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Personality and Emotions

Chapter 4
Learning Objectives
Explain the factors that determine an individuals personality. Describe the MBTI personality framework. Identify the key traits in the Big Five personality model. Explain the impact of job typology on the personality/job performance relationship. Differentiate emotions from moods. Contrast felt versus displayed emotions. Explain gender differences in emotions. Describe external constraints on emotions. Apply concepts on emotion to OB issues.

The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others portrays the individuals personality The Factors that determine a personality are called PERSONALITY DETERMINENTS They are as follows 1. Heredity. 2. Environment. 3. Situation.

Heredity Factors that are determined at conception. Physical stature, facial attractiveness, gender, muscle composition and reflexes etc. Environment Culture in which you are raised, early conditioning, norms within family and friends. Values in the society in which we are raised. Situation The different demands of different situations calls for different aspects of our personality. PERSONALITY TRAITS Enduring characteristics that describe an individuals behavior.

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

Extroverted vs. Introverted. Sensing vs. Intuitive. Thinking vs. Feeling. Judging vs. Perceiving.

The Big Five Model

Extroversion A personality dimension describing someone who is
sociable , gregarious ,and assertive.

Agreeableness A personality dimension that describes someone who is

good natured , cooperative , and trusting.

Conscientiousness A personality dimension that describes someone

who is responsible, dependable , persistent , and organized.

Emotional Stability A personality dimension that characterizes someone

who is calm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous ,depressed, and insecure (negative).

Openness To Experience A personality dimension that characterizes

someone in terms of imagination, sensitivity, and curiosity.

16PF (16 Personality Factor)

It measures 16 temperament traits
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Warmth Reasoning Emotional Stability Dominance Liveliness Rule Consciousness Social Boldness



10. Abstractedness 11. Privacy 12. Apprehension 13. Openness To Change 14. Self-Reliance 15. Perfectionism 16. Tension

Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB

Locus Of Control The degree to which people believe they are masters
of their own fate. There are two types of people INTERNALS and EXTERNALS.

Internals Individuals who believe that they control what happen to them.
Externals Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces
such as luck or chance.

Machiavellianism Degree to which an individual is pragmatic , maintains

emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.

Self Esteem Individuals degree of liking or disliking themselves. Self Monitoring A personality trait that measures an individuals ability to
adjust to his or her behavior to external ,situational factors.

There Are 3 types of Personalities

Type A personality Aggressive, involvement in chronic , incessant struggle
to achieve more and more in less and less time and , if necessary ,against the opposing efforts of other things or other people.
They are always moving ,walking, and eating rapidly; Feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place. Strive to think or do two or more things at once; Cannot cope with leisure time. Are obsessed with numbers ,measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire.

Type B personality Rarely harried by the desire to obtain a wildly increasing

number of things or participate in an endless growing series of events in an ever decreasing amount of time.

Never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience;
Feel no need to discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such exposure is demanded by the situation Play for fun and relaxation ,rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost;

Can relax without guilt

Did you ever notice that some people actively take the initiative to improve their current circumstances or create new ones while others sit by passively reacting to such situations? The former individual have been described as having a proactive personality. Proactives are people who identify opportunities ,show initiatives ,take actions, and persevere until meaningful changes occur.

PROACTIVES have many desirable behaviors that organizations covet.

Personality Job Fit Theory

Identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover.

The Person-Organization Fit

As previously noted ,attention in recent years has expanded to include matching people to organizations as well as jobs. To the degree that an organization faces a dynamic and changing environment and requires employees who are able to readily change tasks and move fluidly between teams, its probably more important that employees personalities fit with overall organizations culture than with the characteristic of any specific job.



Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something

Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus

Felt Emotions

Displayed Emotions

An Individuals Emotions that Actual emotions are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job

Emotion Dimensions
- There are literally dozens of emotions. They include anger, contempt, enthusiasm, envy, fear, frustration, disgust, happiness, hate, hope, jealousy, joy, love, pride, surprise, and sadness.

2. INTENSITY People give different responses to identical emotion-provoking stimuli. In

some cases this can be attributed to the individuals personality. Other times it is a result of the job requirements.

3. FREQUENCY and DURATION Emotional labor that requires high frequency or

long durations is more demanding and requires more exertion from employees. So whether an employee can successfully meet the emotional demands of a given job depends not only on the emotions needed to be displayed and their intensity, but also on how frequently and for how long the effort has to be made.



Emotion Continuum




External Constraints On Emotions

Organizational Influences - If you cant smile and appear happy ,you
are unlikely to have much of a career working at Disneyland. And a manual of McDonalds states that its counter personnel must display traits such as sincerity ,enthusiasm ,confidence, and a sense of humor.

Cultural Influences Employees have to follow certain norms while

interacting with customers these are different worldwide for example in America it is mandatory for the employee to smile and act friendly with the customers

Affective Events Theory

Theory that employees react emotionally to things that happen to them at work and that this influences their job performance and satisfaction.

Work Environment

Affective Events Theory

Characteristics of a job
Job Demands Requirements for emotional labor

Job Satisfaction

Work Events Daily Hassles Daily Uplifts

Emotional Reaction Positive Negative Job Performance

Personal Dispositions Personality. Mood

OB Applications
Ability and Selection - People who know their own emotions and are
good at reading others emotions may be more effective in their jobs. That , in essence, is the theme underlying recent research on emotional intelligence.

Deviant Workplace Voluntary actions that violate established

norms and that threaten the organization, its members, or both.

Emotional Intelligence

Self Awareness Being aware of what you are feeling. Self Management The ability to manage ones own emotions and impulses. Self Motivation The ability to persist in the face of setbacks and failures. Empathy The ability to sense how others feel.
Social Skills The ability to handle the emotions of others.