayed to avoid operation on internal / external faults (3Sec) Voltage relay with sensitive setting (2 -14V) is used. Normally set to detect primary unbalance of 25A or 10% of least loaded circuit. Also should not operate with normal unbalance on load.

BUS BAR PROTECTION AND LBB PROTECTION


BUS BAR PROTECTION CT SWITCHING.

BUS BAR PROTECTION AND LBB PROTECTION


TYPICAL 2 ZONE SCHEME WITH INDEPENDANT CHECK

BUS BAR PROTECTION AND LBB PROTECTION


TYPICAL 2 ZONE SCHEME WITH INDEPENDANT CHECK
D.C. CIRCUITS.

20K resistor on negative side used for cathodic protection.

BUS BAR PROTECTION AND LBB PROTECTION


LOCAL BREAKER BACKUP (LBB) PROTECTION NEED

Provides local isolation when breaker gets stuck on fault. Ensures comparatively faster clearance than remote backup.

Avoids wide spread interruption and enables fast restoration.

BUS BAR PROTECTION AND LBB PROTECTION

LBB PROTECTION OPRATING PRINCIPLE & CT CKTS.

BUS BAR PROTECTION AND LBB PROTECTION


LBB PROTECTION
D.C. CKTS USING BUS BAR PROTECTION TRIP LOGIC.

LBB CURRENT CHECK RELAY (50) Current Setting Range 20-320% or 5 -80%In (Recommended setting - 5% for Generator & 20% for Other Circuits) LBB TIMER (2/50) Range o.11.0 S (Recommended 0.20S)

BUS BAR PROTECTION AND LBB PROTECTION


LBB PROTECTION TIMER SETTING CRIETERIA

TLBB = TCB + TDO + TM TPU, Where TCB = C.B. Trip Time, TDO = Current Check relay DO time, TM = Safety margin, TPU = Current Check relay PU Time

Normally,200ms delay recommended which is faster than remote backup and allows sufficient time for normal C.B. tripping.