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Physical Fitness for College Freshmen


In most educational systems, physical education (PE),also called physical training(PT) or gym, though each with a very different connotation, is a course in the curriculum which utilizes learning in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains in a play or movement exploration setting.

Physical education has existed since the earliest stages of humanity, in areas as simple as the transmission of knowledge of basic survival skills, such as hunting.

The first known literary reference to an athletic competition is preserved in ancient Greek text, the Iliad, by Homer. While by no means is this the beginning of physical activity, it marks an important point in the study of the history of physical education. Other cultures that existed before the Greeks, including the ancient Chinese, Indian, and Egyptian civilizations had traditions of physical education and activity, but the Greek influence is argued to be the most fundamental to how the discipline is viewed today.

The ancient Greek tradition of the Olympic Games. . which originated in the early 8th century BC. even continues today.

He was highly political within Germany. his contributions to Physical Education ( mostly in Gymnastics) as a discipline are still seen today. .Father of Modern Physical Education that we know today is FRIEDRICH LUDWIG JAHN.

What is Physical Education? .

Refers to an important segment of general education which aims to contribute to the total development of the learner through participation in selected vigorous activities.Physical Education. .

mental. and emotional development.. . social.It provides opportunities to acquire lifelong skills that are essential to his physical.

What is the objectives of Physical Education? .

game. and whole-some interpersonal relationships. and dance skills. and attitudes. .Objectives of Physical Education -The goal of physical education is to assist the learner to develop and maintain a healthy lifestyle that can be achieved through the acquisition of knowledge . desirable habits.

. sports and dance skills to acquire one’s capability to enjoy life-time recreational pursuits. Physical development objectives.Having regular exercise and participation in varied vigorous activities. fundamental movement skills. .The objectives focus on the 4 aspects of development namely: 1. games. -develop and maintain physical fitness.

Ability to analyze body movements and skills -Evaluate game situations and make important decisions. . Mental development objectives. .2. .Understanding the rules of the games leads to better performance or appreciation of an activity.Focus is on acquisition of knowledge and understanding .

and develop leadership. -Learn the game of lifethe application of the golden rule. and practices fair play. sportsmanship.3. he learns to respect others. .In the process. Social development objectives. . teamwork.

Some worthwhile traits are: .Participation in Physical Education activities provides opportunities for the acquisition and practice of desirable social traits necessary for adjustment to happy living and to the social life in general.

Friendliness Cooperation Respect for the right of others Good sportsmanship Good leadership and followership Honestly in group competition .

appreciations.self reliance -discipline determination -appreciation for beautiful performances -self.Enables one to acquire pleasant attitudes. 4. -POSITIVE CHARACTER . . Emotional development objectives.expression . desirable habits.courage -selfcontrol -self-confidence . and values.


agility . strength. balance.PSYCHOMOTOR OBJECTIVES Physical Fitness Development and Movement Skills Physical Fitness Components – Endurance. flexibility.

Rules and strategies.COGNITIVE OBJECTIVES Knowledge and information Body functions and development process Analysis. reasoning and decision – making. and safety .

and selfexpression . leadership etc. aesthetics appreciation.AFFECTIVE OBJECTIVES Social and Emotional Stability Cooperation. Courage. selfdiscipline. respect for others. sportsmanship.


Paris. Brisbane Australia. and medical care.  . States that: “ The practice of Physical Education and Sports is a fundamental right for all” “ And this right should not be treated as different in principle from the right to adequate food.ARTICLE 1 of the International Charter of Physical Education and Sports. Interdisciplinary Regional Meeting of Experts on Physical Education. 1982. shelter.1978 and Recommendation 1. UNESCO. UNESCO.

section 19. teamwork.  “ All educational institutions shall undertake regular sports activities throughout the country and in cooperation with athletic club and other sectors. and excellence for the development of a healthy and alert citizenry.Article XIV. . league competitions and amateur sports including training for international competition to foster self-discipline. 1986 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines“ The States shall promote Physical Education and encourage sports programs.

series 1990.It prescribed by the Department of Education.PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN COLLEGE Refers to the four subjects given in the first four semesters of college work. Culture and Sports Order Number 58. -These are the subject titles and the corresponding suggested activities that will be undertaken by all college students. . .

 It also provides opportunities for physical fitness testing and the students participation in the development and maintenance of fitness such as aerobics. life and heavy apparatus work. .  It deals with the concept of Physical Education and Fitness. activities. selftesting.Physical Education 1: Physical Fitness The first course in physical  education. and free hand and floor exercises.

dance mixers. local and foreign dance as well as social and ballroom dances .Physical Education 2: Rhythmic Activities  Then subject covers the concept of rhythm. fundamental rhythmic activities.

 .Physical Education 3: Individual –Dual Sports/Games Concentration is on the acquisition of skills on recreational activities such as bowling.  Mga Laro ng Lahi are likewise given to foster love of country. badminton. and outdoor activities such as camping. mountaineering and aquatics. table tennis. track and field events.

Physical Education 4: Sports and Games  The subject deals with then fundamentals of common team sports such as Volleyball. Baseball/Softball and Football. Basketball. .

Regular exercise and physical activity are extremely important and beneficial for long-term health and well. .VALUES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION  The value of Physical Education activities are found in the resulting development and adjustment of the individual.being. Engaging in any activity stimulates in some degree the four types of development although different activities emphasize different amounts.


Reduce the risk of developing and / or dying from the heart disease. .

 Reduce high blood pressure or the risk of developing high blood pressure. .

. Reduce high cholesterol or the risk of developing high cholesterol.

. Reduce the risk of developing colon cancer and breast cancer.

 Reduce the risk of developing diabetes. .

Reduce or maintain body weight or body fat. .

and joints. Build and maintain healthy muscles. bones. .

. Reduce depression and anxiety.

.Improve psychologica l well-being.

 Enhance work. and sports performance. recreation. .

.WHAT IS PHYSICALLY EDUCATED PERSON?  Understands the potentials of physical education activities in the attainment of a healthy lifestyle and strives to achieves this goal.

Exercise regularly to develop and maintain his/ her weight and physical fitness. .

and dances. sports. .Has acquired sufficient skills to enable him/her to participate actively in some forms of recreational games.

Eats a balanced diet and practices good eating .

Get adequate sleep and avoids drugs and stimulants that will negatively affect his/her total well .

Enjoys participation in a variety of vigorous activities and recreational .

Appreciates good performances in games. sports and dances. .

Are you a physically educated person? .


- ORGANIC This is the development of power and endurance of the heart.1. and digestive and eliminating organs. These various organs gain power and . lungs. heatregulating mechanisms.

2. NUEROMUSCULAR .The development of skills and coordination required in the mastery of life’s varied activities can be directly attributed to physical education. . also to the development of strength in the skeletal muscles used in such coordination.

interpreting.This type of development strengthens the thinking. INTERPRETIVE . .3. and problemsolving processes of the individual.

joy . EMOTIONAL .The development and maturing of impulses and emotions through activities which give them expression under natural controls such as officials. and the person’s desire to stay in the game and play are inherent in team sport where fear.4. anger. and other powerful emotions are experienced. . rules. traditions.


. But mainly the Greek.Do you ever wonder where some of the words we use in physical education came from? -They are originated from combinations of different Latin and Greek words.

Anthropomorphic. a device or . human being and “ morphic”. exercises without the use of any apparatus. to prepare. having a specified shape or form. a group of devices used for a particular purpose.Here are the list of words with their origins and meaning: Apparatus. . Calisthenics. beautiful and “sthenos” for strength.From the Greek words “ kalos” .from the Latin word “ apparare”.From the Greek words “anthropikos”.

. vessel. Cardiovascular.Form the Greek word “kardio”. to arrange”. heart. to restrain. Exercise. the harmonious functioning of muscles or groups of muscles in the execution of movements. and Latin word “vasculum” .From the Latin word “ordinatus”.Coordination. bodily exertion for the sake of keeping the organs and functions I a healthy state.Form the Latin words “ex-” and “arcere”. relating to or involving the heart and the blood vessels.

GYMNASIUM. movement and –ology for branch of learning. Baron Nils Posse was the first to coin this word in relation to his Swedish gymnastics. to bend.From the Latin word “ flexus”. .From the Greek word “gumnasium” or “gumnazein” meaning to exercise naked . KINESIOLOGY. GYMNASTICS.FLEXIBILITY. a placed where Greek youths exercised.From the Greek words “ gumnos” or sometimes “gymnos”naked.From the Greek words “kinesis”.

PEDAGOGUE- From the Greek words “paido”, boy and “agogos”,leader.It now means a schoolteacher or an educator. It was literally a slave who supervised children and took them to and from school. PEDAGOGY- From the Greek “see above”; the art or profession of teaching. PHYSICAL EDUCATION- From the Latin words “physica”,”physics and “educatio”,the training of the bodily organs and powers with a view to the promotion of health and vigor.

PHYSIOLOGY- from the Greek words “ phusio”, nature and –ology branch of learning; the branch of the biological sciences dealing with the processes and functions of an organism. In Physical Education it is mainly Human Physiology which applies to a study of the functions of the organs and tissues in man.



BARON PIERRE DE COUBERTIN ( Founder of the Modern Olympic Movement) in 1913 after he saw a similar design on an artifact from ancient Greece.

Five rings -represent the five major regions of the world:  Africa  Americas  Asia  Europe  Ocenia .

which are (from left to right) Blue Yellow Black green Red  .Every national flag of the world includes at least one of the five colors.

OLYMPIC FLAG. . It then rest at the town hall of the next host-city for four years until the Opening Ceremony of their Olympic Games. the mayor of that host-city presents the flag to the mayor of the next host-city. At the end of each Olympic Games.made its debut at the 1920 Olympic Games in Antwerp Belgium.

thus beginning the era of the Modern Olympic Games. Baron de Coubertin. . Pierre Fredy. and were celebrated until 393 AD. the ancient Olympic Games were revived at the initiative of a French nobleman. Greece. In 1896. Began in 776 BC in Olympia.ORIGINAL OLYMPIC GAMES( Greek)Olympiakoi Agones.

” . Higher. Coubertin’s ideals are probably best illustrated by the Olympic Creed: “ The most important thing in the Olympic Games Is not to win but to take part. Altius. just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle.The official Olympic Motto “Citius. Fortius” a Latin phrase meaning “ Swifter. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well. Stronger”.

is lit in Olympia and brought to the host-city by runners carrying the torch in relay. There it plays an important role in the opening ceremonies. the relay was introduced in 1936. . Though the torch fire has been around since 1928.OLYMPIC FLAME.

OLYMPIC MASCOT- an animal or human figure representing the cultural heritage of the host country, was introduced in 1968. It has played an important part of the games since 1980 with the debut of misha, a Russian bear.

Two official language of the Olympic movement. - French - English


The most popular legend describes that HERACLES was the creator of the Olympic Games.  He built the Olympic Stadium and surrounding building as an honor to his father Zeus, after completing his 12 labors.  According to the legend he walked in a straight line for 400 strides and called this distance a “stadion” (Roman- “stadium”) (modern English“Stage”  That why a modern stadium is 400 meters in circumference length (1 stadium = 400 m.)


 . divine hero and mythical king of Olympia famous for his legendary chariot race. and Pelops . in whose honor the games were held.  The Olympics were of fundamental religions importance.The games quickly became much more important throughout Ancient Greece. reaching their zenith in the sixth and fifth centuries BC. contest altering with sacrifices and ceremonies honoring both Zeus (whose colossal statue stood at Olympia).

The most famous Olympic athlete lived in these times: the sixth century BC wrestler Milo of Croton is the only athlete in history to win a victory in six Olympic. . - The game were held every four years and the period between two celebrations became known as an “OLYMPIAD” The Greek used Olympiad as one of their methods to count year.


 The interest in reviving the Olympics as an international event grew when the ruins of Ancient Olympia were uncovered by German archaeologists in the mid-19th century.  Pierre de Coubertin .


Louis (1904) were over shadowed by the world’s fair exhibitions in which they were included.  After the initial success. . the Games grew to nearly 11. The celebration in Paris (1900) and St. Olympics struggled. From the 241 participants 14 nations in 1896. 100 competitors from 202 countries at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens.

D) .DARK AGES (476 A.

.  SCHOLASTICISMbelieved that facts are the most essential items of education. ASCETICISM- believed that evil exists in the body and should subordinate to the spirit which is pure.


GERMANY 1774 .





















WORLD WAR 1916-1919 .


1940-1970 .


Unit 2 .



What is Physical Fitness? .

Physical Fitness It is a physical condition where - - an individual has the capability to do everyday tasks without a feeling of exhaustion and still has a enough energy to perform extra activity of his own choice. If ever he experiences fatigue . he can easily recover and can indulge further after a rest .

It is also a combination of medical fitness (body soundness) and dynamic fitness (capacity for action). ..

Why is Physical Fitness is important? .

.  He can face life’s problems with a relatively better outlook.  He enjoys participating in outdoor and sports activities. He can accomplishes his work with a minimum of stress.  His life is not all work but a balanced and pleasurable experience.

Good physical health contributes to selfconfidence and poise. It gives a person a feeling of security. It enables him to mingle with people at work and at play with satisfaction. .


to lift a heavy object. How strong are your muscles in the arms?

-STRENGTH – The ability to
perform or move against a resistance . - Required in various degrees in the performance of daily tasks. - It can be achieved through regular participation in vigorous big muscle activities.


you tried jogging for 20 minutes? Or walking up the stairs to the third floor? How did you feel?

The ability of the body to under go prolonged body stresses . Running a long distance without .-ENDURANCE. Ex.

Did you do it with ease or was difficult? .Pick up some pieces of paper on the floor.


It enables the individual to move efficiently and avoid muscle and joint injuries. ..FLEXIBILITY- The ability to bend freely or increase the range of movement at a given point. .

How quick are you? .From a squat position. dodge or jump to avoid a blow.

..A good player or gymnast or a dancer must be agile to accomplish his or her task efficiently.It requires a combination of coordination and speed. . .The ability to move one’s body in different levels and directions.AGILITY.

Mount or walk through a balanced beam. Were you steady or almost losing your balance? .


.The ability to assume and maintain any body position.against the force of gravity. whether static or moving .BALANCE. .

Other physically fitness components are: SPEED POWER COORDINATION .


Measure approximately the components with the use of minimal facilities and equipment. .Bureau of Physical Education and School Sport ( BPESS)  Recommend the Physical fitness tests (PFT) .

UP – measure strength and endurance of abdominal muscles. The following tests constitute the BPESS Physical Fitness Tests: . Test No. 1 STANDING LONG JUMP – measures leg strength and power. 4 – PULL.Test No.UP – ( boys )measures the strength and endurance of the muscles of the arms and shoulders.50 meter Sprint – measures speed. 2 CURL. Test No. 3. Test No.

7 – 3 MIN.ARM HANG – ( girls )measures the strength and endurance of the muscles of the arms and shoulders.Test No. 4 – FIXED. .SIT AND REACH – measures the flexibility of the lower back and hamstring muscles. STEP TEST – measures cardio.respiratory endurance. Test No. 6 . Test No. 5 – SHUTTLE RUN – measures agility and coordination. Test No.


STANDING LONG JUMP .Taking beyond the take-off line is considered foul.Attempt where the performer loses his balance and falls back backward is not counted. . .RULES: .Allow two successive fair trials within the testing period. .The measurement is made from the takeoff line to the heel of the foot closer to the take-off board or line.

 Both feet of the performer are not parallel at the take-off.  The performer bounced and took several steps before jumping.  .  The performer does not keep both of his feet behind the front edge of the take-off line at the start of the jump.Common faults: The performer takes more than one swing of the arms.

. . . .BENT-KNEE CURL-UPS RULES: .No resting between curl-up is permitted.The curl-ups should be counted only if the performer:  Keeps the crossed arms close to his chest .Only one trial shall be allowed. and  Returns to starting position with the upper back touching the mat or floor before curling up again.The knee must remain bent at right angle for the duration of the exercise.

COMMON FAULTS: Curling up and uncurling are not performed slowly. Performer bounces of the floor when executing curl .


When the body is not kept straight line from heels .PUSH. . .UPS COMMON FAULTS: .When the elbow not fully bent.




 Allow two trials and record the faster.RULES:  Do not allow the performer to throw the wooden block across the line. .

 If the testers have stopwatches. start the runners on alternate sides. it is practicable to have two or more students running at the same time. .SUGGESTED FOR THE TESTER:  To eliminate the necessity of returning the block after each trial.


.NOTE: The rate of 96 steps per minutes for the boys and 88 steps per minute for the girls for the duration of 3 minutes.


.TESTING SUGGESTION: Runners should be instructed not to slow down before the finish line.

UNIT 3 .


INTRODUCTION Before starting on any innumerable ways to burn out the fat. . there is a need to keep certain things in your mind and be cleared out by your doctor to go on the road of achieving a better healthy you.

 Before you start any program. have the necessary medical checks. so that there is less chances of dropout.  If you feel dizzy or pain .  Always choose an activity that you enjoy. but .  If you are not used to exercise be sure to start with the appropriate beginners’ program.  If you are beginner. You need to be clear about your fitness goals. do not start off too fast. take note of your resting pulse and warm-up. You cannot get fit in a week. stop at once.

that is most convenient.  Never exercise if you feel ill or have cold or fever. so that your body gets time to recover. If you stiff the day after. but preferably not until two or three hours after a meal. Do not start training again until you are free of symptoms and keep your intensity low.  Exercise at time of the day. Work at your own pace. change activities or simply do some warp-up exercises. .

Research indicates that it can reduce the amount of pollutants. . including ozone.  As far as possible. breathe through your nose. not your mouth. They’ll serve as silent reminders. Lay out your exercise clothes the night before. that reach your mouth.

The warm –up or conditioning exercise allow various body system to increased  The .  Another important practice to follow in an exercise program is to gradually start the exercise session and gradually taper off at the end.warm – up should include stretching and exercises of moderate intensity that cause sweating and increase muscle temperature.

Warm-up should be appropriate for the performer and the sports activity involved.In conditioning exercises: .Warm-up should include some stretching exercises as well as movements related to or similar to the activity that is about to be performed. . . .Warm-up probably should begin to be reduced 10 minute to 15 minute prior to performance and should be terminate approximately 5 minutes before performance.

THE BASIC WORKOUT OUTLINE Warm –up Stretch Aerobic and Stretch Training Cool Down Stretch .

.WARM-UP SUGGESTED WARM-UP ACTIVITIES: 1. .Lift your knees.Jog slowly in place for 30 -60 seconds. JOG IN PLACE .

ROPE JUMPING .2. .Jump slowly for 60 seconds.Keep your elbows close to your sides.Turn the rope with small circular motion of your hands and wrist and jump high enough to clear rope. . .

Bend your neck alternately to the left. right. .Hold each position for 5 seconds and do 2 repetitions. .Do not rotate your neck each movement must be distinct.3. front and back. NECK STRETCH . .

.Do one set. and lift the arm to produce strength/ stretch in the arm.Hold for 15 to 30 seconds. shoulders and chest. straighten. .4. ARM AND SHOULDER STRETCH . .Interlace your fingers.

-Hold for 15 to 30 seconds and reverse arms.TRICEPS AND SHOULDER STRETCH -Gently and slowly pull the elbow behind the head. .Do one set. .

SIDE STRETCH . .Keep your hips facing front and bent to the left.Hold for 5 to 10 seconds and repeat to the right side. . .Do 3 repetitions on each side.

. . move right leg back until you feel the stretch in the calf muscle. .Keeping the right foot flat on floor.While standing.Hold an easy stretch for 10-30 seconds. .Stretch the other leg.Do not bounce. place your left foot near the wall.CALF STRETCH . .

.CHEST STRETCH .Slowly rotate forward until you feel the stretch in your chest. .Hold the stretch for 10-30 seconds. .Place flat palm of right arms against a wall. .Stretch the other side.

.Stretch the other side.Using the left wrist.SHOULDER STRETCH . place the right wrist underneath and pull inward toward your body. . . while keeping the left arm extend. .Hold for 10-30 seconds.Extend your left arm on front of your body.

Pull your heel up to your buttocks until you feel the stretch in your thigh. . grab your left toes with right arm.Supporting your body with your left arm against a solid object.QUADRICEPS STRETCH . .

pull your finger tips back toward your body until you feel the stretch in your forearm. .FOREARM STRETCH .Hold the stretch for 10-30 seconds.Using your left hand. . .Repeat using other arm.Extend your arm. .

Grab your feet with your hands.Hold for 10-30 seconds. pull both feet inward toward the body. . . . .While seated.INNER THIGH STRETCH .You should feel this stretch in your inner thighs. while using the elbows to press downward slightly on the knees.

CAT ( BACK) STRETCH . . . hands and knees should be on the floor. slowly lift your back up toward the ceiling and hold in place for 10-30 seconds.Just as a cat would do.To stretch the upper back.

. .Hold for 10-30 seconds. extend the left leg in front of you. Slightly twist the torso using your left arm until you feel the stretch in your side. . .Extend your right arm behind you to support your body.Bend your right leg. . . placing your right foot on the outside of the left knee.Place the left arm on the outside of the right leg.Stretch the other side.While seated.SPINAL TWIST .

HARM STRING STRETCH . . reach toward your left foot.During this stretch.Hold this for 10-30 seconds. .Repeat for the right leg. . extend your leg. .Place your right hand on the top of your left hand. .While seated. placing the bottom of your foot on the inside of the left knee.While keeping the lower back straightened. keep the foot of the straight leg upright with the ankle and toes relaxed. .

Pull toward your hip. .This motion stretches the front ankle and the front of thigh.Lie on your right side. . .Bend the left leg and grasp the top of your foot. . .LEG STRETCH . .Support the head with your hand.Keep for 5-10 seconds.

. - .Gently pull the leg out by opening the knee about 90 degrees.Bend one leg and grasp the top of your foot.Lie on your side. . .Hold for 5-10 seconds.This motion stretches the entire front thigh. .

Main Activity or Workout 3. Cool-down .PARTS OF AN EXERCISE PROGRAM There are three stages in an exercise program. 1. Warm –up 2.

after sitting or standing for long periods. anytime you feel tense or stiff and at odd times like watching TV..can be done in the morning. Regular stretching programs can help lengthen your muscles and restore youthful activity. STRETCHING. reading or sitting and talking. regardless of age or flexibility. .Everyone can learn to stretch.

Do some stretching exercises- to relax your mind and “tune up” your body  to preserve range of motion  to maintain flexibility  to prevent injury during exercise  to prepare the muscles for more vigorous activity  to help developed body awareness  to promote circulation .


. and is rhythmic in nature.AEROBIC EXERCISE . . can be maintained continuously.Is any activity that uses large muscles groups. . whether it is a new activity or any old one.The important idea behind aerobic exercise today is to get up and get moving! There are more activities than ever to choose from.It is a type of exercises that overloads the heart and lungs and causes them to work harder that at rest.

Stair climbing .Swimming .Running .Bicycling .Aerobic dance .Jumping rope .TYPE OF AEROBIC EXERCISE .Fitness walking .


Increased maximal oxygen consumption  Improvement in cardiovascular/cardio-respiratory function ( heart and lungs)  Increased blood supply to muscles and ability to used oxygen  Lower heart rate and blood pressure at any level of sub maximal exercise  Increased threshold for lactic acid accumulation  Lower resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure  .

Increased HDL Cholesterol (the good cholesterol)  Decreased blood triglycerides  Reduced body fat and improved weight control  Improved glucose tolerance and reduced insulin resistance  .

ELEMENTS OF EXERCISE PROGRAM  How frequent should the individual exercise be? ( Frequency) 3-5 days per week  How intense or vigorous should the exercise session be? (Intensity) Moderate to vigorous  How long should an exercise session be? ( Duration ) 20-60 minutes  What types of exercise should be included? (Type of Exercise ) specific including aerobics .

THREE TYPES OF EXERCISE 1. ISOTONIC EXERCISE . . These movements are common to many physical education activities. 2.Where the muscles are made to undergo tension and hold a certain position for sometime in order to develop muscle strength. ISOMETRIC EXERCISE .Where the muscles are made to do some contraction and relaxation to gain tones.

. running and dancing.Which entails vigorous movements such as brisk walking. AEROBIC EXERCISE .3. The body experiences fast breathing so that the muscles of the heart and the lungs are exercised. jogging.


PRINCIPLE 1 OVERLOAD Refers to the amount of exercise that is needed to improve fitness levels. DURATION FREQUENCY -refers to the number of exercise sessions an individual perform per week at least three to five workouts. . INTENSITY indicate how hard the exercise can be performed.refers to the length of each exercise can be performed .

it must be in context of the performer’s tolerance whether to increase or maintain in the overload. .PRINCIPLE 2 PROGRESSION .

infers that all skills and activities are unique and require training that is geared specifically to each. SPECIFICITY. flexibility or endurance etc. It could be either for strength.PRINCIPLE 3 SPECIFICITY exercise must be specific in its concern. - .


 It prepares the muscles for exercise and allows oxygen supply to ready itself for whatever strenuous activities to be worked at.  . WARM-UP It should be conducted before an intense workout.1.  It will help you perform better and will decrease arches and pain.

jogging. WORKOUT  It elevates the heart rate and achieves aerobic fitness. and aerobic dancing. are walking. running.2. swimming.  Activities. which may be included in this phase. bicycling. rope skipping. .

3.  This can be help prevent soreness the next day by massaging the waste products of exercise into the circulatory system. COOL -DOWN  After the workout. . cooling down should be accomplished by walking for a few minutes.


stomach. and thighs strong and flexible.EXERCISE TO MINIMIZE PROBLEMS WITH BACK PAIN  You can minimize problems with back pain with exercises that make the muscles in your back. hips. .

there are specific exercises that are directed toward strengthening and stretching your back. and swimming. hip and thigh muscles.  In addition to these conditioning activities. bike riding. Some people keep in good physical condition by being active in recreational activities like running. stomach. . walking.

.to strengthen back. hip and leg muscles Leg raise.EXERCISE TO STRENGTHEN YOUR MUSCLES      Wall back and hip muscles Leg raises – to strengthen stomach and hip muscles Partial strengthen stomach muscles Back leg swing – to strengthen hip and back muscles.

HIP AND LEG MUSCLES  Stand with your back against a wall and feet should-width apart.WALL SLIDE TO STRENGTHEN BACK. Slide down in a crouch with knees bent to about 90 degrees. Count to five and slide back up the wall. Repeat 5 times. .

LEG RAISE TO STRENGTHEN BACK AND HIP MUSCLES  Lies on your stomach. Tighten the muscles in one leg and raise it from the floor. Do the same with the other leg. Hold your leg up for a count of 10 and return it to the floor. Repeat five times with each leg. .

Lift leg off the floor. . Repeat five times with each leg. Hold your leg up for a count of 10 and return it to the floor. keep one knee bent and the foot flat on the ground while raising the leg. If that is too difficult. Do the same with the other leg.LEG RAISES TO STRENGTHEN STOMACH AND HIP MUSCLES  Lie on your back with your arms at your sides.

Slowly return your leg to the floor. Lift one leg waist high. You can also sit upright in a chair with legs straight and extended an angle to the floor. . Repeat five times with each leg. Do the same with the other leg.

Repeat five times.PARTIAL SIT-UP TO STRENGTHEN STOMACH MUSCLES  Lie on your back with knees bent and feet flat on floor. Slowly raise your head and shoulders off the floor and reach with both hands toward your knees. . Count to 10.

Raise other leg and return.BACK LEG SWING TO STRENGTHEN HIP AND BACK MUSCLES  Stand behind a chair with your hands on the back of the chair. Return slowly. . Repeat five times with each leg. Lift one leg back and up while keeping the knee straight.

Do not straight your legs as you lower them. Raise your knees toward your chest. several times a day. . Do not raise your head.EXERCISE TO DECREASE THE STRAIN ON YOUR BACK  Lie on your back with your knees bent and feet flat on your bed or floor. Place both hands under your knees and gently pull your knees as close to your chest as possible. Start with five repetitions.

Bend backwards at the waist as far as possible and hold the position for one or two seconds. . Keep your knees straight. Place your hands in the small of your back. Stand with your feet slightly apart.


1. . 3. Exercise either in the morning or late afternoon when it is not so hot. 2. It depends on what the individual wants to achieve. graduated exercise program starting with light exercise and gradually increasing the intensity should be followed. There is no one best form of exercise. Severe exercise must be avoided unless the individual is young and athletic. 7. Exercise 30-60 minutes regularly 3-5 times a week. The individual should choose exercise(s) which he/she likes and enjoys. If the individual is a beginner. 6. 4. Wear light comfortable clothes and shoes. 5.



SPECIAL PLACE IMAGERY PURPOSE:  Reduces stress. increase relaxation  Reduces anxiety  Strengthen the capacity to drawn one’s own emotional resources  Provides a foundation for other imagery exercises CAUTION AND CONTRADICTION:  May provoke strong emotional memories. .1.

CAUTION AND CONTRADICTION:  May provoke strong emotional memories. . DIALOGUE WITH A SYMPTOM MATERIALS: Pen and paper or journal PURPOSE:  Is tool for self-awareness  Help access subconscious information about a problem or symptoms.2.


 Relaxations also helps you again perspective on every aspect of your life. less suppression of emotions.  Faster recovery.  decreased levels of stress and increased immune functioning.  Improved mood.  .  Decreased anxiety.Regular relaxation has impressive results for people with cancer. fewer side effects from chemotherapy and less anticipatory nausea and vomiting before chemotherapy .

UNIT 4 .


and helps them to lead a healthier and more meaningful life. .  Aerobic Dance is not only an activity that provides a good aerobic workout in a pleasurable rhythmic way. It offers individuals with special needs a safe and good workout. but also provides an opportunity for socialization and allows one to make new friends. Aerobic Dance can be made accessible for individuals with disabilities. Most individual with disabilities need little help or no modifications to participate successfully in a regular aerobic dance program.

It combines fat-burning aerobic movements. including disco.  . jazz and ballet.  Any ages can benefit from aerobic dance. Many dance forms are used. muscle-building exercises.  Aerobic Dance classes are usually offered at three levels of intensity. and stretching into routines that are performed to music.Aerobic Dance is a fan way to get fit.


 Refers to exercise which is of moderate intensity.  Aerobic means “with oxygen” or air and refers to the use of oxygen in a muscle’s energygenerating process. undertaken for a long duration. .

. An effective aerobic exercise should involve 5-10 minutes of warming up at an intensity of 5060% of maximum heart rate. followed by at least 20 minutes of exercise at an intensity of 70-80% of maximum heart rate. ending with 5-10 minutes of cooling down at an intensity of 50-60% of maximum heart rate.


 Improvement in cardiovascular/ cardio respiratory function ( heart and lungs)  Increased maximal cardiac output (amount of blood pumped with every minutes)  Increased maximal stroke volume (amount of blood pumped with each beat)  Increased blood volume and ability to carry oxygen  Reduced workload on the heart (myocardio oxygen consumption) for any given sub maximal exercise  .Increased maximal oxygen consumption.

 Lowe heart rate and blood pressure at any level of sub maximal exercise.Increased blood supply to muscles and ability to use oxygen.  Lower resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in people with high blood pressure.  .  Decreased blood triglycerides.  Increased threshold for lactic acid accumulation.  Increased HDL Cholesterol (the good cholesterol).  Improved glucose tolerance and reduced insulin resistance.  Reduce body fat and improved weight control.


        Increased muscular strength Increased strength of tendons and ligaments. balance and functional ability in older adults. . Potentially improves flexibility ( ranges of motion of joints) Reduced body fat and increased lean body mass (muscle mass) Potentially decreased resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure Positive changes in blood cholesterol Improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity Improved strength.

AEROBIC ACTIVITIES include: Walking Biking Jogging Swimming Aerobic classes Cross country skiing Aerobic dance Stationary cycling Treadmill Rowing machines Stair climbing Running .

ANAEROBIC ACTIVITY-is short in duration and high in intensity. Anaerobic activities include: Racquetball Downhill skiing Weight lifting Sprinting Softball Soccer .


An avowed exercise enthusiast. swimming. running.  - - DR. KENNETH H. Considered as a “FATHER OF AEROBICS” M. He began measuring sustained performance in terms of the ability to utilize oxygen.D an exercise physiologist of the US Air Force. . and bicycling. COOPER.developed the aerobic dance and exercise. was personally and professionally puzzled about why some people with excellent muscular strength were still prone to poor performance at tasks such as longdistance .

He gives the following benefits on researches:  Promotes strong and healthy bones  Helps control life’s physical and emotional stresses  Improves intellectual capacity and increases one’s productivity  Aids in the natural way of losing weight and keeping it off  Provides significant protection from heart disease  Promotes better and more effective sleep.  .

was published in 1969.  .  For him aerobic exercises is for cardio-respiratory endurance. and bicycling. walking. The excellent performance of heart and lungs is an indication of physical well-being.He make a groundbreaking book. swimming. and included scientific exercise programs using running. Aerobics.


LOCOMOTOR MOVEMENTS . .These activities are done in any direction to another.

 Great calorie burner that can be a great help in maintaining optimal body fat levels. BENEFITS:  It can be performed by people of all ages and does not require a great deal of ability or technique in order to be effective.Underrated form of aerobic exercise. . is fast becoming a popular form of exercise by many adults because it requires little in the way of equipment or facilities.WALKING.

). and counterclockwise (8cts.Walk briskly forward (8cts. . arms swinging at the sides.).). backward (8cts. clockwise (8cts.).

Currently.One advantage for jogging or running has over walking.Jogging usually defined a slow running at a comfortable pace between 8 to12 minutes . however. .Jogging and running are two activities that are growing in popularity in the United States.JOGGING VARIATIONS . . . is that an individual is able to cover greater distances in a shorter period of time which allows for greater numbers of calories to be burned. it is estimated that over 15 million American jog or run to develop cardiovascular endurance.

. Jog in place . hands moving right and left like a car wiper.  Jog in any direction with arms moving up and down.  Jog in any direction shaking hands in any level.

thrusting arms upward and back to thrust position. backward.  Jump twice obliquely backward right and obliquely backward left with arms thrusting forward and back. .  Jump forward. sideward. right and left.JUMPING VARIATIONS  Jump side to side with arms clasped overhead.

 Jumping Jacks with hands clapping overhead at every straddle jump.twist your body to the right as you swing your arms to the left. swinging arms to the right. Repeat jump-twist to the left . .  Jump.

. Repeat with the reversed movement of the legs.HOPING VARIATIONS  Hop on right foot 4 times with the left knee stretching forward and bending backward on each count. Hands on waist.

 Hop on one foot in zigzag or circle formation. .  Step right foot. Repeat with the reversed position of the leg and arms. Repeat with the other foot. then hop on the same foot as right hand touches the extended left leg in front.

These activities are done in place. feet slightly apart and moving in time with the music. .AXIAL MOVEMENTS .

) .ARM CIRCLING .Circle arms forward from the shoulder with hands as if pushing an object (8 cts.) Repeat circles backward ( 8 cts.

SCISSORS .Cross extended arms in front and to do the scissors moving arms gradually upward (8 cts. Repeat this movement gradually moving downward ( 8 cts.) .).

ARMS THRUSTING ( CLOSED FIST ) . .) Repeat thrusting arms and upward alternately ( 8 cts.Thrust right and left arms alternately forward and sideward ( 8 cts.).

Push hands alternately downward in front ( 4 cts. push hands alternately forward in front (4 cts. left hand sideward left alternately (4 cts.) Push right hands sideward right.) Push hands alternately upward. fingers pointing backward (4 cts.).- HANDS PUSH With fingers pointing upward. .).

ELBOW JERK . and left elbow sideward left (2 cts. .With both arms bent on chest.). push right elbow sideward right twice (2 cts.).

).OPPOSITE SWING .With knees slightly apart.). . Repeat as many times desired. twist upper body from the waist to the left as you swing extended arms to the right (1ct. Repeat twist to the right and swing arms to the left ( 1 ct.

.) Repeat as many times desired.ELBOW-HIP TOUCH .Push right hip to the right with elbow touching hip ( 1ct. Repeat the same to the left. elbow touching left hip ( 1 ct.).

You can perform locomotors and axial movement alternately. . It is fun.NOTE : After memorizing the movements try combining some locomotors and axial movements. too.


3).STEP POINT .Step left foot in place (ct. Step right foot in place (ct. point right foot sideward right as you bring both arms obliquely upward left (ct. point left foot sideward left as you bring both arms obliquely  .1).2).

CLOSE .1.arms bending upward and stretching downward right on each count. Repeat to the left.2.1.STEP . close to the right 2 times (cts.Step.2).

1).CROSS-KICK . arms in reversed T position(ct. Repeat the same movement with the left foot and fling arms in opposite direction (cts.3&4). Repeat as  STEP AND . cross kick left leg across the right foot as you fling arms obliquely upward left(ct.Step right foot slightly to the right.2).

. Cut left foot backward with the left foot. either sideward right and left. fling arms forward (ct.1).2). Cut left foot with the right foot sideward. Repeat 3 times more. Cut right foot with the left foot sideward (ct.Displace one foot with the other.2). or forward and backward. arms extended at the sides (ct. Repeat 3 times more. CUT .

Standing with one foot forward.1-4) and backward .TWIST . twist body forward (cts.


b. c.
d. e.

Step right foot sideward, right arms in reversed T position (ct.1) Cross-step left foot over right foot , arms upward (ct.2) Repeat (a) (ct.3) Kick left foot forward ( ct.4) Repeat (a) –(d) stepping left foot sideward left, kicking right foot forward. Try doing the steps with other arm movements.

IN AND OUT (FAST3/4 TIMES) - Jump twice, feet together (ct.1,2).Jump once feet apart (ct.3). Repeat 7 times more. Jump to face right about or opposite direction and repeat 8



- Step right foot forward, arms moving naturally toward the right (ct.1). Raise left foot forward, arms moving toward the left (ct.2). Step left foot slightly forward, arms moving toward the right(ct.3). Swing right foot sideward-backward to a point in rear, arms toward

AND PROJECT - With knees slightly apart, swing hips right and left alternately, arms on waist level moving with the swinging of the hips(cts.1-16). Contract and project abdominal muscles forward and backward, arms slightly raised (cts.1-16).


JUMP - Step right foot backward, arms in reversed T position(ct.1), step left foot in place (ct.2), step right foot in place (ct.3) ,pause (ct.4). Jump 4 times sideward right and left alternately arms upward moving naturally left and right alternately.



or height.STRENGHT  Is a ability to move against a resistance. and weight. Basic consideration in strength development are duration of activity. It can be achieved through participation in vigorous as well as tension exercises. speed. distance . .


With this position turn around walking with the feet and pivot with the support hand.GRINDER (arm strength) .  COFFEE . lean the body sideward right with head at level with body.With right hand on the floor. left arms and hand on sides.

Walk backward in 16 counts.WALK ( arm strength) .  CRAB . Head at same straight line with neck and body. Walk forward in 16 counts.Squat and lean backward with hands and feet as support.

walk on hand and drag your legs. In push-up position.WALK ( arm strength) . SEAL .Do the seal walk.