MOTIVATION

WORK MOTIVATION  is the set of internal and external forces that cause an employee to choose a course of action and engage in certain behaviours.  Is a complex combination of psychological forces within each person .

ELEMENTS DIRECT AND FOCUS OF THE BEHAVIOR POSITIVE FACTORS • DYSFUNCTIONAL FACTORS • • • • Dependability Creativity Helpfulness Timelines • • • Tardiness Absenteeism Withdrawal Low Performance .

Enough to get by .ELEMENTS LEVEL OF EFFORT Making full commitment to excellence VS.

ELEMENTS PERSISTENCE OF THE BEHAVIOR Repeatedly maintaining the effort VS. Giving up prematurely or Doing it just sporadically .

MODEL OF MOTIVATION ENVIRONMENT NEEDS AND DRIVES OPPORTUNITY TENSION EFFORT PERFORMAN CE REWARD GOALS AND INCENTIVES ABILITY NEED SATISFACTION .

take control. .MOTIVATIONAL DRIVE • Achievement Motivation – is a drive some people have to pursue and attain goals. and change situations. • Affiliation Motivation – is a drive to relate to people on a social basis. • Power Motivation – is a drive to influence people.

HUMAN NEEDS PRIMARY NEEDS Basic physical needs Food  Water  Sex  Sleep  Air  comfortable temperature  .

       self-esteem sense of duty competitiveness self-assertion Giving Belonging receiving affection .HUMAN NEEDS SECONDARY NEEDS Social and Psychological Needs  they represent needs of the mind and spirit rather than of the physical body.

MASLOW’S HEIRARCHY OF NEEDS .

HERBERG’S TWO-FACTOR MODEL HYGIENE FACTORS MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS • • • • Status Supervision Co-workers Company policy and administration • Job security • Working Conditions • Pay • • • • • • Work Itself Achievement Growth Responsibility Advancement Recognition .

ALDERFER’ E-R-G MODEL .

BEHAVIORAL MODIFICATION Application Punishment Positive reinforcement Manager’s Use Withdrawa l Negative reinforcement Extinction Negative Positive .

GOAL SETTING  works as a motivational process because it creates a discrepancy between current and expected performance.  Self – efficacy  Major factor in success of goal setting  internal belief regarding one’s job-related capabilities and competencies .

ELEMENTS OF GOAL SETTING Goal acceptance  Specificity  Challenge  Performance Monitoring and Feedback  .

represents the employee’s belief that a reward will be received once the task is accomplished. is the strength of belief that one’s work-related effort will result in completion of task.EXPECTANCY MODEL  Valence X Expectancy X Instrumentality = Motivation THREE FACTORS  Valence  refers to the strength of a person’s preference for receiving a reward.  Expectancy   Instrumentality  .

as this formula shows: One’s own outcomes One’s own inputs = Others’ outcomes Others’ inputs   Inputs  include all the rich and diverse elements that employees believe they bring or contribute to the job Outcomes  rewards they perceive they get from their jobs and employers .EQUITY MODEL  Equity theory  states that employees tend to judge fairness by comparing the outcomes they receive with their relevant inputs and also by comparing this ratio.

EQUITY MODEL ONE’S OUTPUT       ONE’S OUTCOME      Job Effort Education Seniority Performance Job difficulty Other Inputs Pay Benefit Fun at work Flexibility Social Rewards Psychological Rewards .

END .

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