COMMUNICATIONS I
WISH LIST:
• High reliability
MODULATION TYPES:
• Analog modulation
• Digital modulation 2
Amplitude modulation
In this type of modulation the amplitude of a sinusoidal carrier is varied
according to the desired message signal. Let m(t) be the message signal we
would like to transmit, ka be the amplitude sensitivity (modulation index), and
c(t) = Accos(2πfct) be the sinusoidal carrier signal, where Ac is the amplitude of the
carrier and fc is the carrier frequency.
The transmitted AM signal waveform is described by
s AM (t ) = Ac [1 + k a m(t )] cos(2πf c t )
Requirements:
k a m(t ) < 1, ∀t
•
f c >> Wm
• , where Wm is the message bandwidth
3
Taking the Fourier transform of the modulated waveform, we get
S AM ( f ) = F { s AM (t )}
= F { Ac cos(2π f c t ) + Ac k a m(t ) cos(2π f c t )}
Ac k a Ac
= [δ ( f − f c ) + δ ( f + f c )] + [ M ( f − f c ) + M ( f + f c )]
2 2
Let M(f) be described by
Observations:
11. B AM = 2Wm
12. Carrier is transmitted explicitly
5
Let m(t ) = cos(0.2π t ) , then
s AM (t ) = Ac [1 + k a cos(0.2π t )] cos(2π f c t )
6
7
To conserve transmitted power, let us suppress the carrier, i.e., let the
transmitted waveform be described by
8
In the frequency domain,
S DSB ( f ) = F { s (t )}
= F { Ac m(t ) cos( 2π f c t )}
Ac
= [M ( f − fc ) + M ( f + fc )]
2
9
Observations:
10
11
Receivers for AM and DSB
Receivers can be classified into coherent and noncoherent categories.
Definition: If a receiver requires knowledge of the carrier frequency and phase to
extract the message signal, then it is called coherent.
Definition: If a receiver does not require knowledge of the phase (only rough
knowledge of the carrier frequency) to extract the message signal, then it is
called noncoherent.
Noncoherent demodulator (receiver) for standard AM
+ +
S AM (t ) D ˆ (t )
m
R C
 
τ=
(1 / k ) − 1 ,
2
a
ka < 1
2π f m (max)
14
Illustration of rectifier distortion and diagonal clipping 15
Coherent demodulator for DSBSC
V ( f ) = F { v(t )}
Ac Aˆ c Ac Aˆ c
= [ M ( f − 2 fc ) + M ( f + 2 fc )] + M ( f ) cos φ
4 2
16
Let the message signal have the following magnitude spectrum
Then, if fc>Wm,
17
Suppose H lpf ( f ) is such that
Ac Aˆ c
Then, if W m ≤ B < 2 f c − W m , M( f ) =
ˆ M ( f ) cos φ
2
18
Coherent Costas loop receiver for DSBSC :
19
Ichannel:
After downconverwsion,
Qchannel:
Ac
vQ (t ) = m(t )[ sin ( 2ω c t + φ ) + sin φ ]
2
A
mQ (t ) = c sin φ ⋅ m(t )
2
20
Feedback path:
At the output of the multiplier,
Ac2 2
me (t ) = m (t ) sin φ cos φ
4
Ac2 2
= m (t ) sin 2φ
8
xVCO (t ) cos c t (t )
21
t
Where ωc is the VCO’s reference frequency and φ (t ) = k v ∫m
0
ef (τ )dτ , is the
residual phase angle due to the tracking error. The constant kv is the frequency
sensitivity of the VCO in rad/s/volt
d [ω c t + φ (t )]
= ω c + k v mef (t ),
dt
Clearly, if φ(t) were small, then the instantaneous frequency would be close to ωc
and the output of the Ipath would also be proportional to m(t).
SingleSideband Modulation
22
Consider the following transmitter
Suppose we want to transmit the upper sideband, then the following choice of
bandpass filter yields the correct result
23
At the output of the bandpass filter,
24
Then, SSB demodulation can be obtained by
25
Let this DSBSC signal be the input of a lowpass filter with magnitude response
26
The filter H L ( f ) can be represented by the algebraic sum
1
HL( f ) = [ sgn ( f + f c ) − sgn ( f − f c ) ]
2
Also,
L
S SSB (t ) = H L ( f ) ⋅ S DSB ( f )
Ac
= HL( f ) ⋅ [M ( f + fc ) + M ( f − fc )]
2
Ac
= [ M ( f + f c ) sgn ( f + f c ) + M ( f − f c ) sgn ( f + f c ) ]
4
A
− c [ M ( f + f c ) sgn ( f − f c ) + M ( f − f c ) sgn ( f − f c ) ]
4
A
= c [ M ( f + fc ) + M ( f − fc )]
4
Ac
+ [ M ( f + f c ) sgn ( f + f c ) − M ( f − f c ) sgn ( f − f c ) ]
4
27
To shed more light on the last equation, let us introduce the concept of the
Hilbert transform.
Definition
A Hilbert transform filter is a filter that simply phase shifts all frequency
components by π/2 radians, i.e., its transfer function is described by
H ( f ) = − j sgn ( f )
• H( f ) =1
− π / 2, f >0
• arg( H ( f ) ) =
π / 2, f <0
28
1
In the time domain, the impulse response of the filter is given by h(t ) =
πt
Therefore, the Hilbert transform of a function g(t) can be interpreted as the
convolution of the impulse response of the filter h(t) and g(t), i.e.,
g~ (t ) = h(t ) ∗ g (t )
1 ∞ g (τ )
= ∫ dτ
π − ∞ t −τ
In the frequency domain,
~
G ( f ) = − j sgn ( f ) G ( f )
Therefore, F
g~ (t ) ⇔ − j sgn ( f ) G ( f )
F
g~ (t )e ± j 2π f c t ⇔ − jG ( f f c ) sgn ( f f c )
29
In the time domain, we can synthesize lower SSB mathematically as follows:
L
s SSB (t ) = F −1 { S SSB
L
( f )}
1
= F −1 Ac [ M ( f + f c ) + M ( f − f c ) ]
4
1
+ F −1 Ac [ M ( f + f c ) sgn ( f + f c ) − M ( f − f c ) sgn ( f − f c ) ]
4
1 1 ~ (t )e − j 2π f ct − 1 A m
= Ac m(t ) cos( 2π f c t ) + Ac m ~
c (t )e
j 2π f c t
2 − j4 − j4
1 1 ~
= Ac m(t ) cos( 2π f c t ) + Ac m (t ) sin ( 2π f c t )
2 2
~
where m(t ) is the Hilbert transform of m(t)
Likewise, the upper SSB signal is described by
1 1 ~
s USSB (t ) = Ac m(t ) cos( 2π f c t ) − Ac m (t ) sin ( 2π f c t )
2 2
30
A widely used form of SSB is vestigial sideband, which is used in TV broadcasts.
SSB is a special case of VSB, since the filter that is used to obtain SSB is a
limiting case of the filter used to generate VSB.
Generation of VSB
Instead of the ideal filter used in SSB, let us use the following filter:
L
H VSB ( f ) can be analytically described by
L
H VSB [
( f ) = − j HQ ( f + fc ) − HQ ( f − fc ) ]
31
The transfer function H Q ( f ) has the following characteristics:
Observations about H Q ( f ) :
• Odd symmetry about the origin
• Linear phase
Mathematically,
1 1
L
sVSB (t ) = Ac m(t ) cos( 2π f c t ) + Ac m′(t ) sin ( 2π f c t )
2 2
and 1 1
U
sVSB (t ) = Ac m(t ) cos( 2π f c t ) − Ac m′(t ) sin ( 2π f c t )
2 2
The ‘+’ sign means that a vestige of the upper sideband is transmitted and a ‘’
sign means that a vestige of the lower sideband is transmitted. 32
Example: Now, if the magnitude spectrum of the DSB signal is as described
L
before, then the magnitude spectrum of sVSB (t ) is
33
To help in the demodulation process, let us insert a pilot signal to the VSB signal
1 1
P
sVSB (t ) = k a Ac m(t ) cos( 2π f c t ) ± Ac m′(t ) sin ( 2π f c t ) + Ac cos( 2πf c t )
2 2
or
1 1
P
sVSB (t ) = Ac 1 + k a m(t ) cos( 2π f c t ) ± k a Ac m′(t ) sin ( 2π f c t ) ,
2 2
P
sVSB (t ) = m I (t ) cos( 2π f c t ) − mQ (t ) sin ( 2π f c t )
where
1
m I (t ) = Ac 1 + k a m(t )
2
1
mQ (t ) = k a Ac m′(t )
2
Therefore, the complex envelope of this pilot aided VSB signal is
~ P
sVSB (t ) = m I (t ) + jmQ (t ) = a (t )e jφ (t ) ,
34
where the real envelope a(t) is described by
a(t ) = m I2 (t ) + mQ2 (t )
1/ 2
2 1 1
2
2
= Ac 1 + k a m(t ) + Ac2 k a m′(t )
2 2
and its phase is
mQ (t )
φ (t ) = tan −1
m
I (t )
If we use an envelope detector to demodulate the pilotaided VSB, its output
would be
1/ 2
1
2
1
2
a (t ) Ac 1 ka m(t ) ka m(t )
2 2
1/ 2
1
2
ka m(t )
1 2
Ac 1 ka m(t ) 1
2 1
1 ka m(t )
2
35
Clearly, if m´(t) is small, then we can extract the message signal m(t) by using
a DC blocking capacitor.
Angle Modulation
Let θi(t) be varied linearly with the message signal m(t) and φ = 0, then
θ i (t ) = ω c t + k p m(t ),
In this case we say that the carrier has been phase modulated.
Let the instantaneous frequency ωi(t) be varied linearly with the message signal
m(t), i.e., ω i (t ) = ω c + k ω m(t )
37
where kω ≡ Frequency sensitivity of the modulator in rad/s/volt
In this case we say that the carrier has been frequency modulated and the
instantaneous angle is obtained by integrating the instantaneous frequency, i.e.,
t t t
θ i (t ) = ∫ ω i (τ )dτ = ∫ [ω c + k ω m(τ )] dτ = ω c t + k ω ∫ m(τ )dτ
0 0 0
Observation: Both phase and frequency modulation are related to each other and
one can be obtained from the other. Hence, we could deduce the properties of one
of the two modulation schemes once we know the properties of the other.
38
FM modulation
39
PM modulation
40
The figure below shows a comparison between AM, FM and PM modulation of the
same message waveform:
41
Frequency Modulation
Consider the frequency modulation of a message signal (frequency tone)
m(t ) = Am cos(2π f m t ),
The instantaneous frequency (in Hz) of the FM signal is
f i (t ) = f c + k f Am cos(2π f m t ).
Define the maximum frequency deviation as
∆f = k f Am .
The instantaneous phase angle of the FM signal is
t
θ i (t ) = 2π ∫ f i (τ )dτ
0
Am
= 2πf c t + k f sin(2π f m t )
fm
= 2πf c t + β sin( 2π f m t )
42
where β = k f Am / f m , is known as the FM modulation index (for a tone) or the
maximum phase deviation (in rad) produced by the tone in question
43
Since se(t) meets the Dirichlet conditions, we can compute its Fourier series, i.e.,
∞
s e (t ) = ∑n
c e j 2π n f m t
n = −∞
,
T/2
1
T −T∫/ 2
− j 2π n f m t
cn = s e ( t )e dt , T = 1 / fm
1/ 2 fm
∫e
− j 2π n f m t
= fm s ( t )e dt
−1 / 2 f m
1/ 2 fm
∫ c
jβ sin( 2π f m t ) − j 2π n f m t
= fm A e e dt
−1 / 2 f m
1/ 2 fm
j [ β sin( 2π f m t )− 2π n f m t ]
= Ac f m ∫ e
−1 / 2 f m
dt .
44
Let x = 2π f m t .
1
Then, dt = dx
2π f m
π
A j [ β sin x − nx ]
and cn = c
2π ∫
−π
e dx
= Ac J n ( β ),
π
1 j [ β sin x − nx ]
where J n ( β ) ≡
2π ∫
−π
e dx is the Bessel function of the first kind of order n.
Therefore,
∞
s e (t ) = Ac ∑J
n = −∞
n ( β ) e j 2π nf m t
S FM ( f ) sFM (t )
Ac
J n ( ) cos 2 ( f c nf m )t
n
Ac J
n
n ( ) F cos 2 ( f c nf m )t
J n ( )
Ac
n
2
( f f c nf m ) ( f f c nf m )
But,
Ac2 ∞
P=
2
∑J
n = −∞
2
n (β )
2. J n ( β ) = (−1) n J −n ( β )
∞
3. ∑ n (β ) = 1
J 2
n = −∞
2
Hence, the average power of an FM tone is Ac / 2.
• J 0 (β ) ≅ 1
• J1 (β ) ≅ β / 2
• J n ( β ) ≅ 0, n≥2
Under the assumption that β is small, the Fourier series representation of the FM
waveform can be simplified to three terms.
48
Thus, for β small, the FM tone may be described by
β β
s FM ( t ) ≅ Ac cos( 2π f c t ) + cos( 2π ( f c + f m )t ) − cos( 2π ( f c − f m )t )
2 2
β β
= Ac cos( 2π f c t ) + Ac cos( 2π ( f c + f m )t ) − Ac cos( 2π ( f c − f m )t )
2 2
Ac Ac β
S FM ( f ) ≅ [δ ( f + f c ) + δ ( f − f c ) ] − [δ ( f + f c − f m ) + δ ( f − f c + f m ) ]
2 4
Aβ
+ c [δ ( f + f c + f m ) + δ ( f − f c − f m ) ]
4
49
A plot of the magnitude spectrum of the FM tone with β small is shown below
For arbitrary t = t0, and small β, we can illustrate graphically the phasor
representation and arrive at some conclusion.
50
The following figure shows an example of the phasor representation
Observation:
The resultant phasor S FM , has magnitude S FM ≅ Ac , and is out of phase with
respect to the carrier phasor Ac ∠0 .
Analytically,
1
S FM = Ac + Ac β [ cos(2π f m t ) + j sin( 2π f m t ) + cos(−2π f m t + π ) + j sin( −2π f m t + π )]
2 51
But, cos(−2π f m t + π ) = cos(2π f m t ) cos π + sin
π sin( 2π f m t )
0
= − cos(2π f m t )
= sin( 2π f m t )
Consequently, the resultant phasor is given by
S FM = Ac + jAc β sin( 2π f m t )
The magnitude of the resultant may be approximated by
S FM = Ac2 + Ac2 β 2 sin 2 (2π f m t )
1
≅ Ac 1 + β 2 sin 2 (2π f m t ),
2
52
Finally, the magnitude and phase of the resultant are found to be
β2 β2
S FM (t ) = Ac 1 + − cos(4π f m t )
4 4
∠S FM = φ S (t ) = tan −1 [ β sin( 2π f m t )]
Observation:
• For an FM tone, the spectral lines sufficiently away from the carrier may be
ignored because their contribution (amplitude) is very small.
FM Transmission Bandwidth:
For an FM tone, as β becomes large Jn(β) has significant lines only for
n ≤ β = k f Am / f m = ∆f / f m .
which means that only the first pair of spectral lines is significant, i.e., the significant
lines are contained in the range fc ± fm
A band of frequencies that keeps all spectral lines whose magnitudes are greater
than 1% of the unmodulated carrier amplitude Ac, i.e.,
BT = 2nmax f m ,
{ }
where n max = max n : J n ( β ) > 0.01 .
55
General Case:
Let an arbitrary message signal m(t) have bandwidth Wm.
Define the peak frequency deviation and the deviation ratio by
∆f =ˆ k f max{ m(t ) }
t
and D =ˆ ∆f / Wm .
56
Example: In commercial FM in the US, ∆f = 75 kHz, Wm = 15 kHz.
Therefore, the deviation ratio is D = 75 kHz/15 kHz = 5.
Using Carson’s rule, the transmission bandwidth is
BT = 2∆f (1 + 1 / D) = 180kHz,
Generation of FM
The frequency of the carrier can be varied by the modulating signal m(t) directly or
indirectly.
57
Direct generation of FM
If a very high degree of stability of the carrier frequency is not a concern, then we
can generate FM directly using circuits without external crystal oscillators. Examples
of this method are VCO’s, varactor diode modulators, reactance modulators, Crosby
modulators (modulators that use automatic frequency control), etc..
+V CC
RFC 1 R5
R2 RFC 2
C1 C2
R1 C5 +
+
L1 L2 s FM (t )
R6
m(t) R3 R2 C3 R7 C4 C6 

C7
Reactance FM modulator
58
Indirect generation of FM
Commercial applications of FM (as established by the FCC and other spectrum
governing bodies) require a high degree of stability of the carrier frequency. Such
restrictions can be satisfied by using external crystal oscillators, a narrowband
phase modulator, several stages of frequency multiplication and mixers.
t
s NB (t ) = Ac cos 2π f c t + 2π k f ∫ m(τ )dτ
0
59
with kf (and thus ∆fNB) small
Let us now consider a technique to increase the FM signal bandwidth.
Let sNB(t) be input to a nonlinear device with transfer characteristic y(t) = axn(t),
where x(t) is its input, namely.
Nonlinear device.
t
θ (t ) = 2π f c t + 2π k f ∫ m(τ )dτ
Let i , then at the output of the nonlinear device, we
0
observe
y (t ) = aAcn cos n θ i (t )
Let us expand this last equation to infer the effect of this nonlinear device.
60
cosnθi(t) can be expanded as follows:
Likewise, 1 1
cos n − 2 θ i (t ) = cos n −4 θ i (t ) + cos 2θ i (t ) cos n − 4 θ i (t )
2 2
Thus,
1 1 1
cos n θ i (t ) = cos n − 2 θ i (t ) + cos 2θ i (t ) cos n − 4 θ i (t ) + cos 2 2θ i (t ) cos n − 4 θ i (t )
2 4 4
1 1
cos θ i (t ) = cos θ i (t ) + cos 2θ i (t ) cos n − 4 θ i (t )
n n−2
2 4
1 1
+ cos n − 4 θ i (t ) + cos 4θ i (t ) cos n − 4 θ i (t )
8 8
1 1 1
= cos n − 2 θ i (t ) + cos n − 4 θ i (t ) + cos 2θ i (t ) cos n − 4 θ i (t )
2 8 4
1 1
+ cos 4θ i (t ) cos θ i (t ) + cos 2θ i (t ) cos n −6 θ i (t )
n −6
16 32
1
+ cos 6θ i (t ) cos n −6 θ i (t )
32
1
k −1
cos kθ i (t ) cos n −k
θ i (t ).
2
62
Let n be an even number, then, when k = n, the last term is
1
n −1
cos nθ i (t )
2
If, on the other hand, n is an odd number, then when k = n1, the last term is
1 1 1
n −2
[ cos(n − 1)θ i (t ) cosθ i (t )] = n −1
cos(n − 2)θ i (t ) + n −1
cos nθ i (t )
2 2 2
Therefore, the last term in the expansion of cosnθi(t) is
1
n −1
cos nθ i (t )
2
Acn
y (t ) = c0 + c1 cosθ i (t ) + c 2 cos 2θ i (t ) + + a n −1 cos nθ i (t )
2
63
Example: Consider the cases when n = 2 and n = 3.
Let n = 2, then
y (t ) = aAc2 cos 2 θ i (t )
1 + cos 2θ (t ) aA 2
aA 2
or y (t ) = aAc2 i
= c
+ c
cos 2θ i (t )
2 2 2
Let n = 3, then
1 1
y (t ) = aAc3 cos 2θ i (t ) + cos 2θ i (t ) cos θ i (t )
2 2
1 1 1 1
= aAc3 cos θ i (t ) + cos 3θ i (t ) + cos θ i (t )
2 2 2 2
3aAc3 aAc3
= cos θ i (t ) + cos 3θ i (t )
4 4
64
Finally,
t
t
y (t ) = c0 + c1 cos 2π f c t + 2π k f ∫ m(τ )dτ + c 2 cos 4π f c t + 4π k f ∫ m(τ )dτ
0 0
Acn t
+ + a n −1 cos 2π n f c t + 2π n k f ∫ m(τ )dτ
2 0
Let y(t) be input to an ideal bandpass filter with unity gain, bandwidth wide enough to
accommodate spectrum of wide band signal and center frequency nfc, i.e.,
66
Example: Noncommercial FM broadcast in the US uses the 8890 MHz band and
commercial FM broadcast uses the 90108 MHz band (divided into 200 kHz
channels). In either case ∆f = 75 kHz. Suppose we target a station with fc = 90.1
MHz. Then the indirect FM generation method suggested by Armstrong enables us
to achieve our goals.
67
Armstrong indirect method of FM generation
68
Demodulation of FM signals
Consider the following receiver architecture
Define G1(f ) ≡ H1(f )/j, then g1(t ) is the impulse response of a real bandpass
system described by G1(f ).
where g1,I(t) and g1,Q(t) are the inphase and quadrature components of g1(t).
Therefore, the complex envelope of g1(t) is described by
g~1 (t ) = g1, I (t ) + jg 1,Q (t )
G1 ( f ) H1 ( f ) / j ~
In the next figure is replaced by and G1( f ) replaced by
~
H 1 ( f ) / j.
71
~
Frequency responses of H1(f ), 1 ( f ), and H2(f )
H
72
From the previous derivation,
~ j 4π a ( f + BT / 2), f ≤ BT / 2
H1 ( f ) =
0, elsewhere
But, t
sFM ( t ) = Ac cos 2π f c t + 2π k f ∫ m( τ )dτ
0
{
= Re Ac e
j 2π k f ∫0t m ( τ )dτ
⋅ e j 2π f c t }
{
= Re ~sFM ( t ) ⋅ e j 2π f c t . }
If s1(t) is the output of the slope filter H1(f ) when the input is sFM(t) then the complex
envelope of the output is
~ 1~
s1 (t ) = h1 (t ) ∗ ~
s FM (t )
2
73
In the frequency domain,
~ 1 ~ ~
S1 ( f ) = H 1 ( f ) S FM ( f )
2
~
j 2πa( f + BT / 2) S FM ( f ), f ≤ BT / 2
=
0, elsewhere
But,
dx(t )
F = j 2π fX ( f )
dt
s1 (t ) = Re ~ {
s1 (t )e j 2π f ct }
2k f j 2π f ct + j 2π k f ∫0t m (τ ) dτ
= Re jπ aAc BT 1 + m(t ) e
BT
2k f t
= −πaAc BT 1 + m(t ) sin 2π f c t + 2π k f ∫ m(τ )dτ
BT 0
2k f t
π
= πaAc BT 1 + m(t ) cos 2π f c t + 2π k f ∫ m(τ )dτ +
BT 0
2
75
Then a distortionless envelope detector can extract m(t) plus a bias, i.e.,
2k f
s1e (t ) = πaAc BT 1 + m(t ).
BT
Finally, if
~ ~
H 2 ( f ) = H 1 (− f )
2k f
then s 2 e (t ) = π aAc BT 1 − m(t ).
BT
Moreover,
mˆ (t ) = s1e (t ) − s 2 e (t )
= 4π aAc m(t )
The cascade of a slope circuit and an envelope detector is known as a frequency
discriminator.
76
Frequency discriminator
then,
e1 (t ) = Ac cos(ω c t + φ (t )) ⋅ Av sin(ω c t + θ (t )) ⋅ k d
k d Ac Av
= [ sin[ 2ω c t + φ (t ) + θ (t )] + sin[φ (t ) − θ (t )] ]
2
78
with the proper choice of lowpass filter, the output of the phase detector is
k d Ac Av
ed (t ) = sin[φ (t ) − θ (t )]
2
A VCO is an FM modulator with peak frequency deviation
dθ (t )
∆f = max
t dt
t
dθ (t )
where
dt
= k vco mˆ (t ) ∫
implies that θ (t ) = k vco m
0
ˆ (τ )dτ .
Let the loop filter have the transfer function HLF(s) = 1, then
k d Ac Av µ
mˆ (t ) ≅ [φ (t ) − θ (t )]
2
= k t [φ (t ) − θ (t )]
80
Thus, the output of the vco is given by
t t
θ (t ) = k vco ∫ mˆ (τ )dτ = k t k vco ∫ [φ (τ ) − θ (τ )] dτ
0 0
dθ (t )
= k0 [ − θ (t ) + φ (t )]
dt
or
dθ (t )
+ k 0θ (t ) = k 0φ (t ),
dt
Clearly, Θ( s ) → Φ( s )
Example: Let the message be a step function, i.e., m(t) = Au(t), then
t
x FM (t ) = Ac cos ω c t + kω ∫ Au (τ )dτ
0
In this case, t
φ ( t ) = kω A∫ u( τ )dτ = kω A t
0
Ak ω Ak ω k 0
Θ( s ) = 2
In the sdomain, Φ ( s ) = s 2 and s (s + k 0 ) 82
The Laplace transform of m
ˆ (t ) is then given by
Akω k t 1 1 1 Akω 1 1
M ( s ) = k t [ Φ( s ) − Θ( s )] =
ˆ = Akω k 0 − = − .
s( s + k0 ) k
0 s s + k 0 k vco s s + k 0
ˆ (t ) → k1 m(t ).
Clearly, as t → ∞, the estimate m
Observation: This result is valid when the initial phase error is small.
Remark: A large loop gain k0 results in practical difficulties, hence, a different loop
filter has to be used.
k 0 H LF ( s ) s2 s2
Ψ (s) = Φ( s) − Φ(s) = 2 Φ(s) = 2 Φ( s)
s + k 0 H LF ( s ) s + k0 s + k0 a s + 2ξω n s + ω n
2
where
ωn = k0 a
2ξω n = k 0
k0 k0 1 k0
ξ= = =
2ω n 2 k 0 a 2 a