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The Reformation Era

改革時期
Session #1
Professor James Korthals

• 9 years – parish pastor


• 12 years – professor at
Northwestern University,
Watertown, Wisconsin
• 10 years – professor at
Wisconsin Lutheran
Seminary, Mequon,
Wisconsin
• My wife – Jean
• Teaches 1st grade in a
Lutheran school
My Grandchildren
• The HISTORICAL curriculum surveys the
record of believers who have gone before us,
learning from their lives and testimony how
God graciously preserves and extends his
church by means of the unconditional Gospel.
The Reformation
Era 改革時期
• Pre-Reformation
改革前 (1000 –
1483)
• The Early Life of
Martin Luther
馬丁路德生平
(1483 – 1517)
• The Reformation
改革 (1517 – 1546)
• Post-Reformation
改革後 (1546 –
Terminology – “Reformation”
術語 – “改革”
“reformatio” – a Latin term,
meaning:
“reformatio” - 拉丁文 , 解作 :
+ Restore something to its true,
unchanging, original form 恢復事物的
真實 , 不變的原狀
+ Renewal 復興 , 更新
+ “Reform” of Church was considered
necessary and desirable 教會 “改革”
被視為需要及想望的事
Terminology – “Mysticism”
術語 – “神祕主義”
• Soul seeks to be in harmony with the
Supreme Being 靈魂尋求與至高神和諧
• This relationship acquired through self-
examination 這關係由自省習得
• Revelation via a personal, inward
experience 啟示經由個人 , 靈裏的經驗
• Mystic is concerned with God and with his
own soul. 神祕主義者所關心的是神與他自
己的靈的關係
 Common ways to attain mystical condition
達到神秘主義狀態的普遍方法 :
• Lowest value: drugs, physical movements
低等的 : 藥物 , 身體的行動
• Highest value: silence, deprivation,
meditation
高等的 : 靜默 , 免去世務 , 默想
• Prayer is the best way
禱告是最好的方法
• To use words is of lesser value
用言語的屬較低等
• To express without words is better
沒有言語的較好
Stages in the mystic way 神秘主義的不同階段 :
• “purification” of the soul from sinful wishes
and actions
“ 淨化” 靈遠離罪性的渴望及行為
• “illumination” from God 神的啟發
• “meditation” – we think about God
“ 默想 “ – 我們思想有關神
• “contemplation” – God helps our thinking
“ 冥想 “ – 神幫助我們思想
• “mystic union” – denying oneself, leading to
complete union with God
“ 神秘的合一” – 否定自我 , 引致與神的完全合

 Mysticism and monasticism were closely
related
神秘主義與修道主義有密切的關係
 Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153)
promotes love of Jesus, esp. as
bridegroom of the soul
伯爾納 (1090-1153) 宣講耶穌的愛 , 如同
靈的新郎
 Hugh of St. Victor 笏哥 (c 1100-1141)
promotes way for soul to gain ultimate
union with God
宣講一個能讓靈魂獲得與神最終的合一的
方法
German Mysticism
德國的神秘主義
 Direct union with God combined with
practical work 結合實際工作而與神合一
• Silent devotions and meditation were not
only requirement 不單要求無聲的靈修和
默想
• Through faithful devotion to daily tasks,
one may realize religious experience 透
過獻身於日常的工作而領悟宗教的經驗
 This was a “better way” because it did
not 這是一個 “較好的方法” 因為它不會
• neglect the sacraments 忽略聖禮
• challenge the authority of the church 挑
戰教會的權威
 German mysticism seeks inner peace by

德國的神秘主義藉下列的工作尋找內在的
平安 :
• Preaching 講道
• writing and circulating devotional works
書寫及流傳屬靈的著作
• examples of own lives
以身作則
 Located along Rhine
River in Germany, this
movement 這活動位於
德國的萊茵河沿岸
• Cared for the sick 看顧
病人
• Educated the young in
schools 教育青少年
 Additional features of their mysticism
其他特色 :
• Use of the vernacular language 運用方言
• Spoke to laymen as well as to clergy 針對
平信徒及神職人員
• Used New Testament more than Old
Testament 運用舊約多於新約
• Especially devoted to the words of Christ
特別忠愛基督的說話
Meister Eckhart
伊克哈爾特 (1260-1328)

• First German mystic 德國


第一位神秘主義者
• Earliest theologian who
wrote in German 最早以德
文著作的神學家
• Joined monastic order of
the Dominicans 多米尼古
的修士
• 1329 Eckhart charged with heresy. He
taught:
1329 年伊克哈爾特被指為異端 , 他教導 :
– As soon as God was, he created the world.
自神自存時 , 祂創造了世界。
– Soul has a little spark, a light which never
goes out. It is uncreated.
人的靈魂乃由神性中放出的一點火花。非創造
的。
• Speaks of faith as heavenly gift, but
does not come to justification by faith
信心是恩賜 , 但不提 因信稱義
– works do not sanctify 善行不能使人成聖
• Encouraged people to turn away from
authority of priesthood and church
ceremonies and concentrate on inner
experience for certainty of salvation 鼓
勵人從教士權威及教會儀式轉移至集中
內在體驗得救的肯定
Johannes Tauler
陶勒爾 (1300 - 16 June 1361)

• Attracted by ascetic life of Dominicans


受多米尼古的苦修所吸引
• Described as having a “fiery tongue that
has kindled the horizon” 被形容為有
“火一般的舌頭 , 它燃起新的視野”
• Began open opposition to the pope 開始公開
對抗教宗
• His “sermons” were delivered in German 他
以德文講道
– Practical emphasis 強調實踐
– Although he revered saints, direct
communion with God was better 他雖然尊
重聖人 , 但認為直接與上帝溝通更好
– Scripture receives emphasis, yet “inner
Word” has higher authority 重視聖經 , 但
“內在的聖道” 有更高的權威
• Tauler warns against idleness 陶勒爾告
誡安逸
– He values the work of earthly job, but
places loving service even higher 他重視
屬世的工作 , 但視愛心的服侍更重要
– no one is free without keeping the
commandments, good works, and aspiring
to divine love 沒有人可以不守誡命 , 善行 ,
追求神性的愛
• Advises hearers to maintain simple,
pure faith 建議聆聽者保持單純的 , 純潔
的信心
• Visible church has only limited value -- it is to
lead to something higher 可看見的教會只有
限度的價值– 它可引導更高的層次
• Visible church to be left as soon as “inner
Word” is received 當獲得 “內在世界” 時 , 便
可以離開可看見的教會
• To Tauler, the Friends of God -- who have
contact with God -- take the place of the
visible church 對陶勒爾來說 , 作為上帝的朋
友 – 與上帝有接觸 – 取代可看見的教會
• His sermons are said to have been more widely
read by Protestant reformers than any other
medieval preacher
他的講章較其他中世紀的講者 , 受更多的抗議宗
改革派的人廣為 讀
• Philip Melanchthon: “Among the moderns,
Tauler is easily the first.”
墨蘭頓 : “ 在近代人中 , 陶勒爾顯然是最好的。”
• Luther praised Tauler in letter (14
December 1516): “I have seen no
theological work in Latin or German that
is more sound and more in harmony
with the gospel than this.” 路德在 1516
年 12 月 14 日的信中讚揚陶勒爾 : “ 我
未見過有拉丁文或德文的神學著作較他
所做的更健全及與福音協調。”
Theologia Germanica
(“German Theology”) 德國神學

• Produced by the “Friends of God” 由


“上帝的朋友” 所創作
• Discovered and published in 1516 by
Martin Luther 於 1516 年由馬丁路德所
發現及出版
• Luther said of the Theologia
Germanica, “Next to the Bible and St.
Augustine, no book has ever come into
my hands from which I have learned
more of God and Christ, and man and
all things that are.“ 路德對德國神學的
評價 : “ 除了聖經及聖奧古斯丁之外 , 沒
有比這書使我學習更多有關上帝 , 基督 ,
人及一切的事。”
Bernard of Clairvaux
克勒窩的伯爾納
(1090 - 20 August 1153)

• 1113 joined small


monastery at
Citeaux in France
於 1113 年參與在法
國西特俄的修道院
Monastery at Citeaux 在西特俄的修道院
(home of the Cistercians monks
細斯特仙修士的居所 )
• Monastery founded in March 1098 by
Robert who wanted to restore simplicity
of Benedictine order 。 若伯特想回復本
泥狄克的規條 , 由於 1098 年 3 月所創立
的修道會。
• 1115 Bernard sent to start new
monastery at Clairvaux, where he was
made abbot 於 1115 年 , 伯爾納派到克
勒窩擔任修道院長
Bernard was man of intense
feeling and dedication.
He was quick to respond to any
threat to what he held sacred.
伯爾納是一個有強烈感情與委身
的人。他迅速地回應有關影響神
性的威嚇。
• To Bernard working out the salvation of
the soul means “to dedicate himself to
service of God” 對伯爾納來說 , 靈魂的得
救是指 “獻身去事奉上帝”
• New life comes from God, but requires
serious work by person. 新生命來自上帝 ,
但需要個人的認真工作
• He preferred the contemplative life. 他寧
願選擇冥想的生活
• His intense study of Scripture is
evident in his writing 在他的著作
中看出他非常認真研習聖經
• He believes that everything owed
to the grace of God 他相信每事都
歸功於上帝的恩典
– He encouraged people to trust
in God’s grace and not in their
own works or merits 他鼓勵人
依靠上帝的恩典 , 而非靠自身的
行為或善工
• Bernard does not deny that man should
have merits, but he insists these only
possible through God’s working 伯爾納不
否認人需要善行 , 但他堅持善行只可藉上
帝的工作而來
• He does give excessive glorify to saints,
especially Virgin Mary 他把太多榮耀歸於
聖人 , 特別是瑪利亞
• He opposes the Immaculate Conception
他反對瑪利亞無原罪成胎說
• Bernard is regarded as main
representative of Christian mysticism.
伯爾納被視為神秘主義的主要代表
– The grace of God pardons sinner and
then lifts him up
上帝的恩典寬恕罪人 , 之後高舉他們
– His mysticism centers on Christ
他的神秘主義是以基督為中心
– He desires to be filled with the spirit
of Christ and through it to become
like Christ 他希望能被基督的靈所充
滿 , 藉此可以成為像基督一般
– By Christ’s work of redemption the
Church has become his bride (climax
of grace is union with God) 因基督救
贖的工作 , 教會成為他的新郎 ( 恩典
的最高點是與上帝的合一 )
• To Bernard the Church, with its hierarchy,
is the kingdom of God on earth 伯爾納認
為有階級的教會是世上的上帝的國
– He demands perfect separation of
church and state 他要求教會與政府有完
全的分離
– He opposes absolute papal power in the
Church 他反對教會內的絕對教皇權
– Yet he recognizes papal power as
highest authority in the Church
然而他承認教宗在教會之有最高的權威
• Monasticism to him is the ideal Christianity
也視修道主義是最理想的基督教生活方式
– In monasticism perfection is possible
while living in world
靠修道主義 , 基督徒在世的生活能夠達
到完全的地步
John of Salisbury
(1110? - 25 October 1180)

• English by birth 英國人


• 1136 left England to study in France for
12 years 於 1136 年離開英國到法國讀書
12 年
• Returned to England as secretary of
archbishop of Canterbury 回到英國擔任
坎特布里大主教的秘書
• Most important work, Policratus, written
in 1159 最重要的工作 : 於 1159 年寫成
Policratus
– first great medieval theory to deal with
the relationship of Church and State
在中世紀時 , 是第一針對教會與政府
的關係的重要學說
• John defended the spiritual and secular
power of the papacy and the independence
of the clergy.
約翰為教宗的屬靈及世俗的權力及神職人員
的自主作辯護
 They protected against secular injustice
and the consequences of sin.
他們免於世俗的不公義及罪的結果
• He believed that only the Roman pope
could bless Christianity. 他相信只有羅
馬的教宗能夠成為基督徒的祝福
• This did not set well with the English
government or with the English bishops.
英國政府及主教不接受他的論點
• John developed the theory that the
“temporal sword” belonged to the prince,
and that the “spiritual sword” belongs to
the church.
約翰的理論指出 “世俗的權力 ( 劍 )” 屬
於國王 , “ 屬靈的權力” 屬於教會
• He says the church gave the temporal
sword to the prince and has the final
authority.
他說教會將世俗的權力給予國王 , 她有最
終的權力
1) Tyrants are bad.
暴君是壞的
2) Princes are good.
國王是好的
3) A good prince “obeys the law and rules
the people by its dictates, accounting
himself as but their servant”
好的國王會 “遵守法律 , 並按照法令統
治人民 , 視自己為人民的僕人”
4) A good prince “is the public ruler and a
kind of image of the divine majesty on
earth” 好的國王 “是國民的統治者 , 是神
性的君權在地上的形象”
5) A good prince “understands that nothing
is permitted to him if it is in variance with
justice and equity” 好的國王 “明白他不容
許做與公義和公正對立的事”
6) A good prince recognizes that he
“receives his sword from the hand of the
church” and is “the servant [minister] of
the priesthood, and one who exercises
that side of the sacred offices which
seems unworthy of the hands of the
priesthood” 好的國王會認知他 “從教會
手中得到他的權力” 和是 “神父的僕人
[ 執行者 ], 代神父處理不值得他處理的非
宗教事務”
Peter Waldo 瓦勒度
(1140-1217)
• Peter Waldo, a businessman of Lyons
(France), had a religious experience
about 1175.
瓦勒度是法國里昂的商人 , 於 1175 有
特別屬靈的經驗
• He gave away his possessions and
took up begging.
他放棄所有 , 並行乞
• He was joined by disciples who called
themselves the “Poor Men of Lyons”
他與追隨者稱自己為 “里昂的窮人”
– They rejected riches
他們拒 富裕
– At first there were no important doctrinal
difference with the Church.
最初與教會教義沒有重要的差異
– They saw themselves as Catholics who
carried Christianity farther than weaker
brethren
他們視自己為天主教徒 , 但認為他們比軟弱的
會友強 , 因為他們傳福音到更遠的地方
• 1179 they went to pope for approval as
monastic order. 於 1179 年 , 他們要求教
宗批准他們的修道規條
– Church officials examined them and
found them to be ignorant of the
simplest teachings 教會人員檢查他們並
發現他們不知道最簡單的教導
– forbidden to preach unless invited by
priests 禁止他們講道 , 除非是受神職人
員的邀請
• At the same time another group from northern
Italy was also refused the privilege to preach
在意大利北部有另一群人亦被拒傳道
• The two groups merged under Waldo and
promoted apostolic living and preaching 兩批
人在 Waldo 下結合 , 推廣使徒式的生活及傳

• Soon they were found in France, Germany
and Spain. 很快發展到法國 , 德國及西班牙
• Their members were chiefly lay people from
the middle and peasant classes 他們的成員
主要是中產及農民階層的平信徒
Lyons
里昂

Avignon
亞威農
Waldensians
瓦勒度派

• In 1182 the
Archbishop of Lyons
expelled followers of
Peter Waldo for
preaching 在 1182
年 , 里昂的主教驅逐瓦
勒度的跟隨者禁止他們
講道
• On 4 November 1184 Pope Lucius III
(1181-5) excommunicated the
Waldensians for rejecting the authority
of the Roman Catholic Church 在 1184
年 11 月 4 日 , 教宗路求三世革除他們羅
馬教會的教藉 , 因為他們拒 羅馬天主
教的權威
Waldensian teachings 瓦勒度派的教導 :
• The Church of God has failed.
上帝的教會已失去作用
• Holy Scriptures alone are sufficient to
guide men to salvation.
唯獨聖經足以引人得救
• Blessing received in the Church does not
confer any particular sanctity on the things or
people blessed. 在教會所接受的祝福不會給
予任何事物或人得以聖潔
• Catholic priests have no authority. 天主教的
神父沒有權威的
• The Pope of Rome is the chief of all heretics.
羅馬的教宗是所有異端之首
• Everyone has the right to preach publicly the
word of God. 每人都有權公開傳講上帝的道
( 講道 )
• Every oath is a mortal sin. 每一個宣誓都是致
死的罪
• Purgatory is a dream, an invention of the sixth
century. 煉獄是個夢想 , 在六世紀發明的
Indulgences are the invention of covetous
priests. 贖罪卷是貪婪的神父所發明的
• There is no obligation to fast, nor to keep any
holy day, except for Sunday. 沒有義務要禁食
或守聖日 , 除了星期日
• Invocation of saints cannot be admitted.
不容許向聖人禱告
• Every honor given in the Church to
paintings of holy images and to relics of
saints is to be abolished.
要廢除教會對聖像及聖物的尊榮
• The Eucharist is a memorial, not a
sacrifice.
聖餐是紀念的 , 不是獻祭的
Every Waldensian teaching is natural outgrowth of
exclusion from Roman Church. 每個瓦勒度派錯誤
的教導都有一個因 : 羅馬天主教把他們排斥了
• Beginning in 1208, Waldensians were hunted
down in crusades. 在 1208 年起 , 瓦勒度派被十
字軍追捕
• They were forced to convert to Catholicism or
were killed. 他們被迫回轉為天主教徒或被殺
• Waldensians may never have exceeded 100,000
-- yet they survived for 350 years. 瓦勒度派從未
有超過 100,000 成員 , 然而卻存在超過 350 年
• In some forms they still exist 在某些形態 , 他們
仍然存在