ECE 461/561

COMMUNICATIONS I
Dr. Mario Edgardo Magaña
EECS
Oregon State University
2
OBJECTIVE: The objective of a communication system is to efficiently transmit
an information-bearing signal (message) from one location to another through a
communication channel (transmission medium).
WISH LIST:
• High reliability
• Minimum signal power
• Minimum transmission bandwidth
• Low system complexity (low cost)
EFFICIENT TRANSMISSION: Can be achieved by processing the signal through
a technique called modulation.
MODULATION TYPES:
• Analog modulation
• Digital modulation
3
Amplitude modulation
In this type of modulation the amplitude of a sinusoidal carrier is varied
according to the desired message signal. Let m(t) be the message signal we
would like to transmit, k
a
be the amplitude sensitivity (modulation index), and
c(t) = A
c
cos(2πf
c
t) be the sinusoidal carrier signal, where A
c
is the amplitude of the
carrier and f
c
is the carrier frequency.
The transmitted AM signal waveform is described by
Requirements:

• , where W
m
is the message bandwidth
[ ] ) 2 cos( ) ( 1 ) ( t f t m k A t s
c a c AM
π + ·
t t m k
a
∀ < , 1 ) (
m c
W f >>
4
Taking the Fourier transform of the modulated waveform, we get
Let |M(f)| be described by
Magnitude spectrum of m(t)
{ ¦
{ ¦
[ ] [ ] ) ( ) (
2
) ( ) (
2
) 2 cos( ) ( ) 2 cos(
) ( ) (
c c
c a
c c
c
c a c c c
AM AM
f f M f f M
A k
f f f f
A
t f t m k A t f A F
t s F f S
+ + − + + + − ·
+ ·
·
δ δ
π π
5
Then the magnitude spectrum of s
AM
(t) is
Magnitude spectrum of s
AM
(t)
Observations:
11.
12. Carrier is transmitted explicitly
m AM
W B 2 ·
6
Let , then

) 2 . 0 cos( ) ( t t m π ·
[ ] ) 2 cos( ) 2 . 0 cos( 1 ) ( t f t k A t s
c a c AM
π π + ·
7
8
To conserve transmitted power, let us suppress the carrier, i.e., let the
transmitted waveform be described by
This is called double side-band suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) modulation.
). 2 cos( ) ( ) ( t f t m A t s
c c DSB
π ·
9
In the frequency domain,
The modulated waveform now has the following spectral characteristics:
Magnitude spectrum of s
DSB
(t)
{ ¦
( ) { ¦
( ) ( ) [ ]
c c
c
c c
DSB
f f M f f M
A
t f t m A F
t s F f S
+ + − ·
·
·
2
2 cos ) (
) ( ) (
π
10
Observations:
2. (same as standard AM)
3. Transmitted power is less than standard AM
Example: Let a sinc pulse be transmitted using DSB-SC modulation.
m DSB
W B 2 ·
11
12
Receivers for AM and DSB
Receivers can be classified into coherent and non-coherent categories.
Definition: If a receiver requires knowledge of the carrier frequency and phase to
extract the message signal, then it is called coherent.
Definition: If a receiver does not require knowledge of the phase (only rough
knowledge of the carrier frequency) to extract the message signal, then it is
called non-coherent.
Non-coherent demodulator (receiver) for standard AM
Peak envelope detector (demodulator)
) ( ˆ t m ) (t S
AM
R
C
+
- -
+
D
13
Observations:
• The net effect of the diode is the multiplication (mixing) of the signals applied
to its input. Therefore, its output will contain the original input frequencies, their
harmonics and their cross products.
• The network is a lowpass filter with a single pole (lossy integrator) that
removes most of the high frequencies. R and C have to be judiciously picked
so that τ = RC is neither too short (rectifier distortion ) nor too long (diagonal
clipping ). Rule of thumb is τ ≅ period of the carrier.
• A rule of thumb for choosing τ is based on the highest modulating signal
(message) frequency that can be demodulated by a peak envelope detector
without attenuation, that is,
where is the maximum modulating signal (message) frequency in Hz.
( )
1 ,
2
1 / 1
(max)
2
<

·
a
m
a
k
f
k
π
τ
(max) m
f
14
Let the message signal be described by the sinusoidal tone .
Then, the following figures show the types of distortion that can occur when τ is
improperly chosen.
( ) t f t m
m
π 2 cos ) ( ·
15
Illustration of rectifier distortion and diagonal clipping
16
Coherent demodulator for DSB-SC
At the output of the mixer,
and
( )
( ) ( )
( ) [ ] φ φ π
π φ π
φ π
cos 4 cos ) (
2
ˆ
2 cos ) ( 2 cos
ˆ
) ( 2 cos
ˆ
) (
+ + ·
⋅ + ·
+ ·
t f t m
A A
t f t m A t f A
t s t f A t v
c
c c
c c c c
DSB c c
( ) { ¦
( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) φ cos
2
ˆ
2 2
4
ˆ
) (
f M
A A
f f M f f M
A A
t v F f V
c c
c c
c c
+ + + − ·
·
17
Let the message signal have the following magnitude spectrum
Then, if f
c
>W
m
,
18
Suppose is such that
Then, if ,
( ) f H
lpf
m c m
W f B W − < ≤ 2
( ) ( ) φ cos
2
ˆ
ˆ
f M
A A
f M
c c
·
19
Coherent Costas loop receiver for DSB-SC :
20
I-channel:
After downconverwsion,
At the output of the lowpass filter, with |H(0)| = 1,
Q-channel:
( ) ( )
( ) [ ] φ φ ω
φ ω ω
cos 2 cos ) (
2
cos cos ) ( ) (
+ + ·
+ ⋅ ·
t t m
A
t t t m A t v
c
c
c c c I
) ( cos
2
) ( t m
A
t m
c
I
⋅ · φ
( ) [ ] φ φ ω sin 2 sin ) (
2
) ( + + · t t m
A
t v
c
c
Q
) ( sin
2
) ( t m
A
t m
c
Q
⋅ · φ
21
Feedback path:
At the output of the multiplier,
At the output of the lowpass filter,
The purpose of h
f
(t) is to smooth out fast time variations of m
e
(t)
The output of the VCO is described by
φ
φ φ
2 sin ) (
8
cos sin ) (
4
) (
2
2
2
2
t m
A
t m
A
t m
c
c
e
·
·


∞ −
− · τ τ τ d t h m t m
f e ef
) ( ) ( ) (
( )
( ) cos ( )
VCO c
x t t t u o · +
22
Where ω
c
is the VCO’s reference frequency and is the
residual phase angle due to the tracking error. The constant k
v
is the frequency
sensitivity of the VCO in rad/s/volt
The instantaneous frequency in radians/sec of the VCO’s output is given by
Clearly, if φ(t) were small, then the instantaneous frequency would be close to ω
c

and the output of the I-path would also be proportional to m(t).
Single-Sideband Modulation
Motivation: Bandwidth occupancy can be minimized by transmitting either the
lower or the upper sideband of the message signal.
, ) ( ) (
0

·
t
ef v
d m k t τ τ φ
[ ]
), (
) (
t m k
dt
t t d
ef v c
c
+ ·
+
ω
φ ω
23
Consider the following transmitter
Suppose we want to transmit the upper sideband, then the following choice of
bandpass filter yields the correct result
24
At the output of the bandpass filter,
Observation: A practical bandpass filter will cause severe distortion.
Suppose the original message signal contains a gap in its magnitude spectrum
around the origin, i.e.,
25
Then, SSB demodulation can be obtained by
Synthesis and analysis of SSB:
Let the spectrum of a DSB-SC signal be given by
26
Let this DSB-SC signal be the input of a lowpass filter with magnitude response
Then the resulting (output) signal would have the spectrum
27
The filter can be represented by the algebraic sum
Also,
) ( f H
L
( ) ( ) [ ]
c c L
f f f f f H − − + · sgn sgn
2
1
) (
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
c c c c
c
c c
c
c c c c
c
c c c c
c
c c
c
L
DSB L
L
SSB
f f f f M f f f f M
A
f f M f f M
A
f f f f M f f f f M
A
f f f f M f f f f M
A
f f M f f M
A
f H
f S f H t S
− − − + + +
− + + ·
− − + − + −
+ − + + + ·
− + + ⋅ ·
⋅ ·
sgn sgn
4
4
sgn sgn
4
sgn sgn
4
2
) (
28
To shed more light on the last equation, let us introduce the concept of the
Hilbert transform.
Definition
A Hilbert transform filter is a filter that simply phase shifts all frequency
components by π/2 radians, i.e., its transfer function is described by
where the signum function is defined by
Observations:


( ) ( ) f j f H sgn − ·
( )
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
< −
·
>
·
0 , 1
0 , 0
0 , 1
sgn
f
f
f
f
( ) 1 · f H
( ) ( )
¹
'
¹
<
> −
·
0 , 2 /
0 , 2 /
arg
f
f
f H
π
π
29
In the time domain, the impulse response of the filter is given by
Therefore, the Hilbert transform of a function g(t) can be interpreted as the
convolution of the impulse response of the filter h(t) and g(t), i.e.,
In the frequency domain,
Therefore,
Using the exponential modulation theorem,
t
t h
π
1
) ( ·


∞ −

·
∗ ·
τ
τ
τ
π
d
t
g
t g t h t g
) ( 1
) ( ) ( ) (
~
( ) ( ) ( ) f G f j f G sgn
~
− ·
( ) ( ) f G f j t g
F
sgn ) (
~
− ⇔
( ) ( )
c c
F
t f j
f f f f jG e t g
c
  sgn ) (
~
2
− ⇔
t π
30
In the time domain, we can synthesize lower SSB mathematically as follows:
where is the Hilbert transform of m(t)
Likewise, the upper SSB signal is described by
( ) { ¦
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
( ) ( ) t f t m A t f t m A
e t m A
j
e t m A
j
t f t m A
f f f f M f f f f M A F
f f M f f M A F
f S F t s
c c c c
t f j
c
t f j
c c c
c c c c c
c c c
L
SSB
L
SSB
c c
π π
π
π π
2 sin ) (
~
2
1
2 cos ) (
2
1
) (
~
4
1
) (
~
4
1
2 cos ) (
2
1
sgn sgn
4
1
4
1
) (
2 2
1
1
1
+ ·



+ ·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
− − − + + +
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
− + + ·
·




) (
~
t m
( ) ( ) t f t m A t f t m A t s
c c c c
U
SSB
π π 2 sin ) (
~
2
1
2 cos ) (
2
1
) ( − ·
31
A widely used form of SSB is vestigial sideband, which is used in TV broadcasts.
SSB is a special case of VSB, since the filter that is used to obtain SSB is a
limiting case of the filter used to generate VSB.
Generation of VSB
Instead of the ideal filter used in SSB, let us use the following filter:
can be analytically described by
( ) f H
L
VSB
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
c Q c Q
L
VSB
f f H f f H j f H − − + − ·
32
The transfer function has the following characteristics:
Observations about :
• Odd symmetry about the origin
• Linear phase
Mathematically,
and
The ‘+’ sign means that a vestige of the upper sideband is transmitted and a ‘-’
sign means that a vestige of the lower sideband is transmitted.
( ) f H
Q
( ) f H
Q
( ) ( ) t f t m A t f t m A t s
c c c c
L
VSB
π π 2 sin ) (
2
1
2 cos ) (
2
1
) (

+ ·
( ) ( ) t f t m A t f t m A t s
c c c c
U
VSB
π π 2 sin ) (
2
1
2 cos ) (
2
1
) (

− ·
33
Example: Now, if the magnitude spectrum of the DSB signal is as described
before, then the magnitude spectrum of is
Vestigial sideband magnitude spectrum (upper sideband vestige).
) (t s
L
VSB
34
To help in the demodulation process, let us insert a pilot signal to the VSB signal
or
where
Therefore, the complex envelope of this pilot aided VSB signal is
( ) ( ) ( ) t f A t f t m A t f t m A k t s
c c c c c c a
P
VSB
π π π 2 cos 2 sin ) (
2
1
2 cos ) (
2
1
) ( +
]
]
]


t ·
( ) ( ), 2 sin ) (
2
1
2 cos ) (
2
1
1 ) ( t f t m A k t f t m k A t s
c c a c a c
P
VSB
π π

t
]
]
]

+ ·
( ) ( ) t f t m t f t m t s
c Q c I
P
VSB
π π 2 sin ) ( 2 cos ) ( ) ( − ·
) (
2
1
) (
) (
2
1
1 ) (
t m A k t m
t m k A t m
c a Q
a c I
′ ·
]
]
]

+ ·

, ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
~ ) (t j
Q I
P
VSB
e t a t jm t m t s
φ
· + ·
35
where the real envelope a(t) is described by
and its phase is
If we use an envelope detector to demodulate the pilot-aided VSB, its output
would be
2 / 1
2
2
2
2
2 2
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
1
) ( ) ( ) (
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
]
]
]


+
]
]
]

+ ·
+ ·
t m k A t m k A
t m t m t a
a c a c
Q I
]
]
]

·

) (
) (
tan ) (
1
t m
t m
t
I
Q
φ
1/ 2
2 2
1/ 2
2
1 1
( ) 1 ( ) ( )
2 2
1
( )
1
2
1 ( ) 1
1
2
1 ( )
2
c a a
a
c a
a
a t A k m t k m t
k m t
A k m t
k m t
¹ ¹
] ] ¹ ¹
´ · + +
' '
] ]
] ]
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
]
´
¹ ¹
]
] ¹ ¹
· + +
] ' '
]
]
] ¹ ¹
+
]
¹ ¹ ]
¹ ¹
36
Clearly, if m´(t) is small, then we can extract the message signal m(t) by using
a DC blocking capacitor.
In practice, is minimized by increasing the width of the vestigial
sideband.
Angle Modulation
Let θ
i
(t) be the instantaneous angle of a modulated sinusoidal carrier, i.e.,
where A
c
is the constant amplitude.
The instantaneous frequency is
Observation: The signal s(t) can be thought of as a rotating phasor of length A
c

and angle θ
i
(t).
) (t m′
), ( cos ) ( t A t s
i c
θ ·
.
) (
) (
dt
t d
t
i
i
θ
ω ·
37
If s(t) were an unmodulated carrier signal, then the instantaneous angle would be
where ω
c
≡ Constant angular velocity in rad/s
φ
c
≡ Constant but arbitrary phase angle in radians
Let θ
i
(t) be varied linearly with the message signal m(t) and φ = 0, then
where k
p
≡ Phase sensitivity of the modulator in rad/volt
In this case we say that the carrier has been phase modulated.
The phase modulated waveform is given by
Let the instantaneous frequency ω
i
(t) be varied linearly with the message signal
m(t), i.e.,
c c i
t t φ ω θ + · ) (
), ( ) ( t m k t t
p c i
+ · ω θ
)) ( cos( ) ( t m k t A t s
p c c PM
+ · ω
) ( ) ( t m k t
c i ω
ω ω + ·
38
where k
ω
≡ Frequency sensitivity of the modulator in rad/s/volt
In this case we say that the carrier has been frequency modulated and the
instantaneous angle is obtained by integrating the instantaneous frequency, i.e.,
The modulated waveform is therefore described by
Observation: Both phase and frequency modulation are related to each other and
one can be obtained from the other. Hence, we could deduce the properties of one
of the two modulation schemes once we know the properties of the other.
[ ]
∫ ∫ ∫
+ · + · ·
t
c
t
c
t
i i
d m k t d m k d t
0 0 0
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( τ τ ω τ τ ω τ τ ω θ
ω ω

,
`

.
|
+ ·

t
c c FM
d m k t A t s
0
) ( cos ) ( τ τ ω
ω
39
FM modulation
40
PM modulation
41
The figure below shows a comparison between AM, FM and PM modulation of the
same message waveform:
42
Frequency Modulation
Consider the frequency modulation of a message signal (frequency tone)
The instantaneous frequency (in Hz) of the FM signal is
Define the maximum frequency deviation as
The instantaneous phase angle of the FM signal is
), 2 cos( ) ( t f A t m
m m
π ·
). 2 cos( ) ( t f A k f t f
m m f c i
π + ·
.
m f
A k f · ∆
) 2 sin( 2
) 2 sin( 2
) ( 2 ) (
0
t f t f
t f
f
A
k t f
d f t
m c
m
m
m
f c
t
i i
π β π
π π
τ τ π θ
+ ·
+ ·
·

43
where is known as the FM modulation index (for a tone) or the
maximum phase deviation (in rad) produced by the tone in question
The FM modulated tone is therefore given by:
The signal s
FM
(t) is nonperiodic unless f
c
= nf
m
, where n is a positive integer.
For the general case,
where the complex envelope of the FM signal is described by
Observation: Unlike s
FM
(t), s
e
(t) is periodic with period 1/f
m
.
, /
m m f
f A k · β
( )
( ) cos 2 sin(2 )
cos(2 ) cos( sin(2 )) sin(2 ) sin( sin(2 )) .
FM c c m
c c m c m
s t A f t f t
A f t f t f t f t
r þ r
r þ r r þ r
· +
· ]
]
[ ]
{ ¦
{ ¦, ) ( Re
Re ) (
2
) 2 sin( 2
t f j
e
t f t f j
c FM
c
m c
e t s
e A t s
π
π β π
·
·
+
) 2 sin(
) (
t f j
c e
m
e A t s
π β
·
44
Since s
e
(t) meets the Dirichlet conditions, we can compute its Fourier series, i.e.,
where the Fourier series coefficients are given by
, ) (
2 t f n j
n
n e
m
e c t s
π


−∞ ·
·
[ ]
. dt e f A
dt e e A f
dt e ) t ( s f
f / T , dt e ) t ( s
T
c
m
m
m m
m
m
m m
m
m
m
m
f /
f /
t f n ) t f sin( j
m c
f /
f /
t f n j ) t f sin( j
c m
f /
f /
t f n j
e m
m
/ T
/ T
t f n j
e n












·
·
·
· ·
2 1
2 1
2 2
2 1
2 1
2 2
2 1
2 1
2
2
2
2
1
1
π π β
π π β
π
π
45
Let
Then,
and
where is the Bessel function of the first kind of order n.
Therefore,
and the FM tone waveform is described by
. t f x
m
π 2 ·
dx
f
dt
m
π 2
1
·
[ ]
), ( J A
dx e
A
c
n c
nx x sin j
c
n
β
π
π
π
β
·
·



2
[ ]




π
π
β
π
β dx e ) ( J
nx x sin j
n
2
1


−∞ ·
·
n
t nf j
n c e
m
e J A t s
π
β
2
) ( ) (
[ ]. ) ( 2 cos ) ( ) (


−∞ ·
+ ·
n
m c n c FM
t nf f J A t s π β
46
In the frequency domain,
Average power of the FM waveform:
The power delivered to a 1 ohm resistor load by the FM waveform is
But,
is also the power of the FM waveform.
{ ¦
( ) ( )
( ) cos 2 ( )
( ) cos 2 ( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
FM FM
c n c m
n
c n c m
n
n
c c m c m
n
S f s t
A J f nf t
A J F f nf t
J
A f f nf f f nf
þ r
þ r
þ
ô ô
×
·×
×
·×
×
·×
· 3
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
· 3 + ]
' '
]
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
] · + ]
]
]
· + + + ]
]
¿
¿
¿
2 /
2
c
A P ·


−∞ ·
·
n
n
c
J
A
P ) (
2
2
2
β
47
48
Let us now take a look at the properties of the Bessel function.
2.
3.
Hence, the average power of an FM tone is
Suppose β is small, i.e., 0 < β ≤ 0.3, then



Under the assumption that β is small, the Fourier series representation of the FM
waveform can be simplified to three terms.
) ( ) 1 ( ) ( β β
n
n
n
J J

− ·
1 ) (
2
·


−∞ · n
n
J β
. 2 /
2
c
A
1 ) (
0
≅ β J
2 / ) (
1
β β ≅ J
2 , 0 ) ( ≥ ≅ n J
n
β
49
Thus, for β small, the FM tone may be described by
In the frequency domain,
) t ) f f ( cos( A ) t ) f f ( cos( A ) t f cos( A
) t ) f f ( cos( ) t ) f f ( cos( ) t f cos( A ) t ( s
m c c m c c c c
m c m c c c FM
− − + + ·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
− − + + ≅
π
β
π
β
π
π
β
π
β
π
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) [ ]
m c m c
c
m c m c
c
c c
c
FM
f f f f f f
A
f f f f f f
A
f f f f
A
f S
− − + + + +
+ − + − + − − + + ≅
δ δ
β
δ δ
β
δ δ
4
4 2
) (
50
A plot of the magnitude spectrum of the FM tone with β small is shown below
The time domain FM waveform can be represented in phasor form as follows:
For arbitrary t = t
0
, and small β, we can illustrate graphically the phasor
representation and arrive at some conclusion.
π π β π β + − ∠ + ∠ + ∠ · t f A t f A A S
m c m c c FM
2
2
1
2
2
1
0


51
The following figure shows an example of the phasor representation
Observation:
The resultant phasor , has magnitude and is out of phase with
respect to the carrier phasor
Analytically,
FM
S

,
c FM
A S ≅

. 0


c
A
[ ] ) 2 sin( ) 2 cos( ) 2 sin( ) 2 cos(
2
1
π π π π π π β + − + + − + + + · t f j t f t f j t f A A S
m m m m c c FM

52
But,
and
Consequently, the resultant phasor is given by
The magnitude of the resultant may be approximated by
since

) 2 cos(
) 2 sin( sin cos ) 2 cos( ) 2 cos(
0
t f
t f t f t f
m
m m m
π
π π π π π π
− ·
+ · + −

) 2 sin(
) 2 cos( sin cos ) 2 sin( ) 2 sin(
0
t f
t f t f t f
m
m m m
π
π π π π π π
·
+ − · + −
) 2 sin( t f jA A S
m c c FM
π β + ·

, ) 2 ( sin
2
1
1
) 2 ( sin
2 2
2 2 2 2
]
]
]

+ ≅
+ ·
t f A
t f A A S
m c
m c c FM
π β
π β

1 , 1 ) 1 ( < + ≅ + nx nx x
n
53
Finally, the magnitude and phase of the resultant are found to be
Observation:
• For an FM tone, the spectral lines sufficiently away from the carrier may be
ignored because their contribution (amplitude) is very small.
FM Transmission Bandwidth:
For an FM tone, as β becomes large J
n
(β) has significant lines only for
∴All significant lines are contained in the frequency range
where ∆f is the peak frequency deviation.
]
]
]

− + · ) 4 cos(
4 4
1 ) (
2 2
t f A t S
m c FM
π
β β

[ ] ) 2 sin( tan ) (
1
t f t S
m
S
FM
π β φ

· · ∠


. / /
m m m f
f f f A k n ∆ · · ≤ β
, f f f f
c m c
∆ t · t β
54
Let β be small, i.e., 0 < β ≤ 0.3, then
which means that only the first pair of spectral lines is significant, i.e., the significant
lines are contained in the range f
c
± f
m

Observation: The previous analysis of an FM tone suggests that
• For large β the FM bandwidth is
• For small the FM bandwidth is
In general, the FM transmission bandwidth may be approximated by
This is known as the Carson’s rule.
Observation: Carson’s rule underestimates the transmission bandwidth by about
10%.
0 ), ( ) (
0
≠ >> n J J
n
β β
f B
FM
∆ · 2
. 2
m FM
f B ·
) / 1 1 ( 2
) / 1 ( 2
2 2
β + ∆ ·
∆ + ∆ ·
+ ∆ ≅
f
f f f
f f B
m
m T
55
Alternative definition of FM tone transmission bandwidth:
A band of frequencies that keeps all spectral lines whose magnitudes are greater
than 1% of the unmodulated carrier amplitude A
c
, i.e.,
where
, 2
max m T
f n B ·
{ ¦. 01 . 0 ) ( : max
max
> · β
n
J n n
56
General Case:
Let an arbitrary message signal m(t) have bandwidth W
m
.
Define the peak frequency deviation and the deviation ratio by
and
Then Carson’s rule can be used to define the transmission bandwidth of an
arbitrary FM signal, i.e., when m(t) is arbitrary.
Specifically, the FM transmission bandwidth can be defined by
) / 1 1 ( 2
) / 1 ( 2
2 2
D f
f W f
W f B
m
m T
+ ∆ ·
∆ + ∆ ·
+ ∆ ≅
{ ¦ ) ( max ˆ t m k f
t
f
· ∆
. / ˆ
m
W f D ∆ ·
57
Example: In commercial FM in the US, ∆f = 75 kHz, W
m
= 15 kHz.
Therefore, the deviation ratio is D = 75 kHz/15 kHz = 5.
Using Carson’s rule, the transmission bandwidth is
Using the Universal curve, the transmission bandwidth is
In practice, FM radio in the US uses a transmission bandwidth of B
T
= 200 kHz.
Generation of FM
The frequency of the carrier can be varied by the modulating signal m(t) directly or
indirectly.

, 180 ) / 1 1 ( 2 kHz D f B
T
· + ∆ ·
. kHz f . B
T
240 2 3 · ∆ ·
58
Direct generation of FM
If a very high degree of stability of the carrier frequency is not a concern, then we
can generate FM directly using circuits without external crystal oscillators. Examples
of this method are VCO’s, varactor diode modulators, reactance modulators, Crosby
modulators (modulators that use automatic frequency control), etc..
Reactance FM modulator
m(t)
+
-
R2
R1
R3
C1
RFC1
C2
R2
C3
R6
R5
RFC2
R7 C4
C7
C6
C5
L1 L2
+
-
+VCC
) (t s
FM
59
Indirect generation of FM
Commercial applications of FM (as established by the FCC and other spectrum
governing bodies) require a high degree of stability of the carrier frequency. Such
restrictions can be satisfied by using external crystal oscillators, a narrowband
phase modulator, several stages of frequency multiplication and mixers.
Let us begin with the synthesis of narrow-band FM.
Narrowband frequency modulator
The narrow band FM signal is given by
]
]
]

+ ·

t
f c c NB
d m k t f A t s
0
) ( 2 2 cos ) ( τ τ π π
60
with k
f
(and thus ∆f
NB
) small
Let us now consider a technique to increase the FM signal bandwidth.
Let s
NB
(t) be input to a nonlinear device with transfer characteristic y(t) = ax
n
(t),
where x(t) is its input, namely.
Nonlinear device.
Let , then at the output of the nonlinear device, we
observe
Let us expand this last equation to infer the effect of this nonlinear device.

+ ·
t
f c i
d m k t f t
0
) ( 2 2 ) ( τ τ π π θ
) ( cos ) ( t aA t y
i
n n
c
θ ·
61
cos
n
θ
i
(t) can be expanded as follows:
Likewise,
Thus,
Expanding the last term of the previous equality, we get
[ ]
) ( cos ) ( 2 cos
2
1
) ( cos
2
1
) ( cos ) ( 2 cos 1
2
1
) ( cos ) ( cos ) ( cos
2 2
2
2 2
t t t
t t
t t t
i
n
i i
n
i
n
i
i
n
i i
n
θ θ θ
θ θ
θ θ θ
− −


+ ·
+ ·
·
) ( cos ) ( 2 cos
2
1
) ( cos
2
1
) ( cos
4 4 2
t t t t
i
n
i i
n
i
n
θ θ θ θ
− − −
+ ·
) ( cos ) ( 2 cos
4
1
) ( cos ) ( 2 cos
4
1
) ( cos
2
1
) ( cos
4 2 4 2
t t t t t t
i
n
i i
n
i i
n
i
n
θ θ θ θ θ θ
− − −
+ + ·
[ ] ). ( cos ) ( 4 cos 1
4
1
) ( cos ) ( 2 cos
4 4 2
t t t t
i
n
i i
n
i
θ θ θ θ
− −
+ ·
62
Rewriting the equation before the last one, we get
The last term in the expansion of cos
n
θ
i
(t) is given by
) ( cos ) ( 6 cos
32
1
) ( cos ) ( 2 cos
32
1
) ( cos ) ( 4 cos
16
1
) ( cos ) ( 2 cos
4
1
) ( cos
8
1
) ( cos
2
1
) ( cos ) ( 4 cos
8
1
) ( cos
8
1
) ( cos ) ( 2 cos
4
1
) ( cos
2
1
) ( cos
6
6 6
4 4 2
4 4
4 2
t t
t t t t
t t t t
t t t
t t t t
i
n
i
i
n
i i
n
i
i
n
i i
n
i
n
i
n
i i
n
i
n
i i
n
i
n
θ θ
θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ
θ θ θ θ

− −
− − −
− −
− −
+
+ +
+ + ·
+ +
+ ·
). ( cos ) ( cos
2
1
1
t t k
i
k n
i
k
θ θ


63
Let n be an even number, then, when k = n, the last term is
If, on the other hand, n is an odd number, then when k = n-1, the last term is
Therefore, the last term in the expansion of cos
n
θ
i
(t) is
So, can be expanded as
) ( cos
2
1
1
t n
i
n
θ

[ ] ) ( cos
2
1
) ( ) 2 cos(
2
1
) ( cos ) ( ) 1 cos(
2
1
1 1 2
t n t n t t n
i
n
i
n
i i
n
θ θ θ θ
− − −
+ − · −
) ( cos
2
1
1
t n
i
n
θ

) ( cos
2
) ( 2 cos ) ( cos ) (
1
2 1 0
t n
A
a t c t c c t y
i
n
n
c
i i
θ θ θ

+ + + + · 
64
Example: Consider the cases when n = 2 and n = 3.
Let n = 2, then
or
Let n = 3, then
) ( cos ) (
2 2
t aA t y
i c
θ ·
) ( 2 cos
2 2 2
) ( 2 cos 1
) (
2 2
2
t
aA aA t
aA t y
i
c c i
c
θ
θ
+ ·
]
]
]

+
·
) ( 3 cos
4
) ( cos
4
3
) ( cos
2
1
) ( 3 cos
2
1
2
1
) ( cos
2
1
) ( cos ) ( 2 cos
2
1
) ( 2 cos
2
1
) (
3 3
3
3
t
aA
t
aA
t t t aA
t t t aA t y
i
c
i
c
i i i c
i i i c
θ θ
θ θ θ
θ θ θ
+ ·
]
]
]

¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
+ + ·
]
]
]

+ ·
65
Finally,
Let y(t) be input to an ideal bandpass filter with unity gain, bandwidth wide enough to
accommodate spectrum of wide band signal and center frequency nf
c
, i.e.,
Ideal bandpass filter
Then,

,
`

.
|
+ + +

,
`

.
|
+ +

,
`

.
|
+ + ·

∫ ∫

t
f c
n
n
c
t
f c
t
f c
d m k n t f n
A
a
d m k t f c d m k t f c c t y
0
1
0
2
0
1 0
) ( 2 2 cos
2
) ( 4 4 cos ) ( 2 2 cos ) (
τ τ π π
τ τ π π τ τ π π

,
`

.
|
+ ·
∫ −
t
f c
n
n
c
WB
d m k n t f n
aA
t s
0
1
) ( 2 2 cos
2
) ( τ τ π π
66
The instantaneous frequency of s
WB
(t) is
Observations about s
WB
(t) :
1. The carrier frequency is nf
c
2. The peak frequency deviation is n∆f
NB
These are the desired properties of the WB FM signal.
The overall frequency multiplier device is shown below:
Complete frequency multiplier
) ( ) ( t m nk nf t f
f c i
+ ·
67
Example: Noncommercial FM broadcast in the US uses the 88-90 MHz band and
commercial FM broadcast uses the 90-108 MHz band (divided into 200 kHz
channels). In either case ∆f = 75 kHz. Suppose we target a station with f
c
= 90.1
MHz. Then the indirect FM generation method suggested by Armstrong enables us
to achieve our goals.
68
Armstrong indirect method of FM generation
69
Demodulation of FM signals
Consider the following receiver architecture
Frequency discriminator implementation of an FM demodulator
The slope circuit is characterized by a purely imaginary transfer function
Let H
1
(f ) be described by
. 2 , 1 ), ( · i s H
i
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
+ − ≤ ≤ − − − +
+ ≤ ≤ − + −
·
elsewhere , 0
2 / 2 / ), 2 / ( 2
2 / 2 / ), 2 / ( 2
) (
1 T c T c T c
T c T c T c
B f f B f B f f a j
B f f B f B f f a j
f H π
π
70
where a > 0 is a constant that determines the slope of H
1
(s ).
Define G
1
(f ) ≡ H
1
(f )/j, then g
1
(t ) is the impulse response of a real bandpass
system described by G
1
(f ).
In the time domain,
where g
1,I
(t) and g
1,Q
(t) are the in-phase and quadrature components of g
1
(t).
Therefore, the complex envelope of g
1
(t) is described by
which implies that
Using this information, we get
) 2 cos( ) ( ) 2 cos( ) ( ) (
, 1 , 1 1
t f t g t f t g t g
c Q c I
π π − ·
) ( ) ( ) (
~
, 1 , 1 1
t jg t g t g
Q I
+ ·
{ ¦
t f j
c
e t g t g
π 2
1 1
) (
~
Re ) ( ·
( ) ( )
) ( 2
) 2 sin( ) ( 2 ) 2 cos( ) ( 2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
~
) (
~
1
, 1 , 1
2
, 1 , 1
2
, 1 , 1
2
1
2
1
t g
t f t g t f t g
e t jg t g e t jg t g e t g e t g
c Q c I
t f j
Q I
t f j
Q I
t f j t f j
c c c c
·
− ·
− + + · +
− − ∗
π π
π π π π
71
But,
or
which implies that has a lowpass frequency response limited to
and that
Observations: can be obtained by taking the part of G
1
(f) that corresponds
to positive frequencies, shifting it to the origin and then scaling it by a factor of 2.
In the next figure is replaced by and replaced by
{ ¦ { ¦
t f j t f j
c c
e t g e t g F t g F
π π 2
1
2
1 1
) (
~
) (
~
) ( 2
− ∗
+ ·
)) ( (
~
) (
~
) ( 2
1 1 1 c c
f f G f f G f G + − + − ·

) (
~
1
f G
2 /
T
B f ≤
. 0 ), ( ) (
~
1 1
> · − f f G f f G
c
) (
~
1
f G
) (
1
f G j f H / ) (
1
) (
~
1
f G
. / ) (
~
1
j f H
72
Frequency responses of H
1
(f ), and H
2
(f )
), (
~
1
f H
73
From the previous derivation,
But,
If s
1
(t) is the output of the slope filter H
1
(f ) when the input is s
FM
(t) then the complex
envelope of the output is
¹
'
¹ ≤ +
·
elsewhere , 0
2 / ), 2 / ( 4
) (
~
1
T T
B f B f a j
f H
π
{ ¦
{ ¦. ) (
~
Re
Re
) ( cos ) (
) (
t f j
FM
t f j
d m k j
c
t
f c c FM
c
c
t
f
e t s
e e A
d m k t f A t s
π
π
τ τ π
τ τ π π
2
2
2
0
0
2 2
⋅ ·
⋅ ·

,
`

.
|
+ ·


) (
~
) (
~
2
1
) (
~
1 1
t s t h t s
FM
∗ ·
74
In the frequency domain,
But,
which implies that
¹
'
¹
≤ +
·
·
elsewhere
B f f S B f a j
f S f H f S
T FM T
FM
, 0
2 / ), (
~
) 2 / ( 2
) (
~
) (
~
2
1
) (
~
1 1
π
) ( 2
) (
f fX j
dt
t dx
F π ·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

∫ ∫
]
]
]

+ ·
+ ·
+ ·
t
f
t
f
t
f
d m k j
T
f
T c
d m k j
T c
d m k j
f c
FM T
FM
e t m
B
k
B aA j
e B aA e t m k aA j
t s B ja
dt
t s d
a t s
0
0 0
) ( 2
) ( 2 ) ( 2
1
) (
2
1
2 ) ( 2
) (
~
) (
~
) (
~
τ τ π
τ τ π τ τ π
π
π π
π
75
Therefore,
Observation: s
1
(t ) contains both AM and FM.
However, if
{ ¦

,
`

.
|
+ +
]
]
]

+ ·

,
`

.
|
+
]
]
]

+ − ·
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
]
]
]

+ ·
·



+
2
) ( 2 2 cos ) (
2
1
) ( 2 2 sin ) (
2
1
) (
2
1 Re
) (
~
Re ) (
0
0
) ( 2 2
2
1 1
0
π
τ τ π π π
τ τ π π π
π
τ τ π π
π
t
f c
T
f
T c
t
f c
T
f
T c
d m k j t f j
T
f
T c
t f j
d m k t f t m
B
k
B aA
d m k t f t m
B
k
B aA
e t m
B
k
B aA j
e t s t s
t
f c
c
t t m
B
k
T
f
∀ < , 1 ) ( 2
76
Then a distortionless envelope detector can extract m(t) plus a bias, i.e.,
Finally, if
then
Moreover,
The cascade of a slope circuit and an envelope detector is known as a frequency
discriminator.
. ) (
2
1 ) (
1 ]
]
]

+ · t m
B
k
B aA t s
T
f
T c e
π
) (
~
) (
~
1 2
f H f H − ·
. ) (
2
1 ) (
2 ]
]
]

− · t m
B
k
B aA t s
T
f
T c e
π
) ( 4
) ( ) ( ) ( ˆ
2 1
t m aA
t s t s t m
c
e e
π ·
− ·
77
Frequency discriminator
FM demodulation via phase-locked loops
We consider the Phase-locked loop (PLL) FM detector shown below
Phase-locked loop FM detector
78
From the previous block diagram,
Let the phase detector be described by
then,
)) ( sin( ) (
)) ( cos( ) (
0
t t A t e
t t A t x
c v
c c r
θ ω
φ ω
+ ·
+ ·
[ ] [ ] [ ] ) ( ) ( sin ) ( ) ( 2 sin
2
)) ( sin( )) ( cos( ) (
1
t t t t t
A A k
k t t A t t A t e
c
v c d
d c v c c
θ φ θ φ ω
θ ω φ ω
− + + + ·
⋅ + ⋅ + ·
79
with the proper choice of lowpass filter, the output of the phase detector is
A VCO is an FM modulator with peak frequency deviation
where implies that
An equivalent nonlinear model is now shown
Nonlinear model of PLL FM demodulator
[ ] ) ( ) ( sin
2
) ( t t
A A k
t e
v c d
d
θ φ − ·
dt
t d
f
t
) (
max
θ
· ∆
) ( ˆ
) (
t m k
dt
t d
vco
·
θ
. ) ( ˆ ) (
0

·
t
vco
d m k t τ τ θ
80
Let the PLL operate in the lock condition, i.e., , or that
is small. Then,
and the linear approximation of the PLL is given by
Linear model of the phase-locked loop
Let the loop filter have the transfer function H
LF
(s) = 1, then
) ( ) ( t t φ θ ≅
) ( ) ( t t φ θ −
[ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( sin t t t t θ φ θ φ − ≅ −
[ ]
[ ] ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2
) ( ˆ
t t k
t t
A A k
t m
t
v c d
θ φ
θ φ
µ
− ·
− ≅
81
Thus, the output of the vco is given by
Let k
0
= k
t
k
vco
, then
or
In the s-domain, assuming zero initial conditions,
The closed-loop transfer function is therefore given by
[ ]
∫ ∫
− · ·
t
vco t
t
vco
d k k d m k t
0 0
) ( ) ( ) ( ˆ ) ( τ τ θ τ φ τ τ θ
[ ] ) ( ) (
) (
0
t t k
dt
t d
φ θ
θ
+ − ·
), ( ) (
) (
0 0
t k t k
dt
t d
φ θ
θ
· +
), ( ) ( ) (
0 0
s k s k s Φ · Θ +
0
0
) (
) (
) (
k s
k
s
s
s H
cl
+
·
Φ
Θ
·
82
The corresponding impulse response is
Let us now find out what happens when the loop gain k
0
is increased, i.e.,
Clearly,
or , for large k
0
.
Example: Let the message be a step function, i.e., m(t) = Au(t), then
In this case,
In the s-domain, and
) ( ) (
0
0
t u e k t h
t k
cl

·
1 lim ) ( lim
0
0
0 0
·
+
·
∞ → ∞ →
k s
k
s H
k
cl
k
) ( ) ( s s Φ → Θ
) ( ) ( t t φ θ →

,
`

.
|
+ ·

t
c c FM
d Au k t A t x
0
) ( cos ) ( τ τ ω
ω
t A k d u A k t
t
ω ω
τ τ φ · ·

0
) ( ) (
2
) (
s
Ak
s
ω
· Φ
) (
) (
0
2
0
k s s
k Ak
s
+
· Θ
ω
83
The Laplace transform of is then given by
Let k
1
= k
ω
/k
vco
, then in the time domain,
Clearly, as t → ∞, the estimate
Observation: This result is valid when the initial phase error is small.
Remark: A large loop gain k
0
results in practical difficulties, hence, a different loop
filter has to be used.
Consider the loop filter described by
Then the output of the vco is given by
) ( ˆ t m
[ ] .
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
ˆ
]
]
]

+
− ·
]
]
]

+

]
]
]

·
+
· Θ − Φ ·
0 0 0
0
0
1 1 1 1 1
k s s k
Ak
k s s k
k Ak
k s s
k Ak
s s k s M
vco
t
t
ω
ω
ω
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ˆ
0 0
1 1 1 1
t u e Ak t m k t u e Ak t u Ak t m
t k t k − −
− · − ·
). ( ) ( ˆ
1
t m k t m →
( ) 0 , / ) ( > + · a s a s s H
LF
[ ] ) ( ) (
) (
) (
0
s s
s
s H k
s
LF
Θ − Φ · Θ
84
Let be small, then the closed-loop transfer function is
Define then
where
Consider again the step function message m(t) = Au(t). Then
) ( ) ( t t θ φ −
( )
a k s k s
a s k
s H k s
s H k
s
s
s H
LF
LF
cl
0 0
2
0
0
0
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
+ +
+
·
+
·
Φ
Θ
·
), ( ) ( ˆ ) ( s s s Θ − Φ · Ψ
) (
2
) ( ) (
) (
) (
) ( ) (
2 2
2
0 0
2
2
0
0
s
s s
s
s
a k s k s
s
s
s H k s
s H k
s s
n n LF
LF
Φ
+ +
· Φ
+ +
· Φ
+
− Φ · Ψ
ω ξω
a k
n 0
· ω
0
2 k
n
· ξω
a
k
a k
k k
n
0
0
0 0
2
1
2
2
· · ·
ω
ξ
t Ak d Ak d Au k t
t t
ω ω ω
τ τ τ φ · · ·
∫ ∫
0 0
) ( ) (
85
In the complex frequency domain,
Let ∆ω ≡ k
ω
A, then Φ(s) = ∆ω/s
2
and
If 0 < ξ < 1, then
and
Hence the steady-state phase error is zero.
A typical value of ξ is 0.707.
2
) (
s
A k
s
ω
· Φ
2 2
2
) (
n n
s s
s
ω ξω
ω
+ +

· Ψ
( ) t e t
n
t
n
n
2
2
1 sin
1
) ( ξ ω
ξ ω
ω
ψ
ξω



·

. 0 ) ( lim ·
∞ →
t
t
ψ
86
Superheterodyne Receiver
Definition: To heterodyne means to combine a radio frequency wave with a locally
generated wave of different frequency in order to produce a new frequency equal to
the sum or difference of the two.
Specifically, a superheterodyne receiver is one that performs the operations of
carrier frequency tuning of the desired signal, filtering it to separate it from
unwanted signals, in most instances, amplifying it to compensate for signal power
loss due to propagation medium.
Generic superheterodyne receiver
87
Example: Let m(t) modulate a sinusoidal carrier with frequency f
c
= 10 MHz. Let the
bandwidth of the modulated carrier be B
T
= 200 kHz and let f
IF
= 1 MHz. Let the
local oscillator local frequency be f
LO
= 11 MHz and let an interferer have its
spectrum located at 11.95 ≤ f ≤ 12.05 MHz. If no filter is used in the RF section,
then, at the output of the RF filter and of the mixer we have (for f ≥ 0 ).
Spectra when no RF filter is used

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