You are on page 1of 14


Concentrating Solar Power for the Mediterranean Region
WP0: Introduction WP1: Sustainability Goals

WP2: Renewable Energy Technologies
WP3: Renewable Energy Resources
WP4: Demand Side Analysis WP5: Scenario & Market Strategies WP6: Socio-Economical Impacts WP7: Environmental Impacts

There are onshore and offshore wind parks. Biomass Power Generation: Biogas from municipal waste or solid biomass from agricultural or municipal residues and from wood can be used for electricity generation. Nuclear Fission and Fusion Nuclear plants use nuclear fission processes to generate steam for steam turbines. Projected units sizes are in the GW capacity range. concentrated solar energy. Solar chimneys are also considered as solar thermal power plants. gas turbine or combined cycle power plants. Their capacity ranges from a few Watt to several MW. Both options have been included in the MED-CSP scenario. Unit sizes are limited to about 100 MW maximum. gas turbine or combined cycle power stations fired with high temperature. Coal must be imported. Capacities range from some 10 to several 100 MW. CSP plants can be build from several kW to several 100 MW capacity. There is intensive research on nuclear fusion aiming at providing first results in terms of a first power plant in the year 2050 or beyond. Hydropower: Hydropower is already applied in many MENA countries. Their size is usually below 25 MW each. Geothermal Hot Dry Rock: Geothermal heat of over 200 °C can be delivered from up to 5000 m deep holes to operate organic Rankine cycles or Kalina cycle power machines. Solar Thermal Electricity: Concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) stations are steam cycle. Photovoltaic : PV systems are typically used for distributed or remote power systems with or without connection to the utility grid.5 GW each to be build in desert areas until 2050. Their thermal storage capability and hybrid operation with fuels allows them to provide power on demand. CSP can be used for co-generation of electricity and heat. Oil and Gas fired Power Plants: Oil and gas can be used in steam cycle.MED-CSP Portfolio of Technologies for the MED-CSP Scenario Wind Power: Wind power can be generated in distributed wind plants of up to 5 MW capacity each. build into the sea where it is not deeper than 40 m. or in large wind parks interconnecting tens or even hundreds of such plants. It ranges from large multi-Megawatt dams like Aswan to micro-hydropower schemes of several kW capacity. . There are also scenarios for very large pv systems up to 1. They are build in all capacity classes from several kW to several 100 MW. Coal Steam Plants Only a few countries in MENA use coal fired steam cycles. though not concentrating. All thermal plants can be used for co-generation of electricity and heat.

MED-CSP Renewable Energy for Power Generation Hydropower (Tauernkraft) Solar Chimney (SBP) Wind Power (Enercon) Photovoltaic (NREL) Hot Dry Rock (Stadtwerke Urach) Biomass Power (NREL) .

MED-CSP Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Technologies parabolic trough (PSA) solar tower (SNL) linear Fresnel (Solarmundo) parabolic dish (SBP) .

100 bar Re-designed and up100 & 150 m units of 2 x 50 MW project EuroTrough Consortium. un-pressurised volumetric in 1996-1998.Technology Experience Next Step MED-CSP Parabolic trough reflector with oil-cooled vacuumisolated absorber tube in hybrid steam cycle power plant SEGS I – IX . Ciemat. direct superheated steam (Germany) concentrator and direct saturated steam generated generation at steam generating absorber at 290 °C (Solarmundo Plataforma Solar de tube project) Almeria * only selected European main-stream activities are listed. 354 MW 50+ MW projects installed between 1985 under development and 1991 in California. parabolic trough Plataforma Solar de MW demo plant (Spain) Flagsol. PSE. Ciemat (Spain). Spain. RD&D of CSP technology is also taking place in other parts of the world. Israel (design. DLR with secondary Liege. absorber). scaled structure of oilSKAL-ET (up-scaled under development Solarmillennium AG. Flagsol (Germany (reflectors) . new modular ceramic MW prototype plant (Germany) hot-air-receiver presently within the German tested in the European. Flagsol. absorber 2003 tube) Direct steam generating 700 m DISS test-loop in Concept for a 5 Iberinco. bar. Cosmosol project Solair Project Linear Fresnel collector 100 m prototype tested in 200 m test loop for FhG-ISE. in Israel and USA since then operating. ZSW Almeria. (SOLGATE project) Solar tower system with 3 MWthermal TSA project Receiver endurance Solucar. DLR. mainly USA and Australia Current Providers/Developers of the Solar Components Solel. hot-air receiver generated at 550 °C. Schott. 100 bar Solar tower system with 240 kW gas turbine 2 x 80 kW gas DLR (Germany). gas turbine cooling under operated at 800 °C. 100 development for a 2 Kraftanlagen München. Bergermann & for steam cycle operation integrated to SEGS VI in Partner. Esco Solar pressurised hot-air central operated first time turbine co(Italy) receiver for solar gas December 2002 at generation system turbine and combined Plataforma Solar de for electricity and cycle operation Almeria. steam generated in oil/steam heat exchangers at 370°C. DLR. Germany California since April (reflectors. structure. construction in Italy 8 bar. Belgium. Initec. direct under development (Germany) steam generation (INDITEP project) demonstrated at 400 °C. steam test and concept Heliotech (Denmark). cooled parabolic trough EuroTrough) collector in Southern Spain Schlaich.

Kuraymat Mathania. Nevada Power. Navarra. Fichtner Solar. Solargenix Solargenix.1 Oil Cooling Oil Cooling Solar Cycle Compact Linear Fresnel. Royal Scientific Society Comision Federal de Electricidad Office National d'Electricite (ONE) Solar Millennium Group EHN. OADYX ESKOM Companies Austa Energy & Stanwell Corp Companies Abengoa Ghersa. Granada.16 Capacity MWe 8 x 0. India Milano. Solar Tres Project Italy.1 . India Israel Italy Iran. Eldorado Valley Solar Steam Cycle 50 Oil Cooling 50 Greece. Sonatrach. Theseus Project South Africa. Stuttgart SBP. SHP Companies Stirling Energy Systems SBP. France Vellore. Boeing Esco Solar. Spain Solar Steam Cycle Hybrid (Coal) Steam Cycle Power Cycle Hybrid (Coal) Steam Cycle Power Cycle Solar Steam Cycle Solar Steam Cycle Gas Turbine with Co-generation of Cooling Capacity Power Cycle Stirling Engine Stirling Engine Stirling Engine Stirling Engine Stirling Engine 50 100 Capacity MWe 1440 Capacity MWe 10 15 0. Stuttgart SBP.1 0. EURO-SEGS World Wide CSP Projects Power Cycle Hybrid (Gas) Combined Cycle Hybrid (Gas) Combined Cycle Hybrid (Gas) Combined Cycle Hybrid (Coal) Steam Cycle Solar Steam Cycle Hybrid (Gas) Combined Cycle Hybrid (Oil/Gas) Steam Cycle Hybrid (Gas) Combined Cycle Hybrid (Gas) Combined Cycle Solar Steam Cycle Solar Steam Cycle Capacity MWe 140 127 140 100 40 330 140 300 230 2 x 50 15 Solar Cycle Oil Cooling Oil Cooling Oil Cooling Oil Cooling Direct Steam Generation Oil Cooling Oil Cooling Oil Cooling Oil Cooling Oil Cooling.1 0. NREA Rajasthan Renewable Energy Corporation Ltd. Almeria. California. Bechtel. Crete. Quwairah Mexico. Sierra Pacific Power Company Solar Millennium.1 0. Empoli Project Dish-Stirling Projects USA.05 0. Australia Central Receiver Projects Spain.08 Solar Capacity MWe 8 x 0. Sevilla. Ain Beni Mathar Spain. Planta Solar 10 (PS-10) Cordoba. Direct Steam Generation Solar Cycle Direct Steam or Volumetric Air Molten Salt Tube Receiver Pressurised Volumetric Receiver Solar Cycle Parabolic Dish Parabolic Dish Parabolic Dish Parabolic Dish Parabolic Dish 50 100 Solar Capacity MWe 35 Solar Capacity MWe 10 15 0. Stuttgart USA.MED-CSP Parabolic Trough Projects Algeria Egypt. Israel Ministry of National Infrastructure ENEA Iranian Power Development Company NEPCO. Italy PSA.05 0. Sonelgaz EEA. Andasol 1 and 2 Spain. SunCal 2000 Odeillo. Nevada.1 7 x 0. Yazd Jordan. Molten Salt Storage Oil Cooling Solar Capacity MWe 35 29 35 100 40 67 35 29 26 2 x 50 15 Companies New Energy Algeria.1 7 x 0.1 0. Baja California Morocco. Stuttgart SBP. Northern Cape Linear Fresnel Projects Stanwell Power Station.

Co-generated heat can be applied to drive vapor absorption chillers. vapor compression and multi-stage flash thermal desalination plants. Thermal seawater uses input steam with a temperature range between 70 – 110 °C. Co-Generation of Electricity and Heat: All thermo-electric systems like biomass. Seawater Desalination: Electricity can be used for seawater desalination by reverse osmosis.300 °C can be delivered by all systems that are capable of cogeneration except geothermal power systems that are restricted to temperatures below 100 °C. Only biomass. Industrial Process Heat: Industrial process heat in form of steam or hot air in the temperature range of 50 . desalted water and shade for generating a new environment for farming in desert regions could become feasible in the future as countermeasure to desertification and loss of arable land. . Cooling: Electricity can be used directly in conventional mechanical compression chillers for cooling and refrigeration. solar thermal and conventional power plants can deliver electricity on demand. Also combinations are possible. Integrated Systems and Multipurpose Plants: The collectors of some CSP systems provide shaded areas that could be used for purposes like greenhouse. geothermal power. hydropower. geothermal. solar thermal and conventional plants can be used for co-generation of electricity and heat. Vapor compression chillers use input steam with a temperature range between 120 – 180 °C. Integrated systems that use power.MED-CSP Portfolio of Applications Electricity Generation: All the technologies investigated within this study can be used for electricity generation. while co-generated heat can be applied to multi-effect. parking etc. This requires more investigation on the possibilities and restrictions of such systems.

reduced fuel input • additional process heat for cooling.MED-CSP CSP Applications – Solar or Hybrid Electricity and Combined Heat & Power Concentrating Solar Collector Field Solar Heat Fuel Thermal Energy Storage • solar electricity • integrated fossil fuel backup capacity. Power Cycle Process Heat . seawater desalination. power on demand Electricity • increased solar operating hours. drying. etc.


MED-CSP condenser heat to ambient high pressure low pressure cooling load evaporator mechanical compressor Cooling with Electricity: Vapour Compression Chiller M condenser heat to ambient high pressure low pressure cooling load evaporator desorber heat from cogen plant Cooling with Heat: Vapour Absorption Chiller pump heat to ambient absorber thermal compressor .

MED-CSP Applications of Industrial Co-generation Chemical Industry Textile Industry Pulp & Paper Industry Food & Tobacco Wood Industry Source: SOLGAS Study .

Photo: Solarmundo Animation: Phillip Schramek .MED-CSP Shaded space underneath Fresnel and MTSA collector fields • Parking • Greenhouse • Market • Exhibitions • etc.

MED-CSP Energy production above and biomass production below a linear Fresnel collector field in a CSP multipurpose plant Photos: Solarmundo Greenhouse Visualization: Regina Wilde .

MED-CSP Multipurpose plant for the development of arid regions wood solar collector and partially shaded crops steam power block salt production thermal desalination plant brine sea water electricity sweet water freeland crops pasture .