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面向服务的业务流程管理

2010年教育部-IBM精品课程

cases

LEC2. Architecture and Technologies
A e-Business case: Travel reservation(1/23) A typical scenario involving a set of Web services to serve as an useful example for Web services and to generate requirements and demonstrate its applications Description A company (travel agent) wants to offer to people the ability to book complete vacation packages: plane/train/bus tickets, hotels, car rental, excursions, etc. Service providers (airlines, bus companies, hotel chains, etc) are providing Web services to query their offerings and perform reservations. Credit card companies are also providing services to guarantee payments made by consumers. Due to the loosely coupled-nature of Web services, the travel agent doesn't need to have a priori agreements with service providers or credit card companies. This allows the travel agent to have access to more services, offering more options to its customers, the credit card companies to offer their services broadly and therefore make their customers happy, and the service providers can offer their services broadly and easily and therefore generating more business for themselves.

LEC2. Architecture and Technologies
A e-Business case: Travel reservation(2/23)
Scope For this version of the usage scenario, we will limit ourselves to booking of vacation packages. We will assume that cancellation is not possible once a package has been purchased. Stakeholders / Interests Travel agent: provides a system to provide the user with options for his/her vacation; earns money by charging fees for each package bought. Service providers: sell their services by making them available widely. Credit card company: enable customers to use their credit cards in a very large number of cases; make profit with each money transaction.

Consumer: book vacation easily by choosing among a large variety of offers.
Only the user in the scenario is a human being. The travel agent service, airline, hotel and payment services that the travel agent service is interacting with, are machines.

LEC2. Architecture and Technologies
A e-Business case: Travel reservation(3/23)
Actors & Goals

Consumer: best combination of services and prices for his/her needs. Travel agent: customer satisfaction, sell packages. Service providers: sell services. Credit company: qualify buyer, do the payment.
Use Cases The following use cases describe how a user would make a reservation for a vacation package (flight and hotel room).

LEC2. Architecture and Technologies
A e-Business case: Travel reservation(4/23)
Overview.

Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: Travel reservation(5/23) Composing a vacation package .LEC2.

Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: Travel reservation(6/23) Booking a chosen vacation package .LEC2.

LEC2. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: Travel reservation(7/23) Introducing a new hotel Web service .

Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: Travel reservation(8/23) Booking the new cheaperoption chosen .LEC2.

Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: Travel reservation(9/23) An assumption for this usage scenario is that all the services are using common concepts (e. For the travel agent service to understand the airline services and to be able to send meaningful information to them. An ontology is a formal description of a set of concepts and their relationships to each other.g. an ontology defines a standard vocabulary that can be used to communicate those concepts. . etc). room. By associating a name with each concept. economy class.LEC2. a travel industry ontology needs to exist and be used by the Web services taking part in this scenario. flight.

. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: Travel reservation(10/23) Noted that some additional technology is needed for this usage scenario:  context maintenance.  .  reliability: in order to make money. each step needs to happen.  trust mechanisms for the services to do business with each other..  description of orchestration of services: if a reservation of a flight involves interacting with a couple of Web services.LEC2. the airline would document in a machine readable way how to interact with the two single services in order to get the desired result. including how to handle errors in the process fails before the operation is completed. … .

the travel agent service could reside locally on his/her computer. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: Travel reservation(11/23) Note that this usage scenario could be different in the following ways:  the user could have bought some travel agent software.LEC2. .  the user could write tools to interact directly with the airline and hotel services.

The travel agent service inquires airlines about deals and presents them to the user. The user provides a destination and some dates to the travel agent service. service directory. User requests availabilities about some travel dates Goal / Context The user gets the location of a travel agent service via an unspecified way (search engine. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: Travel reservation(12/23) 1. etc). URI in an email. .LEC2.

 The travel agent service requests a list of flights accommodating the user. .LEC2. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: Travel reservation(13/23) Scenario / Steps • The user is presented with a form to fill in order to provide the travel agent service with details about dates of his/her travel and the destination. • The travel agent service finds a list of airlines. • The user submits the information to the service in order to get a list of flights corresponding to his/her schedule. • The travel agent service presents the results of the queries to the user letting him choose the best option. • For each airline found:  The travel agent service requests a description of how to communicate with the service found.

Response to queries: XML documents that the travel agent service processes and merge together. . Technologies / Requirements Discovery technology: used by the travel agent service to find the airlines services. Ontologies: the data coming from different airline services and expressed with different XML vocabularies needs some semantics to be merged in a meaningful way. Description language: used by the airlines to describe their query services to the travel agent service. the user should be presented with an error.LEC2. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: Travel reservation(14/23) Extensions If no flight can be found.

The user chooses a preferred flight. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: Travel reservation(15/23) 2. . User requests chooses flight and looks for hotels Goal / Context The user has been presented with options for flights to go to his/her destination. and goes on with proposing lodging options to the user.LEC2. The service puts the seats on hold.

and builds a list of options for the user.LEC2. • For each hotel found:  The travel agent service requests a description of how to communicate with the service found. . • The travel agent service sends the request accordingly. • The travel agent service presents the results of the queries to the user letting him choose the best option.  The travel agent service requests accommodation options for the period. • The travel agent service requests the chosen airline to put the flight on hold: • The travel agent service requests a description of how to put a seat on hold to the airline service. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: Travel reservation(16/23) Scenario / Steps • The user communicates his/her choice for the flight. along with the payment options offered. • The airline returns a confirmation number with an expiry date. • The travel agent service looks for payment services available. • The travel agent service finds a list of airlines.

. Ontologies: the data coming from different accommodation services and expressed with different XML vocabularies needs some semantics to be merged in a meaningful way. Technologies / Requirements Description language: used by the airlines to describe their services to put tickets on hold to the travel agent service. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: Travel reservation(17/23) Extensions If the seats chosen are not available anymore. the travel agent service presents the user with an error message and the user is presented with an updated list of available flights to choose from.LEC2. by the hotels to describe their query services to the travel agent service. Discovery technology: used by the travel agent service to find the hotels services.

The service books the hotel and confirms the flight. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: Travel reservation(18/23) 3.LEC2. using the payment authorization from the bank. User books hotel room and flight Goal / Context The user has been presented with options for hotels to go to his/her destination and a means of payment. The user chooses a hotel option. The travel agent service contacts a bank for payment authorization. .

 The travel agent service sends the request accordingly.  The travel agent service send the request accordingly. signed by the payment authority.  The travel agent service sends a request in order to find out how to cancel the reservation should a problem occur later in the process. communicating the payment service chosen and the signed authorization number from this service. • The travel agent service contacts the bank service that the user chose to confirm payment:  The travel agent service requests a description of how to guarantee payment of the total amount. .  The response indicates success with an authorization number.LEC2. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: Travel reservation(19/23) Scenario / Steps • The user communicates his/her accommodation choice to the travel agent service. • The travel agent service books the hotel room:  The travel agent service requests a description of how to book a room to the chosen hotel service.

LEC2.  The travel agent service sends the request accordingly.  The travel agent service sends a request in order to find out how to cancel the reservation should a problem occur later in the process. along with the authorization number signed by the payment service. • The travel agent service charges a fee to the user:  The travel agent service requests a description of how to request payment to the payment service. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: Travel reservation(20/23) • The travel agent service confirms the flight reservation:  The travel agent service requests a description of how to buy a ticket on hold to the airline service.  The travel agent service sends the request accordingly. communicating the payment service chosen and the signed authorization number from this service. . • The service provides the user with various confirmation numbers and wishes the user a good vacation.

If the hotel room cannot be booked. If the flight reservation cannot be confirmed. the user should be presented with an error. the user should be presented with an error and should get to choose from an updated list of options. . the hotel room reservation should be canceled and the user should be presented with an error and start the reservation process again.LEC2. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: Travel reservation(21/23) Extensions If the payment service doesn't confirm the validity of the user's payment option.

the airline service and the travel agent service.LEC2. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: Travel reservation(22/23) Technologies / Requirements Service description technology: used by the payment authority to describe its confirmation service. Ontologies: the payment confirmation needs to be used in a way meaningful to the travel service. Authentication technology: used by the payment authority to sign the payment authorization to be trusted by the hotel service. the output of one service needs to be used as the input to other services that might use different vocabularies. in other words. Encryption technology: used by the payment service and the travel agent service to communicate the user's payment information confidentially. and by the airline to describe its service to buy tickets by confirming seats on hold. . by the hotel to describe its room booking service. hotel and airline services.

For example. Thanks to the ontologies used. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: Travel reservation(23/23) Notes on the scenario This scenario illustrates how a program.LEC2. hotel services. there is a limit to what the travel agent service can understand. However. However. the developers of the travel agent service will need to implement the extra logic to make it understand this new type of restriction. it is likely to be able to understand the introduction of a new class of tickets. without a priori knowledge of them or of the way they work. can interact dynamically with airline services. say class Z. . the travel agent service. including validating the student identification. the program can adapt to variations of formats that an airline service might be using and adapt to the introduction of new products. if the restrictions on class Z tickets use concepts that it is not aware of (say that class Z tickets can only be bought more than 60 days in advance and with a valid international student identification).

g.LEC2. facilitate matchmaking between clients and merchants. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: financial e-Marketplace – What is an e-Marketplace? • Supply-chain e-Marketplace: as marketing infrastructure for financial institutions who play as brokers. and the providers make profits directly from core transactions e. and their profits are mostly from advertisements and membership e-Marketplace: Buyer: consumers / vendors SCM Seller: suppliers / vendors Buyer: consumers / vendors Open marketplace Seller: suppliers / vendors . the business chain is extended upstream and downstream with the businesses of specified e-Marketplace providers as the junction. financial investment broker both through the rewards from suppliers and fees from clients • Broker-style as open market platforms.

multiple platforms.LEC2. and offer buyers an easy system for sourcing product and negotiating terms online. The provided services give suppliers constant access to the international marketplace. Web services are efficient in enforcing automatic and dynamic collaborations. and offer Chinese businesses maximum exposure to potential International markets and investors. The system integration for them is involved with heterogeneous data and complex and nondeterministic interactions. often simultaneous roles in a distributed e-Business community. . Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: financial e-Marketplace – Why e-Marketplace? • E-Marketplaces are open large-scale application environments in which the sub-systems are geographically dispersed and involve different application packages. By reaching Chinese manufacturers and traders with purchase inquiries and other information. electronic marketplaces can facilitate interactions between Chinese suppliers and overseas buyers. and often producing results that are ambiguous and incomplete. It is an appropriate design paradigm for e-Business systems with complex and distributed transactions. • E-Marketplaces are considered efficient for China in developing a modern value-added manufacturing and service-based economy. not necessarily designed to work together. The system components are required to be able to change configuration to participate in dynamic. especially for e-Marketplaces. protocols and forms of user interfaces.

000 suppliers and 150. Some e-business services simply provide information such as stock tickers or product catalogs. such as B2B purchasing of office supplies. For example. or mission-critical B2B commerce transactions. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: financial e-Marketplace – Developments of e-Marketplaces • There have been emerging efforts to promote e-Marketplaces.LEC2. Excel Group. Other e-business services enable lightweight commerce. current e-Businesses have not sufficiently support sophisticated trading activities. However. such as CPU purchases by a PC manufacturer.000 products. have unveiled ChinaTradingTime . Meet World Trade is an online network of Asian eMarketplaces that uses a combination of online and offline With an online catalog of more than 70.an electronic marketplace promoting direct trading between China and the US. . another China-related e-Marketplace. and the Chinese Light Industry Ministry. B2C auction businesses. US business-tobusiness services firm. Meet World Trade is helping raise global trade exchange for sourcing products in Asia.

Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: General vision for e-Marketplaces System I5 T1 I5 I5 1 B 1 I5 m 2 I5 I5 3 Tl I5 BCKOA eMarketplaces Community T… T3 B … B 3 I5 m … I5 B 5 6 5 4 I5 Bn I5 T5 I5 I5 T1 T2 … Tn-1 Tn B1 S A S A S A Interactions between the participants of the auction pattern .LEC2.

LEC2. Service-Oriented Description Internet e-Marketplace Community Agent-Based Service Implementation S A S A S A SOA Busin. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: financial e-Marketplaces / System Analysis Business Services Business Market Infrastructure (a) Abstraction layers for e-Marketplace Market Services (Core & Value-added) Business-Specific Services Business Entity BE 1 Services Business Entity BE n Services Market Business Model Ontology BCKOA Integration Services Distributed Computing Infrastructure (b) BCKOA-based e-Marketplace Service Protocols and Operation Environment S A S A S A SOA Busin. Interactions between the participants of the Rauction pattern .

g. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: financial e-Marketplaces / Business Analysis Market-oriented Business Process Model Related Services Advertisement Goal Identification Yes Product Selection Yes Trademark Selection Yes Broker Selection (e.g.LEC2. bargain) No No No 1 List/Directory 2 ShopBot/PriceBot 3 Yes Trade Settlement (e. BS) Yes No Auction&Bargain 4 Trading/Banking 5 Customer Relationship Management Feedback/Evaluation/Trust .

*C1.Goal Goalidentification identification Goal Goal Identification Identification *M *M1.M Merchant erchant selection selection Auction Auction M M3. 2.Interact Interact with withclient client Financial FinancialPlanning Planning[4] [4] Online Onlinebuying buying[4][10] [4][10] Account Account management management [4][5][17] [4][5][17] Online Onlinebanking banking[4][5][7][10] [4][5][7][10] Online Onlinecalculators calculators[4][6][11] [4][6][11] Anti-overdraft&fraud Anti-overdraft&fraudservice service[6][14] [6][14] Secure transaction [9] Secure transaction [9] Online Onlinestatement statement [4][6][7] [4][6][7] Portfolio Portfoliotracking tracking[11] [11] Interactive Interactiveplans plansgeneration generation Agreement Agreement sign sign Purchase/transfer Purchase/transfer Business Businessmanagement management system system Internal interaction&integration Internal interaction&integration Statement Statement services services Alert&anti-overdraft Alert&anti-overdraft services services *BS: *BS:Negotiation NegotiationAgent Agent *BS: *BS:Trading TradingA Agent gent *BS: *BS:Banking BankingAgent Agent *I: Integration *I:Intra Intra IntegrationA Agent gent *BF: *BF:Secretary Secretary Agent Agent C5. 4.M Merchant erchant demonstration demonstration Content/Sourcing Content/Sourcingservice service[2][3] [2][3] Business Businessselector selector[10][12][17][21] [10][12][17][21] Business Businesscomparison comparison[13][15] [13][15] Outside Outsidecollaboration collaborationservice service[2] [2] Auction Auction[2][21] [2][21] Pricing Pricingpackage package[6] [6] Financial Financialprogram programselection selection Decision-aided Decision-aidedfacilities facilities Legal Legal counselor counselor External Externalinteraction&integration interaction&integration Financial Financialagency agency selection selection *BS: *BS:Program Program Selection SelectionA Agent gent *U: Legal Advisor A gents *U: Legal Advisor A gents *I: Integration *I:Inter Inter IntegrationAgent Agent *BS: *BS:eAuction eAuctionA Agent gent C4.Interact Interact with withmerchant merchant Bargain Bargain M M4.Agreement&payment Agreement&payment Settlement Settlement Iterative Iterativetransfer/redemption transfer/redemption M M5.Agreement&commitments Agreement&commitments CRM CRM C6. 6.Aftersale Aftersaleservices services Customer … Customerservice service[1][2] [1][2] … M Merchant erchant self-assessment self-assessment [2] [2] Customer Customerrelation relationmanagement management Reputation Reputationrating rating *BF: *BF:CRM CRMAgent Agent . 3. 5.Specific Specificmarketing marketing C3. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: financial e-Marketplaces / Business Survey E-Market E-Market Trading Trading Financial Financial interactive interactive process process Existing Existing financial financial marketplacemarketplacerelated related electronic electronic services services Identified Identified BCKOA BCKOA financial financial services services Identified Identified Agents Agents to to collaborate collaborate on on a a business business *C1. C4. 1. C3. C5. C2.Feedback Feedback M M6.LEC2. C6.Product Product selection selection Product Product Determination Determination M M2.Comprehensive Comprehensivemarketing marketing Access Accessregistry registry [2][21] [2][21] Online … Onlineinformation&ads information&ads[1][2] [1][2] … Personalized … Personalizednewsletter[1][2] newsletter[1][2] … Financial Financialindices&news&analysis indices&news&analysis *U: *U:Secure SecureClient Client Agent Agent *U: *U:Secure SecureSpecialist Specialist Agents Agents *BF: *BF:M Media ediaAgent Agent *BF: *BF:Access AccessM Management anagement Agent Agent C2.

Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: financial e-Marketplaces / Components Model Reputation Service Service Profile Profile (what (what to to do) do) Service B-Entity C on t ac t Presents Modeling Modeling (how (howto to work) work) Business Describes Associated items for business entity Service BCKOA -Based SOA Associated business properties Provides Resources i Precondition. a Service Rules Ix Grounding Grounding (how (howto to use) use) Supports Represents Orients to e-Marketplace B -E nt ity Participants Time ob Roles Effect E-Marketplace elements ct Business Interaction Transaction Business Pr od u .LEC2.

as well as crossenterprise integration and cooperation in an electronic supply-chain. Interactions between the participants of the Rauction pattern . where transactions are behavioral aspects of the services. Web services are herein cooperatively or competitively interact to enable and support common economic services such as brokering. In this view the fundamental elements of the markets are (Web) services.LEC2. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: financial e-Marketplace / System Architecture We envision Web-based e-Marketplace as an economically motivated collaborative distributed environment. pricing and negotiation. Web services capture and implement services as functionalities and roles.

LEC2. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: financial e-Marketplaces / System Components Service oriented financial e-marketplaces Finance-related sites Data-level integration Data collection based on semantic recognition of intelligent agents InterAgent Access Client Media Marketing Selection IntraAgent Auction Negotiation Settlement Service-level integration Data-service interaction with applicable ‘knowledge ontology’ CRM Other facilities Specialist Business-level integration Service-Service interaction with applicable ‘knowledge ontology’ and ‘process ontology’ IntraAgent Media Marketing Selection InterAgent Auction Negotiation Settlement CRM Other facilities Access Legal advisor Service-oriented financial e-marketplaces .

their further transactions from ‘7/Negotiation’ can possibly be accomplished on direct interaction with each other without the eMarketplace system’s intervention. when a user becomes the client of some certain agency. in which workflows are those transactions involved in the specified business-specific services The roles displayed in the figure are flexible with the different position of eMarketplace.Services Roles and Deployment in a Financial e-Marketplace BCKOA & CIR-Agent -based Marketplace S0/*U: Secure Client Service S1/*U: Secure Specialist Services S2/*BF: Media Service JADE @ IntraNet S3/*BF: Access Management Service S4/*BS: Program Selection Service 0 11 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 b c d S5/*BF: Legal Advisor Service S6/*I: InterIntegration Service S7/*BS: eAuction Service Internet S8/*BS: Negotiation Service S9/*BS: Trading Service Business/Agency a Sa/*I: IntraIntegration Service Sb/*BF: Value-added Service Sc/*BS: Banking Service Business processing system Client JADE @ IntraNet Other eMarketplace Sd/*BF: CRM Service Notes: BS Services are designated as some kinds of workflows monitors/controller. . In some cases where the participating agencies have well-built electronic-commerce infrastructure.

They are customizable for different roles at different businesses/entities. it communicating with agents involved in specific transactions at a secure mode by collaborating with each other.Services Identifications: 0&1/E S0/*U: Secure Client Service S1/*U: Secure Specialist Services S2/*BF: Media Service S3/*BF: Access Management Service S4/*BS: Program Selection Service S5/*BF: Legal Advisor Service S6/*I: InterIntegration Service S7/*BS: eAuction Service S8/*BS: Negotiation Service S9/*BS: Trading Service Sa/*I: IntraIntegration Service Sb/*BF: Value-added Service Sc/*BS: Banking Service Sd/*BF: CRM Service S0  Secure Client Agent  User-interface Service @ Market service Layer • An intelligent user interface for (potential) clients. • Anytime when a user decides to use this agent. All users interact with the marketplace via it. This is a secure interface i.e. Support secure interservice communications • Interacts with 8 other agents (see picture to the right) 1 0 2 3 7 8 9 c d . the agent will firstly guide him(her) to be registered and be a client of the marketplace. This kind of security can implement randomly encrypted communication based on synchronized actions since both parties are members of eMarketplace. 0 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 b c d S1  Secure Specialist Agents  User-Interface Agents @ BSS Layer • Intelligent user interfaces for specialists from specific businesses..

such as financial indices&news • Proactively contacts with users (both clients S0 and businesses S1) with customized newsletter • Interacts marketing representatives about advertisements with desigated interface 2 Marketing representatives 0 1 S3  Access Management Service  Market Services @ Market service Layer • Authenticate logon of S0 and S1 • Commit registration data to Sd (CRM Service) 3 0 1 d .Services Identifications: 2&3/E S0/*U: Secure Client Service S1/*U: Secure Specialist Services S2/*BF: Media Service S3/*BF: Access Management Service S4/*BS: Program Selection Service S5/*BF: Legal Advisor Service S6/*I: InterIntegration Service S7/*BS: eAuction Service S8/*BS: Negotiation Service S9/*BS: Trading Service Sa/*I: IntraIntegration Service Sb/*BF: Value-added Service Sc/*BS: Banking Service Sd/*BF: CRM Service S2  Media Service  Market services @ Market Service Layer • Online information publication.

The progress in the workflow advances a step o S0 ↔ S4 ↔ Sd: the user set up options in terms of investment.Services Identifications: 4/E S0/*U: Secure Client Service S1/*U: Secure Specialist Services S2/*BF: Media Service S3/*BF: Access Management Service S4/*BS: Program Selection Service S5/*BF: Legal Advisor Service S6/*I: InterIntegration Service S7/*BS: eAuction Service S8/*BS: Negotiation Service S9/*BS: Trading Service Sa/*I: IntraIntegration Service Sb/*BF: Value-added Service Sc/*BS: Banking Service Sd/*BF: CRM Service 4 0 6 d S4  Program Selection Service  Business-Specific Service @ BSS Layer • Implement requested financial programs selection. the user can acquire valuable financial investment advices • Transactions involved include o S0 → S4: S0 contacts with S4 for financial programs selection o S4: generates and initiates a loop-supported selection workflow o S4 → S0: return a search interface to S0. o This procedure repeats until the client discard or decide to purchase and request agency selection. submit to S4.. Then S4 ends the workflow. etc. endurable risk. S4 get information by contacting with Sd. expected gain. compute and return the matches listed on standard program IDs. duration. o In some cases. S4 will pursue program data from other eMarketplace by searching through S6 o A transaction is passed in the workflow line everytime a search is finished. .

Services Identifications: 5&6/E S0/*U: Secure Client Service S1/*U: Secure Specialist Services S2/*BF: Media Service S3/*BF: Access Management Service S4/*BS: Program Selection Service S5  Legal Advisor Service  Business Facility Service @ BSS Layer • As a useful facility. receive requests from S0 and return recognizable advices to it • The payment is implemented by the protocol between S0 and S5 S5/*BF: Legal Advisor Service S6/*I: InterIntegration Service S7/*BS: eAuction Service S8/*BS: Negotiation Service S9/*BS: Trading Service Sa/*I: IntraIntegration Service Sb/*BF: Value-added Service Sc/*BS: Banking Service Sd/*BF: CRM Service 5 0 S6  InterIntegration Service  Integration Services @ Market service Layer • Integrate resources and transactions outside the current market into specified transactions at certain procedures. for example. selection programs could be enforced by introducing external resources when selecting programs • Possess Internet-oriented information exchange ontology 6 4 .

the transactions involved include o S0 → S7: S0 contacts with S7 to request a merchant selection by eAuction o S7: generates and initiates an eAuction workflow o S7 ↔ S0: S7 returns a search interface to S0. and determine appropriate biding candidates. gets data about merchants. the user sets up options in terms of agency reputation. offer and bid. repeats until the client discard or decide to negotiate with some of them. A message about this action is return to S7 to change the status of the current workflow o S7 ↔ Sd: S7 interacts with Sd. this is marked in the workflow o S1 ↔ S0: start eAuction. The preparation for auction is ready. o S7 ↔ S1: S7 invites all selected candidates to bid by their agents S1. A notification is returned to S7 0 1 d . location and other items. profiles. history record.Services Identifications: 7/E S0/*U: Secure Client Service S1/*U: Secure Specialist Services S2/*BF: Media Service S3/*BF: Access Management Service S4/*BS: Program Selection Service S5/*BF: Legal Advisor Service S6/*I: InterIntegration Service S7/*BS: eAuction Service S8/*BS: Negotiation Service S9/*BS: Trading Service Sa/*I: IntraIntegration Service Sb/*BF: Value-added Service Sc/*BS: Banking Service Sd/*BF: CRM Service 7 S7  eAuction Service  Business-Specific Service @ BSS Layer • Implement specified merchants selection based on specific financial products/services. those interested Sls respond to S7.

S1 improves the plan and return.Services Identifications: 8/E S0/*U: Secure Client Service S1/*U: Secure Specialist Services S2/*BF: Media Service S3/*BF: Access Management Service S4/*BS: Program Selection Service S5/*BF: Legal Advisor Service S6/*I: InterIntegration Service S7/*BS: eAuction Service S8/*BS: Negotiation Service S9/*BS: Trading Service Sa/*I: IntraIntegration Service Sb/*BF: Value-added Service Sc/*BS: Banking Service Sd/*BF: CRM Service 8 S8  Negotiation Service Business  Specific Service @ BSS Layer • Implement Negotiation between the client and specialist based on selected financial products/services and merchants. plans. S8 is not reuired to report to Sd) 0 1 d . as well as its criterions. A message about this action is sent to S8 to change dynamically the status of the workflow o S0 ↔ S1 ↔ S0: S0 reviews the plan. the transactions involved include o S0 → S8: S0 contacts with S8 to request a business negotiation by the ID it got at agency selection. requests for advices. returns with its own feeling and suggestions to S1. S1 analyzes S0’s intention from its criterions. o S0&S1 → S8: S0 and S1 send a end message to S8 to end up this process o S0/S1 → Sd: S0 or S1 report to Sd about experienced interactions data if they have some opinions opon the other party (for the service of this nature. processes and sends specific personalized investment plans to S0. This step repeats until S0 decide to see more agencies or purchase. and quotations o S8: generates and initiates a negotiation workflow for the request case o S8 ↔ S1 → S0: S8 transfers related data to S1.

submits. it will involves agreement and consequent commitments (e. and some other transactions involved) • For a trading service. redemption. A message is sent to S9 o Sa → S0 → S9: (In some cases that S0 gets an account as a result of the order.g. A message is sent to S9 o Sa → S0 → S9: S0 is returned order status.Services Identifications: 9/E S0/*U: Secure Client Service S1/*U: Secure Specialist Services S2/*BF: Media Service S3/*BF: Access Management Service S4/*BS: Program Selection Service S5/*BF: Legal Advisor Service S6/*I: InterIntegration Service S7/*BS: eAuction Service S8/*BS: Negotiation Service S9/*BS: Trading Service Sa/*I: IntraIntegration Service Sb/*BF: Value-added Service Sc/*BS: Banking Service Sd/*BF: CRM Service 9 0 1 a d S9  Trading Service  Business-Specific Service @ BSS Layer • Enforce trading commitments. A message for this action is returned to S9 for changing workflow status o S0 → S1 → S9 : S0 completes. there will be purchase. there will be a convenience for it to manage account) o S9 → Sd: send interaction data to Sd . based on selected products and merchants. The transactions depends on the products. signs (by password). For example. A message is sent to S9 in the meantime o S1 → Sa → S0 → S9: S1 validates the order and transfer it to Sc (the processing system) (through Sa). but for service-like product. and confirms the order to S1. the involved transactions between the client and provider generally are o S0 → S9: S0 contacts with S9 for purchase with enough information about the product and merchant o S9: Generates and initiates a workflow for the requested purchase o S9 ↔ S1 → S0: S9 notifies S1 to send a specified order form to S1 to complete. for financial marketplace. and their protocols. for commodity exchange. the trade is very straightforward.

see the picture below a 8 9 b c Sb  Value-added Service  Business-Facility Service @ BF Layer • Based on the requirements of value-added provisions.Services Identifications: a&b/E S0/*U: Secure Client Service S1/*U: Secure Specialist Services S2/*BF: Media Service S3/*BF: Access Management Service S4/*BS: Program Selection Service S5/*BF: Legal Advisor Service S6/*I: InterIntegration Service S7/*BS: eAuction Service S8/*BS: Negotiation Service S9/*BS: Trading Service Sa/*I: IntraIntegration Service Sb/*BF: Value-added Service Sc/*BS: Banking Service Sd/*BF: CRM Service Sa  IntraIntegration Service  Integration Services @ Market Service Layer • Integrate transaction procedures in the company with those in eMarketplace. S1. and Sd ( through Sa) for services from inside the participating agencies. S1 or the transaction system send actively to S0 with related necessary statements or alerts based on S0’s preferences • Interacts with S0. see the picture to the right b 0 1 a d . and streamline the transaction • Possess IntraNet-oriented ontology for information exchange inside a company/agency • Those business-specific services involved with process inside an agency user interacts with this agent.

o S0  Sc: The information could be collected automatically by S9. • (As a result. But in the case of broker-style. the Sa is just a link that guides the user to the objective application). • This transaction can possibly be performed directly between customers and providers after they have a commitment via e-Marketplace and providers happen to provide this service. statement based on the account access after a successful transaction o S0 → (Sa) → Sc: manages overall accounts set up at the agency o S0 → Sa → Sc: access other services by the agency . this facility can be provided by engaged providers. • In the case that the banking service is just for payment and provided by eMarketplace other than providers. Sc return a logon interface. In the manual case. transaction details. For example o S0 → (Sa) → Sc: checks account details. involved transactions usually include o S0  Sc: S0 send a request to Sc with related payment information. in the current prototype.Services Identifications: c/E S0/*U: Secure Client Service S1/*U: Secure Specialist Services S2/*BF: Media Service S3/*BF: Access Management Service S4/*BS: Program Selection Service S5/*BF: Legal Advisor Service S6/*I: InterIntegration Service S7/*BS: eAuction Service S8/*BS: Negotiation Service S9/*BS: Trading Service Sa/*I: IntraIntegration Service Sb/*BF: Value-added Service Sc/*BS: Banking Service Sd/*BF: CRM Service c 0 1 a b d Sc  Banking Service  Business-Specific Service @ BSS Layer • This service is a payment facility for the e-Marketplace. or by manual input. S0 completes it and confirms to submit o Sc : Sc completes the transaction and record. Sc offer logon information (account/password) and enter o Sc  S0: Sc provides a payment interface. o S1  Sc → S0: Sc notify Sc and S0 with the result • Some more complex convenience could be added in more powerful banking services especially provided by provider. Sc initiate a payment process. And customers (S0) can access them through intraIntegration (Sa).

profiles. policies.Services Identifications: d/E S0/*U: Secure Client Service S1/*U: Secure Specialist Services S2/*BF: Media Service S3/*BF: Access Management Service S4/*BS: Program Selection Service S5/*BF: Legal Advisor Service S6/*I: InterIntegration Service S7/*BS: eAuction Service S8/*BS: Negotiation Service S9/*BS: Trading Service Sa/*I: IntraIntegration Service Sb/*BF: Value-added Service Sc/*BS: Banking Service Sd/*BF: CRM Service Sd  CRM Service  Market Services @ Market Layer • Manage client-related concerns e. reputation rating • Manage business-related concerns e.g. reputation rating • Handles user feedbacks • Collect interaction performances of both parties by contacting with other agents(S0/S1/S3/S5/Sb/Sc) at specified transactions • Based on users profiles. interaction history and user feedback. preferences.g. products/services. profiles. rates reputations of both clients and agencies • Serve up others agents with reputation marks d 0 1 3 5 b c .

the involved transactions include o S0 → S9: S0 contacts with S9 for purchase with enough information about the product and merchant o S9: Generates and initiates a workflow for the requested purchase o S9 ↔ S1 → S0: S9 notifies S1 to send a specified order form to S1 to complete. A message for this action is returned to S9 for changing workflow status o S0 → S1 → S9 : S0 completes.Application Instantiation: Trading Service S0/*U: Secure Client Service S1/*U: Secure Specialist Services S2/*BF: Media Service S3/*BF: Access Management Service S4/*BS: Program Selection Service @ Financial Marketplace: Purchase S5/*BF: Legal Advisor Service S6/*I: InterIntegration Service S7/*BS: eAuction Service S8/*BS: Negotiation Service S9/*BS: Trading Service Sa/*I: IntraIntegration Service Sb/*BF: Convenient Service Sc/*BS: Banking Service Sd/*BF: CRM Service 9 0 1 a d S9  Purchase Service  Business-Specific Service @ BSS Layer • Implement purchase between the client and specialist based on selected financial products/services and merchants. statement based on the account access after a successful transaction (via Sa but the process is transparent to S0) o (Option) S0 → Sa → S9: manages overall accounts set up at the agency (selectable to via Sa) o (Option) S0 → Sa → S9: access other services by the agency (selectable to via S7) o S9 → Sd: send interaction data to Sd . and confirms the order to S1. submits. A message is sent to S9 in the meantime o S1 → Sa → S0 → S9: S1 validates the order and transfer it to the processing system through Sa. transaction details. A message is sent to S9 o Sa → S0 → S9: S0 is returned order status. and their protocols. A message is sent to S9 o (Option)S0 → Sa → S9: checks account details. signs (by password).

If determined to redempt. launch the redemption procedure d of the processing system via Sa. notifies Sc o Sc → Sd: sends interaction data to Sd . gets and returns to S0 the result statement. Notifies Sc about this action o (Option)S0 → Sa → Sc: checks the subject account at the agency. and a receipt message is sent to Sc o S1 → S0 → Sc: S1 composes a statement in terms of gain/loss. alternatives based on the specified program type. S0 completes the form and submit to S1. sends to S0 with a message to Sc o S0 → (Sc) → S1: If cancel this redemption. advices.Application Instantiation: Trading Service S0/*U: Secure Client Service S1/*U: Secure Specialist Services S2/*BF: Media Service S3/*BF: Access Management Service S4/*BS: Program Selection Service @ Financial Marketplace: Redemption S5/*BF: Legal Advisor Service S6/*I: InterIntegration Service S7/*BS: eAuction Service S8/*BS: Negotiation Service S9/*BS: Trading Service Sa/*I: IntraIntegration Service Sb/*BF: Convenient Service Sc/*BS: Banking Service Sd/*BF: CRM Service c 0 1 a b Sc  Redemption Service  Business-Specific Service @ BSS Layer • Implement Redemption between the client and specialist • This transaction can possibly be performed directly between clients and agencies in case that agency provide this service. notify Sc in the same time o S1 → Sa → S0 → Sc: S1 processes the form. o Sc monitors and make sure that the involved transactions happen o S0 → Sc: S0 contacts with Sc and request to be redempted after receiving maturity notification from Sb or slef-determinedly for redemption with enough information on its S1 o Sc: generates and initiates a redemption process for this case o Sc ↔ S1 → S0 : S1 is requested to sends a specified order form to be completed by S0. finishes the payment or transfer based on facility services. a notification message is returned from S1 to Sc after this action o S0 → S1 → Sc: S0 completes the form and submit to S1. notify Sc and end this process.

Application Instantiation: Trading Service @ Financial Marketplace: Convenience Sb  Convenient Service  Business-Specific Service @ BSS Layer • S1 or the transaction system send actively to S0 with related necessary statements or alerts based on S0’s preferences • Anti-overdraft by guiding clients to set up constraints for specific accounts • Interacts with S0. see the picture to the right S0/*U: Secure Client Service S1/*U: Secure Specialist Services S2/*BF: Media Service S3/*BF: Access Management Service S4/*BS: Program Selection Service S5/*BF: Legal Advisor Service S6/*I: InterIntegration Service S7/*BS: eAuction Service S8/*BS: Negotiation Service S9/*BS: Trading Service Sa/*I: IntraIntegration Service Sb/*BF: Convenient Service Sc/*BS: Banking Service Sd/*BF: CRM Service b 0 1 a d . and Sd (through Sa) for services from inside the participating agencies. S1.

Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: financial e-Marketplaces / Auction RAuctioneer Buyer Seller Interactions between the participants of the Rauction pattern .LEC2.

Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: financial e-Marketplaces / Auction E-Marketplace Initiate an auction session Set requirements for the business buyer Issue a call forbid Reply with an offer auctioneer Seller (bidder) Count and determine the winner Let buyer decide if accept the result Notify the seller of the result .LEC2.

2. ….. Retrieval from Sd… Running Sessions ……………. …………. Automatic Quote Manual Quote Products Prompts Processing… Interacting with S0… Interacting with S1… Quote Modification Result 1.LEC2.. Clients that request aInves bMF abcBank Gain x Risk xxx Time … Quotes List aInves bMF abcBank Gain Risk Time … Go to Bargain Accept Reject Refuse . Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: financial eMarketplaces / Auction Interface for Buyer Logon eM Client-side Interface for Seller eM Server-side Logon Console for RAuction Cancel Enter Cancel Enter Log Criterions Setting Product Rate Trade … Cancel Submit Quote Details Messages Log 1.. ………. Response from S1… 3. Request from S0… 2.

Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: financial e-Marketplaces / Auction .LEC2.

LEC2. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: financial e-Marketplaces / Auction Reverse Auction .

LEC2. Architecture and Technologies A e-Business case: financial e-Marketplaces / Auction Auction .