PRESENTATION ON

MANUFACTURING

PROCESS OF NONWOVEN FABRIC

SUBMITTED BY:
NAME MD. Shariful Islam  MD. Ariful Islam  K.M. Javed Hossain  Mafizul Islam Arif  Tanvirul Islam  Sujan Candra Paul

ID 2009200400097 2009200400111 2009200400084 2009200400062 2009200400088 2009200400089

some nonwoven fabrics can be recycled after use. There are several technologies. They are flat. porous sheets that are made directly from separate fibres or from molten plastic or plastic film. thermally or chemically.Micro-fiber cleaning products have already made a huge impact in both the industrial and household cleaning markets. given the proper treatment and facilities.INTRODUCTION Nonwoven fabrics are broadly defined as sheet or web structures bonded together by entangling fibre or filaments mechanically. such as meltblowing and spunbonding available for the production of long-life nonwovens with micro-sized fibers. Conversely. ..

. or both. chemical.textile structures made directly from fibre rather than yarn. accomplished by mechanical.WHAT IS A NONWOVEN?        A number of definitions have been drafted to help in distinguishing nonwovens from The Textile Institute defines nonwovens. in general. or solvent means and combinations there of. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D 1117-80) defines a nonwoven fabric as: A textile structure produced by bonding or interlocking of fibers.. as . Fabrics are normally made from continuous filaments or from fibre webs or batts strengthened by bonding using various techniques: these include adhesive bonding.. thermal bonding and stitch bonding. mechanical interlocking by needling or fluid jet entanglement.

CLASSIFICATION OF NON WOVEN .

PROPERTIES OF NONWOVEN FABRICS PRODUCED USING DIFFERENT FIBROUS MATTER: .

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or thermally (by applying binder (in the form of powder. paste. . or polymer melt) and melting the binder onto the web by increasing temperature). with an adhesive. by interlocking them with serrated needles such that the inter-fiber friction results in a stronger fabric). and then binding them either mechanically (as in the case of felt.MANUFACTURING PROCCES OF NON WOVEN FABRIC Nonwovens are typically manufactured by putting small fibers together in the form of a sheet or web (similar to paper on a paper machine).

These bales are then dispersed on a conveyor belt. Synthetic fiber blends are wetlaid along with cellulose for single-use fabrics. which are strong and offer the intrinsic benefits of fine fibers such as fine filtration. now greatly replaced by PET and PP. Staple nonwovens are bonded by using either resin or thermally. and put into bales. . low pressure drop as used in face masks or filters and physical benefits such as acoustic insulation as used in dishwashers. Bonding can be throughout the web by resin saturation or overall thermal bonding or in a distinct pattern via resin printing or thermal spot bonding. and the fibers are spread in a uniform web by a wetlaid process or by carding. but sometimes longer if the fiber is stiff or thick. Wetlaid operations typically use 1/4" to 3/4" long fibers. Melt Blown non wovens are produced by extruding melted polymer fibers through a spin net or die consisting of up to 40 holes per inch to form long thin fibers which are stretched and cooled by passing hot air over the fibers as they fall from the die. cut to a few centimeters length. Carding operations typically use ~1. Fibers are first spun. Conforming with staple fibers usually refers to a combination with meltblown. Fiberglass is wetlaid into mats for use in roofing and shingles. Rayon used to be a common fiber in nonwovens. Often melt blown is added to spun bond to form SM or SMS webs.STAPLE NONWOVEN Staple nonwovens are made in 2 steps.5" long fibers. often used in high-end textile insulations.

conforming them into a layered product called SMS (spun-melt-spun). Regarding the bonding of Spunlaid. PP spun bonds run faster and at lower temperatures than PET spun bonds. and cheaper costs.SPUNLAID NONWOVEN Spunlaid nonwovens are made in one continuous process. Rieter [3] has launched a new generation of nonwovens called Spunjet. This technique leads to faster belt speeds. being able to capture very fine particles. Several variants of this concept are available. Spunlaid is bonded by either resin or thermally. In fact. Melt blown nonwovens have extremely fine fiber diameters but are not strong fabrics. SMS fabrics. made completely from PP are water-repellent and fine enough to serve as disposable fabrics. but the leading technology is the REICOFIL machinery[2]. Spun jet is the bonding of the Spunlaid filaments thanks to the hydro entanglement . mostly due to the difference in melting points. Spunbond has been combined with melt blown nonwovens. Meltblown is often used as filter media. Fibers are spun and then directly dispersed into a web by deflectors or can be directed with air streams.

often used in high-loft or fabric insulation/quilts/bedding  needle felt: mechanical intertwining of fibers by needles chemical bonding (wetland process): use of binders to chemically join the fibers.BONDING Both staple and spunlaid nonwovens would have no mechanical resistance. the caustic causes the cellulose-based fibers to curl and shrink around one another as the bonding technique melt blown is very weakly bonded from the air attenuated fibers interchanging with themselves during web formation as well as the temporary tackiness when they are forming . A more expensive route uses binder fibers or powders that soften and melt to hold other non-melting fibers together one type of cotton staple nonwoven is treated with sodium hydroxide to shrink bond the mat. without the bonding step. calendars can be smooth faced for an overall bond or patterned for a softer. per se. more tear resistant bond    hydro-entanglement: mechanical intertwining of fibers by water jets (called spunlace) ultrasonic pattern bonding. Several methods can be used:  thermal bonding     using a large oven for curing calendaring through heated rollers (called spun bond when combined with spun laid).

these fibers do not wet out readily. If not handled properly. brought to a forming unit where the water is drained off through a screen and the fibers deposited on the wire. and tend to tangle with one another. As a general rule. fibers are suspended in water. Processing synthetic or inorganic fibers in slurry form creates interesting challenges. are difficult to disperse. Consequently.WET LAID In the wet lay or wet forming process. . and then picked off the wire to be dried. the fibers will tangle and poor sheet formation will result. very high water dilutions are necessary to keep the fibers apart in the water suspension.

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are employed for specialty nonwoven production. For these systems. When the fibers have been sufficiently dispersed. Ovens or other air drying devices. calendar or creeping rolls are often placed to density. including the use of infrared. and soften the fabric. and hammer mills housed in close proximity to a perforated screen to disperse the fibers. High synthetic content webs frequently bag or stretch during drying on multiple steam cans. fiber rigidity is required to avoid fiber tangling by air currents. Air laid systems designed to handle pulplength fibers employ mechanical defribrators such as pin mills. they pass through the screen into a controlled air steam and onto a forming wire. smooth. . disc refiners.DRY LAID Web drying and binder activation is usually accomplished with steam heated cans. At the end of the processing line.

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at first glance. The objective of the process is to produce a wide web and. this arrangement is more flexible if more than one type of bonding is applied to the same web. appears to be less efficient. In commercial production two or more blocks are used in tandem in order to increase the coverage of fibers. The grouping of spinnerets is often called a block or bank. In some arrangements the web is bonded in a separate step which. therefore. many spinnerets are placed side by side to generate sufficient fibers across the total width. the output of a spinneret usually consists of a hundred or more individual filaments which must be attenuated to orient molecular chains within the fibers to increase fiber strength and decrease .SPINNING AND WEB FORMATION  Spunbonding combines fiber spinning with web formation by placing the bonding device in line with spinning.Before deposition on a moving belt or screen. The spinning process is similar to the production of continuous filament yarns and utilizes similar extruder conditions for a given polymer. Fibers are formed as the molten polymer exits the spinnerets and is quenched by cool air. However.

. In practice the fibers are accelerated either mechanically or pneumatically.In traditional textile spinning some orientation of fibers is achieved by winding the filaments at a rate of approximately 3. The formation of wide webs at high speeds is a highly productive operation.000 m/min or higher. other arrangements have been described where a linearly aligned row or rows of individual filaments is pneumatically accelerated. In spunbond production filament bundles are partially oriented by pneumatic acceleration speeds of 6.200 m/min to produce partially oriented yarns (POY). In most processes the fibers are pneumatically accelerated in multiple filament bundles.This is accomplished by rapidly stretching the plastic fibers immediately after exiting the spinneret. Such high speeds result in partial orientation and high rates of web formation. The POYs can be mechanically drawn in a separate step for enhancing strength. however. particularly for lightweight structures (17 g/m2).

We offer thermal bonded nonwoven fabrics of 80mm to 1. Our thermal bonding process involves the application of heat and pressure on the fibre web to produce nonwoven fabric using calendar rollers consisting of a heated male embossed metal roll and a smooth surface metal roll. ONW's thermal bonded nonwoven fabric is made of polypropylene fibre.000m and 6. rayon and bi-component PE / PP fibres.Our thermal bonded nonwovens are used for manufacturing baby and adult diapers and surgical apparel that include caps.THERMAL BONDED NONWOVEN FABRICS The thermal bonded nonwoven fabrics are used extensively in manufacturing disposable hygienic products. sanitary napkins and wet wipes. and with lengths of between 1. gowns and masks. .000m per roll.We supply thermal bonded nonwoven fabrics with weights from 12g/m² to 60g/m².800mm width. Our thermal bonded nonwovens have a maximum diameter range of 800mm and can be slit into different width as per customers' requirements.

We supply hot air bonded nonwoven fabrics having weight range between 18g/m² to 50g/m² and length range between 1. The hot air bonding process involves the application of hot air. We offer hot air bonded nonwoven fabrics having width range between 30mm to 1. The hot air bonded nonwoven fabrics have a maximum diameter range of 800mm and can be slit into different widths as per customers' requirements. resilience.000m per roll. softness. which flows through the fibre web to produced nonwoven fibre by using hot air oven.000m to 4. flame retardance. . liquid repellence. filtering. stretch. strength. bacterial barrier and sterility.800mm.HOT AIR BONDED NONWOVEN FABRICS Our hot air bonded nonwoven fabrics are made of bi-component PE / PP fibres and bi-component PP / CO-PP fibres.Hot air bonded nonwoven fabrics. cushioning. properties include absorbency.

.BASIC PRINCIPLE: A needle punched nonwoven is a fabric made from webs or batts of fibers in which some of the fibers have been driven upward or downward by barbed needles. FIGURE 1 PRINCIPLE OF NEEDLE PUNCHING Binding point is a set of fibers with various orientation. which are bonded by friction forces. This needling action interlocks fibers and holds the structure together by friction forces.

The phases of needle punching process are shown in figure FIGURE .WORKING PRINCIPLE OF NEEDLE PUNCHING TECHNOLOGY In needle punching the bonding of the fiber web is the result of intertwining of the fibers and of the inter fiber friction caused by the compression of the web. PHASES OF NEEDLE PUNCHING MECHANISM .

Performance properties include functional characteristics such as moisture transport. or repellency. most nonwoven fabrics are handled in roll form. In tandem with these primary processes or “off-line” as separate “finishing” treatments. and frictional behavior. abrasion resistance. flame retardancy. Generically. Aesthetic properties include coloration. fabric finishing processes can be categorized as being either chemical. and roll length is determined at the winding operation. paper. For logistics reasons. surface texture. Roll width is determined at the slitting operation. . Surface treatments adapted or borrowed directly from traditional textile. Mechanical finishing processes alter fabric surface texture by physically repositioning and/or trimming fibers on or near the fabric surface. Roll dimensions are specified to accommodate end-use application or subsequent conversion processes. or thermomechanical. electrical conductivity or static propensity. Chemical finishing involves the application of dyestuffs. or chemical coatings to fibers as well as the impregnation of fabrics with chemical additives or fillers. the fabric may be subjected to other operations to bring about or improve inherent properties. and fragrance. Thermo-mechanical finishing involves altering fabric dimensions or physical properties through the use of heat and/or pressure. or plastic finishing technologies are used to enhance fabric performance or aesthetic properties. Slitting and winding are packaging processes common to all nonwoven manufacturing methods.. mechanical. pigments. absorbency.FINISHING Nonwoven web forming and bonding processes produce fabric in continuous lengths at widths greater than most product applications require.

one after the other. The deliver rollers transport the needle web from the needle zone. Holes are bored into the needle board to take the needles. The material feed can be either intermittent or continues. the web is pressed against the lower boss. it is common practice to have several needling zones in a row. The needle beam supporting the needle board is situated above the needle plate and is powered by a main drive over a cam shaft. This operation is carried out several times minute. the fibers remain in their new position virtually unchanged since the barbs only face in one direction. The upper plate is called stripping plate or holding down plate. When the needling is done from above. also known as the needle to throat plate. In modern machines it is carried out around 2000 strokes per minute. throw the drawing in rollers and via feed rollers the web is fed to needling area. as shown. flat bed. the web is repeatedly punctured or perforated by a battery of needles and reoriented. Here. To achieve the desired compression and bonding. As the needle return. with different needle settings and direction of stitching. . and pull them through the web.The web is passed over a feed table. The three sided shanks of the needles have barbs which grip the fibers as the web is perforated.

fiber-to-fiber bonding in this instance is friction dependent and consequently not recoverable upon appreciable deformation. and hydro entangling (i. fiber-to-fiber bonding in this instance is achieved through thermal fusion and (as in chemical bonding) is set or stabilized upon cooling. Thermal bonding methods employ radiant. Further. chemical. convention.WEB FORMING In these and other systems. web consolidation (the interlocking of fibers in adjacent horizontal layers or vertical zones) can be accomplished by mechanical. fiber-to-fiber bonding in this instance is highly dependent on binder surface tension and fiber and surface energy compatibility. saturation. needle felting. conductive. Chemical bonding methods include air or airless spraying. printing. binder properties often mask or override fiber properties. spun lace). or thermal means.e. and stable or semi-stable foam bonding. or sonic energy sources. . Mechanical consolidation methods include stitch bonding.

END USE Hygiene        Medical baby diaper or nappies feminine hygiene adult incontinence products wet wipes bandages and wound dressings disposable bath and face towels disposable slippers and footwear isolation gowns  surgical gowns  surgical drapes and covers  surgical scrub suits  caps  medical packaging: porosity allows gas sterilization  .

tea bags pharmaceutical industry mineral processing liquid cartridge and bag filters vacuum bags allergen membranes or laminates with nonwoven layers Geotextiles soil stabilizers and roadway underlayment foundation stabilizers erosion control canals construction drainage systems geomembrane protection agriculture mulch pond and canal water barriers sand infiltration barrier for drainage tile           carpet backing.END USE Filters  gasoline. tenting and transportation (lumber. oil and air .including HEPA filtration Other                   water. cushions. coveralls) weather resistant house wrap . and upholstery padding batting in quilts or comforters consumer and medical face masks mailing envelopes tarps. steel) wrapping disposable clothing (foot coverings. primary and secondary composites  marine sail laminates  tablecover laminates  chopped strand mat backing/stabilizer for machine embroidery packaging where porosity is needed insulation (fiberglass batting) pillows. coffee.

filtering. stretch. texture and strength of a woven fabric and can be as bulky as the thickest paddings. flame retardancy. These properties are often combined to create fabrics suited for specific jobs. use as a bacterial barrier and sterility. while achieving a good balance between product use-life and cost. home furnishings.CONCLUSION Nonwoven fabrics are engineered fabrics that may be a limited life. Nonwoven fabrics provide specific functions such as absorbency. industrial and consumer goods. and are used alone or as components of apparel. health care. liquid repellence. washability. . softness. cushioning. They can mimic the appearance. resilience. strength. single-use fabric or a very durable fabric. In combination with other materials they provide a spectrum of products with diverse properties. engineering.

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