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SCOPE

COMPOSITES & THEIR IMPORTANCE


FIBERS MATRIX

ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES HANDLING DEFECTS & CAUSES HEALTH ISSUES

Weight breakdown
Structure 30%

Power plant 8% Rest is payload, fuel, fixed equipment


Light weight materials e.g. composite can contribute to the efficiency. However, there are complex issues associated with certification and maintenance and repair

STRUCTURAL WEIGHT
EVERY ENGINEER SHOULD CONCERN ABOUT WEIGHT OTHERWISE THE COMPANY WILL FIND IT DIFFICULT TO MEET THE COMPETITION TO PRODUCE PLANES WITH GOOD PERFORMANCE A VERY SMALL MARGIN OF WEIGHT DETERMINES THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EXCELLENT AND POOR PERFORMANCE OF AIRCRAFT 5% INCREASE IN WEIGHT MAY RENDER A HIGHLY SUCCESSFUL MODEL TOTALLY UNACCEPTABLE WEIGHT OF AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE IS ABOUT 20 TO 40% OF TAKE OFF WEIGHT. ONE 1KG EXCESS WEIGHT IN STRUCTURE OR SYSTEM LEADS TO 10 KG INCREASE IN ALL UP WEIGHT

WHICH GIVES LIGHTER STRUCTURE ? Al ALLOY OR STEEL

TREND IN COMPOSITE USAGE

COMPOSITES IN BOEING 787

COMPOSITE VS METALLIC STRUCTURES


BUILD UP SHAPE & PROPERTIES LAMINATED
INCLUSIONS POOR BONDING VOIDS

MACHINED DOWN SHAPE SOLID


DEFECTS OF RAW MATERIALS

PRESHABLE & ANISOTROPIC UNITS (PREPREGS) HIGHLY SENSITIVE TO ENVIRONMENT & PROCESS PARAMETERS COMPLEX QC PROCESS

MOSTLY UNPERISHABLE AND ISOTROPIC

RELATIVELY INSENSITIVE
RELATIVELY SIMPLE QC PROCESS

COMPOSITE MATERIALS
Two or more materials combined on a macroscopic scale to form a useful material Ideal for structural applications where high strength to weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios are required Conventional composites limited to in-plane distributed loads

Composite materials- constituents


Reinforcement
Strength & Modulus Main load bearing member Decides the mechanical performance

Matrix
Protect the reinforcement Gives shape to the component Local load transfer Decides the manufacturing process

Classification of Composites
REINFORCEMENT
Particulate
Large Dispersion Particle Strengthened continuous

Fiber
Discontinuous

Unidirectional

Bi-directional

Aligned

Random

TYPES OF COMPOSITES

ADVANCED COMPOSITES
FIBER REINFORCED FIBERS
CARBON KEVELAR GLASS

MATRIX
EPOXY POLYIMIDE POLYESTER

WHY FIBERS?

2500

TENSILE STRESS MPa

2000

1500

1000

500

TENSILE STRAIN %

COMPRESSIVE STRESS MPa

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

COMPRESSIVE STRAIN %

FIBERS FOR ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS - COMPARISON

REINFORCEMENT FORMS

UD TAPES

WOVEN FABRICS

PREIMPREGNATED REINFORCEMENT (Prepreg)


REINFORCEMENTS WITH THE RESIN SYSTEM ALREADY IMPREGNATED; MATRIX IS LEFT IN BSTAGE CURING IS ARRESTED THROUGH LOW TEMPERATURES A-STAGE: RESIN IS NOT CROSS-LINKED AT ALL

B-STAGE: LIGHTLY CROSS-LINKED, PARTIALLY CURED


C-STAGE: FULLY CROSS-LINKED

Unidirectional Tape Prepreg

All the filaments are oriented in one direction. The tape is fabricated in width ranging from 3 to 60 inches and is supplied in rolls. Unidirectional tape works well when maximum performance is required in one direction. Tapes are made by careful alignment of side-by-side yarns; usually of 1420 or greater denier. Tapes are usually impregnated with resin and are available from many prepreg suppliers.

Unidirectional Weave

Unidirectional Weave Cloth (95% - 0, 5% - 90) This cloth has 95% of its filaments in the warp direction (length direction) and 5% in the fill direction to facilitate material handling. Its strength is approximately equal to unidirectional tape. It is fabricated and available up to 72 inches in width. This weave has the general characteristics: 1) maximum strength in one direction and 2) minimum strength in the transverse direction.

Plain Weave
The oldest and most common basic textile weave in which one warp end (lengthwise thread) weaves over and then under one filling pick (crosswise thread). This weave has the general characteristics: a. Firmest and most stable of the industrial weaves. b. Affords fair porosity with minimum yarn slippage. c. Uniform strength pattern in all surface directions. d. Affords ease of air removal in hand layup or molding.

Basket Weave
This weave is similar to a plain weave, but it has two or more warp ends weaving as one end over and under two or more filling picks weaving as one pick. This weave has the general characteristics: a. Less stable than a plain weave. b. More pliable than a plain weave. c. Flatter and stronger than an equivalent weight and count of plain weave.

Crowfoot Satin or 4-Harness Satin


This weave is constructed with one warp end weaving over three and under one filling pick. It has the general characteristics: a. More pliable than either a plain weave or a basket weave. b. Specially designed to conform closely to complex or compound curved surfaces. c. Makes possible the weaving of higher counts than plain or basket weaves.

Long Shaft Satin


A long shaft satin construction has one warp end weaving over four or more and under one filling pick. This weave has the general characteristics: a. Most pliable and conforms readily to compound curves. b. Produces laminates and reinforced moldings with high strength in all directions. c. Can be woven in the highest constructions or density. d. Less open than other weaves.

OTHER FORMS

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS- MATRIX

COMPOSITES METAL CERAMIC

POLYMER
THERMOPLASTIC PEEK PPS

THERMOSET

PHENOLIC

EPOXY
POLYIMIDES

Polymer matrix
Thermoset
Epoxy Polyester Phenolics Polyimide

Thermoplastic
PEEK PES

Desired Characteristics of Matrix Resins Mechanical & Thermal High strength High elastic elongation High shear strength High modulus High heat distortion temp. Low creep at use temp. High toughness/impact strength Thermal expansion near fiber Resistance to thermal degradation Low thermal conductivity

Desired Characteristics of Matrix Resins


Processing Characteristics Low enough melt or solution viscosity and surface tension to permit thorough fiber wet-out Good flow characteristics Rapid cure or solidification Suitable for pre-coated reinforcement Cure temp. not greatly above use temp. Low shrinkage during and after molding Long shelf life and pot life

Desired Characteristics of Matrix Resins


Chemical Properties:
Good bond to fiber (directly or with coupling agent) Resistance to solvents & chemicals Low moisture absorption

Other Factors:
Low cost Low density Low dielectric constant

EPOXY RESINS
GOOD MECHANICAL PROPERTIES UP TO 150 O C SERVICE BONDS TO ALMOST ALL SURFACES

PHENOLIC RESINS
EXCELLENT FIRE RESISTANT LOW SMOKE EMISSION EASY PROCESSING AIRCRAFT INTERIOR COMPONENTS.

BISMALEIMIDE RESINS
EXCELLENT RESISTANCE TO HIGH TEMPERATURE GOOD MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AERO-ENGINE COMPONENTS

MATRIX MATERIALS FOR COMPOSITES

ADVANTAGES COMPOSITES
HIGHER SPECIFIC STRENGTH & MODULUS
LIGHT WEIGHT PERFORMANCE FUEL EFFICIENT

BETTER FATIGUE PERFORMANCE


RELIABILITY LIFE DOWN TIME

TAILARABILITY / ANISOTROPIC
OPTIMUM WEIGHT & PERFORMANCE

EASY MANUFACTURING
COST

FREE FROM CORROSION PART INTEGRATION


LESS PART COUNT ASSEMBLY TIME WEIGHT (FASTENER)

COMPARISON OF Al AND CFC IN TENSION


QUASI ISOTROPIC CFC

- 45%

- 55%

450

250

400

200

Strength MPa
ALUMINIU MALLOY

107 cycles to failure

450
0%

450

170 - 80%

FATIGUE
90

TENSILE

COST COMPARISON FOR A310 VERTICAL TAIL


100 10%
MRTALLIC CONSTRUCTION

95
COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

35%

Assembly

55%

Part Fabrication

50%

35% 15% A Material

CONCERNS
BRITTLENESS
POOR IMPACT PERFORMANCE STRESS CONCENTRATION

LIMITED LIFE OF RAW MATERIALS


DETERIORATE IN STORAGE SHELF & OUT LIFE SPECIAL STORAGE

PROCESS SENSITIVE
SENSITIVE TO PROCESS PARAMETERS VARIATION / SCATTER

LAMINATED STRUCTURE / DELAMINATION Tg / ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS


EFFECT OF MOISTURE & TEMPERATURE

COST

HANDLING OF PREPREGS & RESINS

TRANSPORTATION OF PREPREGS

EPOXY RESINS ARE PERISHABLE


SHELF LIFE SHOP LIFE

STORAGE & HANDLING OF PREPREGS / ADHESIVES

AVOID CONDENSATION OF MOISTURE

RESIN HARDENER MIXING RATIO

EFFECT OF ACCELERATOR & TEMPERATURE

LAMINATED STRUCTURES

SOME FACTS & TERMINOLOGIES

LAMINATED STRUCTURE

EFFECT OF FIBER MISALIGNMENT ON STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS

FAILURE MODE & ANGLE OF ORIENTATION

FIBER MISALIGNMENT & REDUCTION IN STRENGTH

2O 20%

4O 45%

6O 66%

10O 80%

THE LAMINA IS HIGHLY ANISOTROPIC

EFFECT OF LAY UP AND LAYUP SEQUENCE

STRETCHING BENDING COUPLING

STRETCHING SHEAR COUPLING

FIBERS TEND TO ALIGN TO DIRECTION OF THE LOAD

STRETCHING TWISTING COUPLING

EFFECT OF SYMMETRY

IMPORTENCE OF LAYUP SEQUENCE

BALANCED & SYMMETRIC LAYUPS

HANDLING OF CURED COMPONENTS

HANDLING & STORAGE OF CURED COMPOSITES


BRITTLE IMPACT ABSORB MOISTURE Tg & SERVICE TEMPERATURE DRILLING DELAMINATION CONTAMINATION SECONDARY BONDING & PAINTING PERSONAL SAFETY

IMPACT DAMAGE
TOOL DROP WHILE TRANSPORTING & MOVING HAIL STROM RUNWAY DEBRIS

DELAMINATION

LOCAL FIBER BREAK

LOCAL CRUSHING / DENT

DELAMINATION

BACK SIDE FIBER BREAKAGE

PYRAMID TYPE MATRIX CRACKS

DRILLING INDUCED DEFECTS

DRILLING DELAMINATION MECHANISM

BACK SUPPORT GLASS PREPREG

PREPREG MOST COMMON FORM

APPLICATIONS OF PREPREGS

SCHEMATIC OF FABRICATION PROCESS

CURE PARAMETERS

DE BULKING
Large quantities of air are inevitably trapped between each prepreg layer and can be removed by covering the prepreg with a release film, a breather layer and applying a vacuum bag. The vacuum should be applied for 10-15 minutes at Room Temperature. The first ply attached to the tool face is generally debulking and this can be repeated after every 3 or 5 layers depending on the prepreg thickness and component shape. Debulking can be carried out overnight or during a natural break in the lay-up process.

Temperature
The oven/autoclave, component and tooling, should all reach and remain above the minimum cure temperature throughout the cure cycle. Thermocouples used to monitor the temperature should be placed carefully to ensure accurate information is received for the whole system and to operate at the cure temperature 5 C.

Cure time
Each prepreg has a recommended cure time which starts when the lowest thermocouple reading reaches the minimum cure temperature. Extended cure times at the recommended cure temperature do not normally have an adverse effect on the component quality.

Heat up rate
The matrix, viscosity, flow, reaction rates and component surface quality are all effected by the chosen heat up rates.

Generally, fast heating rates are possible for thin components and slow heating rates are used for large and thick components.
The heat up rate selected should avoid large temperature differentials between the component and the heat source.

Cooling rates
Cooling cycles should be controlled to avoid a sudden Temperature drop which may induce high thermal stresses in the component.
Pressure and/or vacuum should be maintained throughout the cooling period.

Vacuum
Used to remove air from the prepreg lay-up and provide a consolidating pressure for oven curing. It is common practice in autoclave cure cycles to reduce the applied vacuum to a low level.

PRESSURE
CONSOLIDATION OF LAYERS

FLOW OF RESIN IN TO VOIDS & GAPS CONTROLS THE VOID GROWTH

COMMON DEFECTS IN COMPOSITES

DEFECTS AND POSSIBLE CAUSES

DEFECTS AND POSSIBLE CAUSES

DEFECTS AND POSSIBLE CAUSES

DEFECTS AND POSSIBLE CAUSES

WAVINESS IN PREPREG TO BE AVOIDED

DELAMINATION

FRACTURE

MATRIX MICRO CRACK

VOIDS

SURFACE RESIN STARVATION

RESIN RICH POCKETS

IMPACT DAMAGE & DELAMINATION

IMPACT DAMAGE & DELAMINATION

EDGE DELAMINATION

TYPES OF COMPOSITE STRUCTURES

MONOLITHIC
CO CURED BONDED COBONDED

SANDWICH
CO CURED BONDED COBONDED

BONDING

SANDWICH STRUCTURES
VERY EFFICIENT IN RESISTING BENDING LOADS LIGHT IN WEIGHT LIMITED BY SHEAR DEFORMATION

DEFECTS IN SANDWICH PANELS

DELAMINATION

CORE CRUSH

MOISTURE ABSORPTION BY CORES

MOISTURE

EFFECT OF MOISTURE - BONDING


Epoxy based composite absorbs 0.2 wt % moisture in laboratory environment (i.e. 23 C and 50% RH within 2 to 4 weeks. The presence of moisture in the composite can adversely affect the properties of the adhesive during the cure process, and as a result the joint strength may be compromised. Moisture released from the composite substrate during cure reduces the glass transition temperature Tg by as much as 20 C, and lower the fracture toughness Gc of a rubber toughened epoxy adhesive by a factor of 10. Adherents (pre-dried) should therefore be stored in a dry area (i.e. desiccators or sealed container with a suitable desiccant. It is recommended that polymer composites be pre-dried in an oven

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON COMPRESSION STRENGTH

Importance of adhesive fillet


Avoid removal of adhesive spew from the ends of joints after cure, as there is the possibility of damaging the joint. Work on the spew to form a continuous FILLET Excessive spews should be removed before curing.

BONDING FIXTURE

BOND LINE THICKNESS


It should be noted that the thicker the bond-line the higher the risk of incorporating a high level of voids. In addition, stresses at the corners of the joint tend to be larger as it is difficult to maintain axial loading with a very thick bond-line. Thick adhesive layers can change the cure properties producing internal stresses, thereby reducing short and long-term performance. Conversely too thin a bond-line can result in adhesive starvation and debonding. Optimum bond thickness will depend on the type of adhesive used.

HEALTH ISSUES
SKIN CONTACT
CURED RESIN UNCURED RESIN & HARDENER FIBERS SOLVENTS (ACETONE & MEK)

INHALATION
HARDENER DUSTS (DRILLING& TRIMMING)

PREVENTION OF EXPOSURE

IMPORTANCE OF GLOVES
Prepregs can be difficult to handle with gloves, but don't give in to the urge to work bare-handed. Although the focus of this discussion has been on contact hazards, adequate ventilation should also be provided to minimize respiratory risks.

THANK YOU

Unidirectional Tape Prepreg All the filaments are oriented in one direction. The tape is fabricated in width ranging from 3 to 60 inches and is supplied in rolls. Unidirectional tape works well when maximum performance is required in one direction. Tapes are made by careful alignment of side-by-side yarns; usually of 1420 or greater denier. Tapes are usually impregnated with resin and are available from many prepreg suppliers.

Unidirectional Weave Cloth Prepreg (95% - 0, 5% - 90) This cloth has 95% of its filaments in the warp direction (length direction) and 5% in the fill direction to facilitate material handling. Its strength is approximately equal to unidirectional tape. It is fabricated and available up to 72 inches in width.

A greater number of relatively strong warp yarns and fewer, and generally weaker, filling yarns give this type of reinforcing fabric maximum strength in the warp direction only. This weave has the general characteristics: 1) maximum strength in one direction and 2) minimum strength in the transverse direction.

Bidirectional Weave Cloth Prepreg This cloth has close-to-equal proportions of filaments in the warp direction (length) and fill direction (width). Note that in satin weaves, the warp filaments are predominantly on one side and the fill is predominantly on the other. Hence, the cloth is not thermally balanced within itself and in thin laminates it may be necessary to specify on which side of the cloth the warp should be to prevent twisting of the laminates after curing. The cloth is fabricated in widths up to 72 inches.

S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

DESCRIPTION CARBON PRE-PREG CARBON PRE-PREG CARBON PRE-PREG CARBON UD TAPE CARBON PRE-PREG GLASS PRE-PREG GLASS PRE-PREG

DESIGNATION 913-40%-G801-1020 913-40%-G802 NT1000 913-40%-G815-1070 NCHR 913-35%-132T300 913-40%-G833-1000 913-37%-120-1270 913-37%-7781-1270

S/N 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

DESCRIPTION KEVLAR PRE-PREG KEVLAR PRE-PREG COPPER MESH PEEL PLY

DESIGNATION 913-50%-K285-1200 913-54%-1226-1200

913-COPPER MESH40%-W 610 MM


913-54%-7849-1150

913 G-20982-34+/R-GLASS PRE-PREG 3%-W 1200 R-GLASS UD TAPE SINGLE TOW 913 G-R-7-33%-W 300 MM MR 913-28%-1XR1600

S/N 15 16 17 18 19

DESCRIPTION GLASS UD GLASS SINGLE TOW KEVLAR PREPREG GLASS PRE-PREG GLASS PRE-PREG

DESIGNATION NVE 913-28%-192-EC 9756 ME 913-28%-1XEC 9756 914 K-285-50+/-3.0%-W 1200 MM 914 G-120-45+/-5.0%-W 1270 MM 914 G-7781-37+/-3.0%-W 1270 MM

20
21

ADHESIVE FILM FOAMING ADHESIVE

FM 73
FM 490A

ASYMMETRY IN SATIN WAVES