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Sheet metal working

• Sheet metalworking processes are forming and cutting operations performed on metal sheets, strips, and coils. The surface area-to-volume ratio of the starting metal is high; thus, this ratio is a useful means to distinguish bulk deformation from sheet metal processes. Press working is the term often applied to sheet metal operations because the machines used to perform these operations are presses (presses of various types are also used in other manufacturing processes).A part produced in a sheet metal operation is often called a stamping. • Sheet metal operations are always performed as cold working processes and are usually accomplished using a set of tools called a punch and die. The punch is the positive portion and the die is the negative portion of the tool set

Sheet metal working
The basic sheet metal operations are defined as follows: • _ Bending. Bending involves straining of a metal sheet or plate to take an angle along a (usually) straight axis.

Figure 16.16 Bending terminology. Note that the bend radius is measured to the inner surface of the bent part.

(b) workpart: (1) starting blank.Sheet metal working Drawing. drawing refers to the forming of a flat metal sheet into a hollow or concave shape. A blank holder is used to hold down the blank while the punch pushes into the sheet metal. . by stretching the metal. such as a cup. (a) Drawing of cup-shaped part: (1) before punch contacts work. (2) near end of stroke. In sheet metalworking. (2) drawn part.

A shearing operation cuts the work using a punch and die. . because it involves cutting rather than forming.Sheet metal working • Shearing This process seems somewhat out-of-place in a list of deformation processes.

2 (a) Schematic illustration of shearing with a punch and die. (Note: The scales of the two figures are different. Characteristic features of (b) a punched hole and (c) the slug. indicating some of the process variables.) .Figure 16.

Die-Cutting Operations Figure 16. . (b) Examples of various die-cutting operations on sheet metal.4 (a) Punching (piercing) and blanking.

The piercing is making hole in a sheet. Piercing It is also known as punching. The removed portion is called blank.Sheet metal cutting operations Blanking Blanking operation is a process in which the punch is used to remove a portion of material from the stock which is the strip of necessary thickness and width. Punching : it is the process of making holes in the blank material . It is identical to blanking except of the fact the punchout portion coming out to the die in piercing is scrap.

irregular outlines and wavy edges etc from the wall of the drawn component. .Sheet metal cutting operations Trimming : it is an operation used to remove excess metal.

Sheet metal operations Notching • same as piercing • edge of the strip or black forms part of the punch-out perimeter Nibbling • Produces a series of overlapping slits/notches Shaving finishing operation in which a small amount of metal is sheared away from the edge of an already blanked part can be used to produce a smoother edge .

Sheet metal cutting opeations CUT OFF Punch and die operation used to separate a stamping or other product from a strip or stock .

. fiber and cloth.Sheet metal cutting operations Dinking • Used to blank shapes from low-strength materials such as rubber.

(a) Shaving a sheared edge.Sheet metal cutting operations Schematic illustrations of the shaving process. (b) Shearing and shaving combined in one stroke. .

Sheet metal cutting operations Perforating in this operation multiple holes which are very small and close together are cut in flat work material Slitting it is the operation of making an unfinished cut through a limited length only Lancing lancing consits of cutting the sheet metal through a small length and bending this small cut portion downwards .

Sheet metal forming operations • Sheet metal forming operation Bending Drawing Squeezing Embossing Nibbling .

To avoid it the metal should be over bent by such that in the pressure is released part should return in its correct shape.Sheet metal forming operations Bending In bending the metal is stressed in both tension and compression at the elastic limit but below the ultimate strength of the Metal. This phenomenon is called as spring back. . When the metal is loaded beyond the elastic limit it undergoes some plastic deformation but when load is removed the metal retain the bent shape. There is some amount of elastic recovery resulting in slight opening up of the bent.

the metal should be slightly overbent.Sheet metal forming operations • Springback The elastic recovery of the material after unloading of the tools To compensate with the unbending action of the springback. .

Sheet metal forming operations • Classifications of Bending Processes Angle Bending straightening Roll Forming Draw and Compression bending Seaming Roll Flanging .

sheets and rolled shapes can be bent to a desired curvature • Roll bending toll can bend plate up to 6 inches thick • Angle Bending .Bending operations Roll Bending • Bending where plates.

Sheet metal forming operations Drawing Bending • Work piece is clamped against a bending form and the entire assemble rotates to draw the workpiece across a stationary .

Sheet metal forming operations Compression Bending • The bending form remains stationary and the pressure tool moves along the work piece .

Bending operations Roll Forming • Involves the progressive bending of metal strip as it passes through a series of forming rolls • Any material that can be bent can be roll.formed .

Bending operations .

pails and drums Roll Forming .involves the progressive bending of metal strip as it passes through a series of forming rolls • Any material that can be bent can be roll.bending operation that can be used to join the ends of sheet metal to form containers such as cans.Bending operations Seaming .formed .

straightening/ Roll Leveling -subjects the material to a series of reverse bend -metal is bent back and forth .Bending operations Flanging -the process of rolling on sheet metal in essentially the same manner as seaming • Roll.

Drawing and Sheet Metal Forming .

Bar drawing and wire drawing Drawing is an operation in which the cross section of a bar . rod wire is reduced by pulling it through a die opening as in figure . Wire size down to 0. while drawing applies to small diameter stock. The basic difference between bar drawing and wire drawing is he stock size that is processed. Although the presence of tensile stresses is obvious in drawing. The difference is that the work is pulled through the die in drawing. The term wire and bar drawing is used to distinguish the drawing process discussed here from the sheet metal process of the same name. compression also plays a significant role because the metal is squeezed down as it passes through the die opening.03mm are possible in wire drawing. . the methods. equipment. and even the terminology are some what different. Bar drawing is he term used for large diameter bar and rod stock. The general features of the process are similar to those of extrusion . Although the mechanics of the process are the same for the tow cases . whereas it is pushed through the die inn extrusion .