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Our Sexuality, 9th Edition, Robert L.

Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations

Chapter 10
Sexual Orientations

Our Sexuality, 9th Edition, Robert L. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations

A Continuum of Sexual Orientations
• Terminology – homosexual orientation: primary erotic psychological emotional and social orientation is to same sex • gay males • lesbian females

Our Sexuality, 9th Edition, Robert L. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations

A Continuum of Sexual Orientations (cont.)
• Terminology – bisexual orientation: attraction to both same- & opposite sex partners – heterosexual orientation: attraction to opposite sex partner (aka straight)

Our Sexuality, 9th Edition, Robert L. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations

A Continuum of Sexual Orientations (cont.)
• Kinsey's 7-point continuum – men are more likely to fall at the extremes – may depend on how question is asked

Robert L.1 Kinsey’s continuum of sexual orientation (adapted from Kinsey et al. 9th Edition. 10. p. 1948.) Fig. .Our Sexuality. 638). Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations A Continuum of Sexual Orientations (cont..

9th Edition. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations A Continuum of Sexual Orientations (cont. transitory. or denial of gayness .Our Sexuality.) • Bisexuality – context matters more than contact – categories: real. transitional. Robert L.

Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Real Orientation .Our Sexuality. 9th Edition. Robert L.

Our Sexuality. • Might or night not be sexually active with more than one partner at a time. Robert L. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Real Orientation • Capable of feeling attracted to both sexes. 9th Edition. .

Robert L. 9th Edition. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Transitory Orientation .Our Sexuality.

Robert L. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Transitory Orientation • A temporary involvement by people who are actually heterosexual or homosexual . 9th Edition.Our Sexuality.

prisons • The people involved consider themselves heterosexual even when involved in same-sex behavior. 9th Edition. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Transitory Orientation • A temporary involvement by people who are actually heterosexual or homosexual • Examples: single-sex boarding schools.Our Sexuality. and they resume heterosexual relationships when opportunities present themselves again. • Some prostitutes and male hustlers may do business with either sex and yet be exclusively heterosexual or queer in their personal lives. . Robert L.

Robert L. 9th Edition.Our Sexuality. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Transitional Orientation .

Robert L.Our Sexuality. 9th Edition. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Transitional Orientation • A person is changing from one orientation to another .

. He then meets a male co-worker and decides to leave his wife for him. 9th Edition. may accept orientation as completely homosexual). Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Transitional Orientation • A person is changing from one orientation to another • Example: A man who has been married with children for many years in an effort to fit in with social norms. As one grows more comfortable with oneself. • The transition from bisexuality to homosexuality may be most common during adolescence (Social pressures to conform may have one identify initially as bisexual. Robert L.Our Sexuality.

9th Edition. Robert L. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Asexuality .Our Sexuality.

9th Edition. Robert L.Our Sexuality. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Asexuality • Feeling no sexual attraction to either sex • Is a sexual orientation NOT a choice • According to a study in Britain: 1% of individuals are asexual • Possible Factors: – Women more than men – Late menstruation – Lower education level and socioeconomic status – Short statue and health problems .

Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations A Continuum of Sexual Orientations (cont.Our Sexuality. Robert L. Gay or Bi? How Do You Measure? . 9th Edition.) Table 10.1 Who’s Straight.

9th Edition. Robert L. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations What Determines Sexual Orientation? Psychosocial Theories • “By Default” Theory • The Seduction Myth • Freud’s Theory .Our Sexuality.

Robert L.Our Sexuality. 9th Edition. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Psychosocial theories .

biological theories . parenting patterns. or psychological attributes of the individual vs. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Psychosocial theories • Relate to life incidents. 9th Edition.Our Sexuality. Robert L.

Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations The “By Default” Myth .Our Sexuality. Robert L. 9th Edition.

Our Sexuality. • “All a lesbian needs is a good lay” or “He just needs to find the right woman” reflect that homosexuality is a lack of positive heterosexual experience. 9th Edition. • Contrary Evidence? . Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations The “By Default” Myth • Unhappy heterosexual experiences cause a person to become homosexual. Robert L.

Our Sexuality. 9th Edition. Robert L. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations The Seduction Myth .

Our Sexuality. Robert L. 9th Edition. • Contrary Evidence? . Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations The Seduction Myth • The belief that young women and men become homosexual because they have been seduced by older homosexual people or because they have “caught” it from someone else – particularly a well-liked and respected teacher who is homosexual.

9th Edition.Our Sexuality. Robert L. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Freud’s Theory • Psychoanalysis .

• In “normal development” we all pass through “homoerotic” phase.Our Sexuality. 9th Edition. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Freud’s Theory • Psychoanalysis: child’s relationship with primary caregivers is primarily responsible for adult’s life. • Contrary Evidence? . • Girls could become lesbians if they had poor relationships with their mothers and overly close relationships with their fathers. • Boys could become fixated at this homosexual phase if they had a poor relationship with their father and an overly close relationship with their mother. Robert L.

Our Sexuality. 9th Edition. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations What Determines Sexual Orientation? (cont.) • The influence of choice – may be more important for women than men – men are more likely to be categorical in sexual orientation . Robert L.

9th Edition. Robert L.) • Biological theories – adult hormone levels do not differ – prenatal hormone levels • Relationship between index and ring finger length • correlation of handedness with homosexuality – Homosexuals have 39% greater chance of being left handed than heterosexuals • birth order and sex of siblings – Homosexual men have more older brothers than heterosexual men .Our Sexuality. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations What Determines Sexual Orientation? (cont.

but problems with volunteer bias – genetic marker research is ongoing – gender nonconformity? .) • Genetic factors – homosexuality strongly familial – identical twins > than fraternal twins. Robert L. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations What Determines Sexual Orientation? (cont. 9th Edition.Our Sexuality.

Robert L.Our Sexuality. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Gender Nonconformity . 9th Edition.

. Robert L.Our Sexuality. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Gender Nonconformity • Shows link between lack of conformity to stereotypical masculine and feminine behaviors and homosexuality. 9th Edition. • Research shows homosexuals experienced greater gender nonconformity than heterosexuals.

and intolerance for behavioral choices . 9th Edition.Our Sexuality. Robert L. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations What Determines Sexual Orientation? (cont.) • Implications if biology is destiny – may result in more acceptance – genetic engineering. tolerance for “defective” orientation.

2 Fourteen countries with National Laws that Protect Gays. . 9th Edition. Robert L. Lesbians and Bisexuals from Discrimination. Native America & Cuba Table 10.Our Sexuality. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Societal Attitudes • Cross-cultural attitudes vary greatly – Greece.

Robert L.Our Sexuality. 9th Edition.) • Early to mid-1900s societal shift: from sinner to sickness – 1973 APA removed homosexuality from list of mental disorders . Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Societal Attitudes (cont.

Robert L.) • Homophobia – anti-homosexual attitudes.Our Sexuality. 9th Edition. irrational fears or selfloathing – may legitimize hate crimes directed at gays – Hate Crimes Statistics Act – causes of homophobia and hate crimes • Lack of acceptance • Traditional gender role stereotypes • Extreme manifestation of cultural norms • Denial of homosexual feelings . Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Societal Attitudes (cont.

9th Edition.Our Sexuality.) Fig.2 Hate-crime laws expand across the nation. 10. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Societal Attitudes (cont. Robert L. .

9th Edition. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Lifestyles • Homosexual “lifestyle” is as varied as heterosexual • Coming out – self-acknowledgment of orientation – self-acceptance of orientation .Our Sexuality. Robert L.

Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Lifestyles (cont. 9th Edition.) Fig.3 Mean Age of Lesbian Identity Developmental Events by Age Group. Robert L. 10.Our Sexuality. .

Robert L.risks & benefits – telling family can be most difficult • PFLAG (Parents. and Friends of Lesbians and Gays).) • Disclosure – passing . to help parents and others develop understanding. has over 400 chapters in U.S. 9th Edition. – double minority: homosexuality & ethnicity – involvement in the gay community . acceptance and support. Families. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Lifestyles (cont.Our Sexuality.

4 When did You Know? (When Gay or Bisexual College Students Say They Became Aware of Their Sexual Orientation) .Our Sexuality. Robert L.) Table 10. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Lifestyles (cont. 9th Edition.

single gay with children • new reproductive technologies – children raised by gays do not differ from those raised by straights .Our Sexuality. Robert L.) • Family life – variations: gay couple. gay couple with children. 9th Edition. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations Lifestyles (cont.

Our Sexuality. Crooks Chapter 10: Sexual Orientations The Gay Rights Movement • Began in 1969 with the Stonewall incident • Goals – decriminalization of private sexual behavior – end discrimination against homosexuals . 9th Edition. Robert L.