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DELIVERING RURAL SERVICES

IN KARNATAKA:
The Challenges
Ahead
Rural Services
• WATER SUPPLY 1. EDUCATION
• HOUSING 2. HEALTH SERVICES
3. IRRIGATION
• SANITATION
4. AGRI. EXTENSION
• CONNECTIVITY
5. VETERNARY SERVICES
• ELECTRICITY 6. MARKETING
• TRANSPORT 7. BANKING
• PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION 8. COMMUNICATIONS
The Rural Setting

56,682 Habitations

3,49,00,000 Population

70 Lakh Households

2,15,000 sq. Kms. of Area


Grouping of Villages by Size of
Population

More than 10,000 population : 131 Villages

Between 5000 & 10,000 : 703 Villages

Between 2000 & 5000 : 4019 Villages

Between 500 & 2000 : 13738 Villages

Below 500 population : 8890 Villages


Occupational Profile and Literacy
of Rural Population
Agriculture:
• Cultivators 67,04,656
• Agricultural Labour 58,90,452 *
Industry/Crafts etc., 5,81,561
Others 39,52,649
Literates (above 7 years of Age) 1,79,64,884 *
(59.68) %

* Source: Census of India 2001


Institutional Setting

• 5653 Grama Panchayats (91,402 Members)

• 176 Taluk Panchayats (3,683 Members)

• 27 Zilla Panchayats (1,005 Members)

• 29 Departments in PRIs with


• 35937 Employees (30285 GP Staff & 5652 Govt. Staff)
Financial Resources of Panchayats
(Funds from State & Central Govt.,)
(Rupees in Crores)

2006-07 2007-08

Zilla Panchayat Plan 1225.64 1436,69

Non-Plan 1620.36 1985.29

Taluk Panchayat Plan 975.67 779.40

Non-Plan 2958.49 4068.66

Gram Panchayat Plan 1230.68 1354.76

Non-Plan 124.32 127.19

Total Plan 3431.99 1330.25

Non Plan 4703.17 6181.14

Grand Total 8135.16 7511,39


Water Supply in Villages
National Policy Objectives State Policy

* 40 liters per capita / daily 55 litres per capita / daily

* Supply within 500 mtrs of No specific norm


Residence (50 meters of
vertical distance)

* Water to be free from Same as National norms


Present Status
• All 56,682 habitations have borewells
or other public sources of water
supply;

• 23134 habitations have > 40 lpcd


supply according to capacity created;
.... Present Status
• Ground Water Source used in < 95% Rural
Water Supply Schemes;

• 18592 Piped Water Supply Schemes


(with OHT and distribution);

• 32,298 Mini Water Supply Schemes


(water pumped into ground level);

• 194315 Borewells with hand pumps;

• Small number of open wells;


Population Per Scheme of RWS

State 39 Backward 137 ‘Other’


Scheme
Average Taluks Taluks

RWS 1877 2145 (119) 1797

MWS 1080 1140 (107) 1060

BHP 179 196 (112) 174


Challenges - Organisational
1. Wide Dispersion of Service Points;
2. Decentralised System of Service Provision
– Planning and Construction by ZPs;
– Maintenance by TPs /GPs;
3. No dedicated Personnel except Watermen at GP level;
4. Inadequate Capacity for Planning and Procurement of
Services;
5. Pressures of Democratic Decentralisation;
Challenges - Technical
1. Sustainability of Ground Water Sources –
Over exploitation for Irrigation;
2. Water Quality Problems in over 20,000
villages;
3. Absence of Planning for Drinking Water in
construction of Lakes and Reservoirs;
4. Complexity of Regional Water Supply
Schemes;
Challenges - Financial

1. Inadequate Resources for comprehensive


coverage;
2. Inability to collect O & M Costs from users;
3. Ad hoc expenditure for Relief Measures;
Availability of Funds
(Rs. in crores)
Funds
Provision
Provided Funds used
2007-2008
2001-2007
Central Sector
ARWS 1265.53 1093.05 562.16

State Sector
MNP 853.86 792.94 428.23

CRF 339.00 339.00 31.00


(2006-07) (2006-07) (Released)
Short Term Solutions ( 3 years)
• Setting up Control Rooms for Servicing Rs. 10 cr.
RWS Schemes
• Preparation of Comprehensive District Rs. 1500 cr.
Plans for ‘RWS 55’
• Ground Water Recharging & Rainwater Rs. 500 cr.
harvesting for Sustainability
• Surface water based Schemes for Rs.1000 cr.
Quality Problem Villages (5000)
• Pilot Projects for “Poorna Jala” in 4. 6 Rs.300 cr.
Taluks
Total Rs.3310 cr.
Long Term Solutions ( 3-10 years)
• Goal 70 – 100 lpcd – 4000 MLD Supply
• Surface Water based Water Supply Schemes
• Pipelines from Major Tanks & Reservoirs
• Water Quality Issues fully addressed
• Disposal of Waste Water
• Maintenance of Complex Regional Schemes
•Cost : About Rs. 20,000 crores
Rural Roads
• Existing Network:
– Major District Roads 33730 kms

– Other District Roads

– Rural /TDB/Panchayath Road 147212 kms

Total 180942 kms


All Weather Roads
No. of Connected by
Population Habitations AWR/FWR
More than 1,000 16,746 ALL
500 to 1,000 16,855 ALL
250 to 500 13,245 13,061
Less than 250 6,224 2,902

Habitations with AWR - 3,506


Rural Roads* by Type of Surface

Asphalted 39,394 kms

Metalled 24,730 kms

Unsurfaced 83,088 kms

* Other than Major District Roads


Funds for Development - Maintenance

• Maintenance (XII FC + CMGSY) Rs. 362.25 Crores;

• Development / Upgradation Rs. 20.00 Crores;

• P.M.G.S.Y. Rs. 150.00 Crores;

• Employment Generation Schemes Rs. 50.00 Crores;

Total Rs.582.00 Crores


Issues
• Maintenance of Rural Roads is inadequate / poor;
• Upgradation taken up on piecemeal basis by ZPMs;
• Development of Roads with poor specifications on
– Road width;
– Quality of surface;
– C.D. works; and
– Continuity;
PMGSY
Road length identified for development 13,000 kms

Road length Developed since 2000 5,800 kms

Funds utilised so far 630 crores

Projected Expenditure by 2009 1000 crores

Issue: Capacity for Implementation


11th Plan Period Required Outlays
• Target for Maintenance & Upgradation 6,500 kms
• Funds Required
 for Maintenance / annum Rs.350 cr.

 for Upgradation / Renewal


5000/8000 kms (20%) per year Rs.1400 cr
• Funds required for 5 years Rs.8750 cr.
Rural Sanitation
Present Status
• Use of latrine sanitation About 20 lakh house-
holds out of 70 lakhs
• Solid Waste (including animal Manure pits/heaps in
dung, household waste & road all habitations.
sweepings)
• Drainage of storm & sullage Inadequate in all
water villages

• Poor sanitation is the cause of high IMR, MMR &


communicable Diseases.
Total Sanitation Campaign

Target Achievement

Construction of 50,56,899 6,97,000


Household Toilets

Toilets in Schools 36,537 20,948

Community Toilets 1,309 201


……..Total Sanitation Campaign
Issues

• Inadequate Awareness & Low Demand


• Non Availability of Water
• Non availability of space for Toilets
• Inadequate Funding
• Non-enforcement of penalties
• Limited technological options
Solid Waste Management
Issues

• Non Segregation of Animal Shelters &


human dwellings
• Poor quality of Internal Roads
• Non System of Daily sweeping of
streets
• ‘Waste is Wealth’ attitude.
Possible Remedies

• Adoption of scientific composting in


common compost yards.
• Provision of improved means
transportation / intermediate storage
• Improved quality of housing.
Drainage of Storm/Sullage Water

• Improved Street Surface and


scientific drainage systems to be
designed
• Suvarna Gramodaya approach to
street surfacing & drainage
• Greater awareness regarding
maintenance of drains.
Investments Required
1. (a) Rural Water Supply (70 lpcd) Rs. 10,000 Cr.
(b)Water Quality Problem villages Rs. 8,000 cr.

2. Rural Roads (13,000 Kms.) Rs.8750 Cr. p.a.


(upgrading & maintenance)

3. Rural Sanitation
* Latrine Construction Rs.1,250 Cr.
* Solid Waste Management Rs.1,000 Cr.
(20,000 villages) Rs 20,000 Cr.
* Street Improvement & drainage
Thank
You