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Why Broadband?

A non-technical perspective...

Driving Factors – cause & effect

Bandwidth Requirement

Broadband Connectivity

Connects Everything

Broadband Access Techniques • • • • • Cable Modem DSL Fiber 2.5G and 3G Cellular Wireless Wireless Ethernet .

high-end on-line video .Cable Modem -Data Over Cable • CMTS Cable-modem Termination System • Upload : ~ 128Kbps • Download : ~ 500 Kbps – 2 Mbps • Aiming to Enable interactive Applications .videoconferencing.


Customer Premises Cable Modem Cable Splitter Cable Company Fiber Node Downstream Optical/Electrical Converter Upstream Cable Company Distribution Hub TV Video Network Combiner Hub TV Router Shared Coax Cable System Cable Company Fiber Node Computer Computer Cable Modem Termination System Customer Premises ISP POP Customer Premises Broadband through Cable Modem .

the slower it is • Unlimited use with Internet access (ISP) included in cost • Cost .Cable Modem • • • • • • Runs over cable TV wiring Installed by cable company Download speeds of 768K to 3M and higher Upload speeds slower.the more people on it. about 300K Always on Shared bandwidth .

Cable Modem Advantages • • • • • Usually quite fast Always on Somewhat reliable Broader availability Does not interfere with TV • • • • Disadvantages Shared bandwidth Requires additional hardware (cable box) Works only at the site of installation Upload slower than download No choice in cable company or ISP • .

DSL • Runs over ordinary telephone wires • Digital signals use high frequencies not used by analog phones • Installed by local phone company • Reliable download speeds of 128K to 7M • Always on • Cheaper .

Types of DSL Addresses – various network environments and applications – trade-offs between reach and bandwidth .

Common Elements in DSL .

Common Elements in DSL .

DSL Advantages • • • • Always on Reliable Requires no new wiring Does not tie up phone line • Fixed IP available • Can be used to host a web site • Dial-up access when traveling often included Disadvantages • Can be tough to switch ISPs • Requires additional hardware (DSL Router) • Can be difficult to get installed • Works only at the site of installation • Limited availability • Fast upload speeds cost more .

shdsl (G.Digital Subscriber Line • • • • • • • • ADSL G.lite (UDSL) SDSL G.2 – an ITU-T standard) HDSL (High-bit rate DSL) VDSL (very-high-data rate DSL) RADSL (Rate Adaptive DSL) ISDN DSL (IDSL) .991.

Block Schematic of xDSL .

more downloads • Download : Up to 8-9Mbps • Upload : ~1Mbps .ADSL • Asymmetric DSL • Primarily used for residential services .

Block Schematic of ADSL .

3125K guardband So 256 X 4 = 1024 255 X .3125 = 79.Spectrum of Copper pair used in last mile 0.68 Total =1104 K .

lite use DMT .DMT • Discrete multitone (DMT) is a method of separating a Digital Subscriber Line signal so that the usable frequency range is separated into 256 frequency bands of 4. Both G. Within each channel.DMT and G. the modem can be rate-adaptive.3125 KHz each. • By varying the number of bits per symbol within a channel. modulation uses QAM.

DMT • Other modulation technologies for DSL are carrierless amplitude modulation (CAP) and multiple virtual line (MVL). • However.ETSI . DMT is the most widely used and appears to be becoming the industry standard like ANSI.

SDSL • Cost-effective solution to small and medium enterprises offering competitive alternative to E1/T1 • SHDSL Data rate :192 Kbps to 2.3Mbps which is 30% larger than that of SDSL .

VDSL • Can support Asymmetric/Symmetric DSL • ADSL mode can upload up to 52 Mbps • Suitable for High-speed applications such as real-time video streaming • Mostly used in FTTH/B .


– With WDM hundreds or thousand of channels are possible. also called Fiber to the Home will unleash the potential of optical fiber communications to end users.FIBER • FTTH/B(Fiber-to-the-Home/Building) • PON (Passive Optical Network) are used for one-tomany connectivity • Passive Optical Networking (PON) – PON. Passive optical doesn’t require electricity. but limiting its maximum distance . lowering cost.


6 Mbps • FTTCab and FTTC coverts signal to provide connectivity thro’ copper cable to achieve xDSL .FTTH • Downstream : 51 Mbps • Upstream : 1.

FTTCabinet/HFC .

The major difference between the FTTC/VDSL and FTTC/HFC architecture • VDSL every copper wire (subscriber connection) can carry up to 52 Mbps downstream • With HFC. every channel on the coax cable can carry up to 38 Mbps downstream • All subscribers serviced by an Optical Node share channel capacity .

EDGE (Enhanced Data rate for Global(GSM) Evolution) .5 Generation Cellular Wireless • 2G Data rate: 9.2 and 2.5 G supports .GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) .6 Kbps • 2.

• This is also known as Wi-Fi • Radio Transmission is in 2.11b offers 11 Mbps data rate through DSSS(Direct sequence spread Spectrum ) technique.4 GHz band .Wireless Ethernet • Ethernet 802.

4 GHz band using OFDM .11a operates in 5 GHz radio band • Data rate up to 54 Mbps using OFDM • 802.Wireless Ethernet • 802.11g up to 22 Mbps in 2.

Wireless Ethernet .

Wireless Ethernet .

11a & g) – Wiring unnecessary – Use with any computer – Many laptops are wireless-ready • Disadvantages – May require a PC Card – Requires extra steps to increase security .Wireless Ethernet Advantages – High speed 11M (802.11b) and higher (802.




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