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Sewage treatment or domestic waste water treatment physical , chemical, biological processes to remove contaminants from water

to produce environmentally safe fluid waste and solid for disposal Treatment pretreatment, primary, secondary , tertiary waste treatment Primary treatment-holding the sewage in a basin where heavy solids settles to the bottom , fats ,oils and lighter solids floats on surface. Secondary treatment-removes dissolved and suspended biological matter using water born micro-organisms.

Tertiary treatment-treated water is disinfected physically or chemically before discharging to river , pond , lagoon and wetland or can be used for irrigation.

The objective of secondary treatment is to remove the residual organics and suspended solids which can not be removed by primary treatment. Secondary treatment usually follows the primary treatment and involves the removal of biodegradable dissolved and colloidal organic matter by microorganisms. Microbes metabolize organic matter in waste water , there by producing more micro organisms and inorganic end products principally CO2,NO3,SO4 and PO4. Microorganisms must be separated from the treated waste water by sedimentation to produce clarified secondary effluent.

The sedimentation tanks used in secondary treatments are usually called , secondary clarifier. The biological solids removed during sedimentation , called secondary or biological sludge are normally combined with primary sludge for sludge processing. The principle group of organic substances found in waste water are protien , carbohydrate , fats and oils . some synthetic organic compounds are surfactants , phenols and pesticides

BOD amount of oxygen required by the micro organisms to decompose the organic matter.

COD amount of oxygen required to decompose the organic matter by a strong chemical oxidizing agent in an acidic medium.

Secondary treatment can be aerobic or anaerobic . In aerobic process bacteria and other microbes consumes organic matter as food . Anaerobic treatment is employed for the digestion of sludge Degrade the biological content of the sewage which are derived from human waste , food waste , soaps and detergents using aerobic biological processes. Bacteria and protozoa consumes biodegradable soluble organic contaminants (like sugar ,fat , short chain organic carbon molecules ) Reduce the BOD level to more than that attained by sedimentation process Dissolved and colloidal organic compounds and colours present in waste water is removed or reduced and organic matters get stabilized.

Secondary treatment - fixed film process, where the biomass grow on a media and sewage passes over its surface. (trickling filter , rotating biological contactor, MBBR,AFBBR,packed bed reactor) - suspended growth where biomass is mixed with the sewage. (activated sludge , oxidation pond/ditch , aerated lagoon)

Activated sludge Aerated lagoon Trickling filter Rotating biological contactor Packed bed reactor AFBBR Membrane bio reactor Oxidation pond

Most versatile biological oxidation method for treatment colloids , dissolved solids and organic matter. Waste water aerated in a reaction tank in which microbial floc is suspended . Bacteria in activated sludge process are gram negative and include members of the genera Psuedomonas , Zoogloea,Achromobacter,Flavobacterium and the two nitrifying bacteria, Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter Biological degradation of waste by aerobic bacteria to carbon dioxide and water. Bacteria flora grows and remain suspended in the form of a floc , which is called activated sludge

Effluent from the reaction tank is separated from the sludge by settling and discharged A part of the sludge is recycled to the same tank to provide microbial population for fresh treatment cycle. Efficient aeration of 5 to 24 hours required for industrial sludge. BOD removal of 90-95% achieved by this process

Consist of circular or rectangular beds, 1m to 3m deep broken stone ,pvc , coal, synthetic resin , gravel etc of size 40mm to 150mm size Waste water sprinkled uniformly over the entire bed with the help of a slowly rotating distributor such a s rotatory sprinkler equipped with orifice or nozzles Waste water trickles through the media . Air enter at the bottom counter current to the effluent flow A gelatinous film of bacteria and aerobic microorganism is formed on the surface of the filter media , which thrive on the nutrient supplied by waste water The organic impurities in the waste water are adsorbed on the gelatinous film during its passage are oxidized by bacteria and microbes.

as the micro organisms grow, the thickness of the slime layer increases, and the diffused oxygen is consumed before it can penetrate the full depth of the slime layer .Thus an anaerobic environment is established near the surface of the media.

Achromobacter , flavobacterium , psuedomonas and alcaligenes are among the bacterial species commonly associated with the trickling filter

As the micro organisms utilize the organic matter , thickness of the slime film increases to a point where it can no longer be supported on the solid media and gets detached from the surface. This process is known as sloughing". A settling tank following the trickling filter removes the detached bacterial film and some suspended matter.

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Bacterial growth is fixed on the media. All solids from the settler are wasted. Less sensitive to shock loading Low operating cost Produce insects and odours Less effective in removing disease causing organisms.

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Bacterial growth is suspended as a dispersed floc. Solids from the settler are partially recycled. More sensitive to shock loadings , require closer process control High operating cost More effective in removing pathogens

Large holding tanks or ponds having a depth of 3-5m and lined with cement , polythene or rubber Effluent from primary treatment are collected in this tank and are aerated with mechanical devices such as floating aerators , for 2 to 6 days During this time a healthy flocculent sludge is formed which bring about oxidation of dissolved organic matter BOD removal of about 99% could be achieved by this process. Major disadvantage is large space requirement. The fundamental difference between aerated lagoon and activated sludge , sludge is not recycled in aerated lagoon

Large shallow pond where stabilization of organic matter in the waste is brought about by bacteria and to some extent by protozoa. Oxygen requirement is provided by surface aeration and by photosynthesis of algae present in the pond. The oxygen released by the algae through the process of photosynthesis , is used by the bacteria in the aerobic degradation of organic matter. The nutrients and carbon dioxide released in the degradation are in turn used by the algae. Symbiotic relationship between algae and bacteria.BOD removal of 95% achieved.Also called waste stabilization ponds.

Consist of a series of closely spaced parallel discs mounted on a rotating shaft which is supported just above the surface of waste water Microbes grow on the surface of the disc where microbial degradation of waste in water occur. Discs are alternately immersed in waste water and exposed to atmosphere above the liquid. Microbes growing on the media surface remove nutrients from waste water and consumes oxygen from air to continue their metabolic processes As biofilm grow and thickens ,anaerobic condition may develop in lower layers.

Combination of activated sludge treatment with a membrane liquid-solid separation process. The membrane component uses low pressure ultra filtration or microfiltration membrane and eliminates the need for clarification and tertiary filtration The key benefit of an MBR system is that it effectively overcomes the limitations associated with poor settling of sludge in the conventional activated sludge process.

Two configurations-internal/submerged , where membranes are immersed , external where membrane are separate unit process requiring an intermediate pumping step.

Waste water is fed to a bed of 0.4 to 0.5 mm sand or activated carbon.bed depth are in the range of 3 to 4 m. Up flow velocities are 30 to 36m/hr. As the bio film increases in size, the packing become lighter and accumulates at the top of the bed where it can be removed. Effluent recirculation is necessary to provide the fluid velocity within the necessary treatment detention times. For aerobic process recirculated effluent is passed through an oxygen aeration tank to predissolve oxygen. AFBBR are frequently used for treatment of groundwater contaminated with hazardous substances tank 2.centrifugal pump 3.valves

5.air sparger 6.supporting mesh 7.fluidizing section 8.discharge valve

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Non biodegradable toxic compounds can be adsorbed onto the activated carbon. High quality effluent is produced low in TSS and COD concentration. The system operation is simple and reliable. The oxygenation method prevents stripping and emission of toxic organic compounds to the atmosphere

As the micro organisms in the bio film multiply there is an increase in the bio film thickness .This limits the diffusion of oxygen or organic substrate to the deeper layer of the bio film . Starvation of microorganisms at the base of the bio film causes pieces of bio film to detach and leads to in effective bioreactor operation.