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Organization of the Chromatin

Threadlike chromatin = chromosomes = 46 DNA molecules and associated proteins Nondividing state = DNA molecules compacted
 

coiled around core particle (histone protein) zig-zagged, looped and coiled onto itself DNA copies itself to form 2 parallel sister chromatids

Preparing to divide

Discovery of the Double Helix

By 1900:components of DNA were known

sugar, phosphate and bases

By 1953: x ray diffraction determined geometry of DNA molecule Nobel Prize awarded in 1962 to 3 men: Watson, Crick and Wilkins but not to Rosalind Franklin who died of cancer at 37 getting the x ray data that provided the answers.

Figure 4.4

Nucleotide Structure
 

DNA = polymer of nucleotides Each nucleotide consist of
phosphate group  sugar

 

ribose (RNA) deoxyribose (DNA)

nitrogenous base

in this picture = adenine

Nitrogenous Bases

Purines - double ring
 guanine  adenine

Pyrimidines - single ring
 uracil

- RNA only  thymine - DNA only  cytosine – both
 

DNA bases =CTAG RNA bases = CUAG

Complementary Base Pairing

Nitrogenous bases united by hydrogen bonds DNA base pairings

A-T and C-G

Law of complementary base pairing

one strand determines base sequence of other

Segment of DNA

DNA Function
Code for protein synthesis  Gene - sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for one protein  Genome - all the genes of one person humans have estimated 3035,000 genes other 98% of DNA noncoding –

Chromosomes and Heredity

Heredity = transmission of genetic characteristics from parent to offspring

karyotype = chart of chromosomes at metaphase

23 pairs homologous chromosomes in somatic cells (diploid number of chromosomes)
1 chromosome inherited from each parent  22 pairs called autosomes  one pair of sex chromosomes (X and Y)

normal female has 2 X chromosomes normal male has one X and one Y chromosome

Sperm and egg (GAMETES) contain only 23 chromosomes

fertilized egg has diploid number of chromosomes

2 Basic Things Can Happen Which DNA
The ENTIRE DNA MOLECULE can Replicate: Then You have 2 from 1 (DNA REPLICATION--Leads to MITOSIS cell goes to two cells. OR 2. Selected sections of the DNA strand (genes) can be expressed ( transcribed and into mRNA and Translated into proteins)

Semi-conservative DNA replication: One strand “old, One strand, new”

DNA Replication 1

DNA Replication 2

Law of complimentary base pairing allows building of one DNA strand based on the bases in 2nd strand Steps of replication process

helicase opens short segment of helix
fork is point of separation of 2 strands

 replication


polymerase assembles new strand of DNA next to one of the old strands
DNA polymerase enzymes at work simultaneously

Errors and Mutations

Error rates of DNA polymerase

in bacteria, 3 errors per 100,000 bases copied

Proofreading and error correction
a small polymerase proofreads each new DNA strand and makes corrections  results in only 1 error per 1,000,000,000 bases copied

Mutations - changes in DNA structure due to replication errors or environmental factors

some cause no effect, some kill cell, turn it cancerous or cause genetic defects in future generations


one cell divides into 2 daughter cells with identical copies of DNA Functions of mitosis
 embryonic

development  tissue growth  replacement of dead cells  repair of injured tissues

Phases of mitosis (nuclear division)
 prophase,

metaphase, anaphase, telophase

Embryo-Regions of Active Mitosis

Meristems: Regions of Active Mitosis

Timing of the Cell Cycle

G-1 This phase is longest ( ave-18-24 hours) remember this phase is the phase the most “normal” phase. ( Normal growth and metabolism activities- Synthesizing proteins needed for DNA synthesis) S phase ( DNA replication (next longest) 8-10 hours G-2 : relatively shorter : 4-6 hours ( Replicating centrioles and synthesizing enzymes that control cell division. M phase is only 1-2 hours long.

SO….Now that you know about Cloning Your Cells….
What about The OTHER Reason for DNA…..EXPRESSING ONE OR MORE GENES……..for TO MAKE A PROTEIN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Process will include: Transcription and Translation .

Genetic Control of Cell Action through Protein Synthesis

DNA directs the synthesis of all cell proteins including enzymes that direct the synthesis of nonproteins  Different cells synthesize different proteins dependent upon differing gene activation See Next Example

Figure 4.5

Transcription and Translation

The process of The majority of genes are expressed as the proteins they encode. The process occurs in two steps: Transcription = DNA → RNA Translation = RNA → protein Taken together, they make up the "central dogma" of biology: DNA → RNA → protein.

What Do We Mean By 5’ 3’ Stuff?

   

Phosphate is circle and 5 if on top , 5’-3’ Free 0H is 3 , if on bottom visa versa…3’-5’

Posttranslational Modification in Golgi Complex

Protein modified in cisterna, passed to next cisterna Last golgi cisterna releases finished product as membrane bound vesicles
 secretory
 migrate


to plasma membrane and release product by exocytosis that remain in cell

 lysosomes
 vesicles

Polyribosomes and Signal Peptides

cluster of 10-20 ribosomes reading mRNA at one time  horizontal filament - mRNA  large granules - ribosomes  beadlike chains projecting out - newly formed proteins

 

takes 20 seconds to assemble protein of 400 amino acids cell may produce > 150,000 proteins/second

Signal peptide = beginning of chain of amino acids

determines protein’s destination within cell


Polyribosomes translating a single looped mRNA.

From Gene To Protein


The process of protein synthesis involves: 1) Synthesis of mRNA from DNA template

2) Migration of mRNA from nucleus to cytoplasm ( the ribosome) where it will wait for another type of RNA ( tRNA) 3) tRNA will bring amino acids which are complimentary to the codons on mRNA

Messenger RNA or M-RNA
TRANSCRIPTION is the process to make….  mRNA (messenger RNA) - encodes genetic information from DNA & carries it into the cytoplasm.t



Each three consecutive mRNA bases forms a genetic code word (codon) that codes for a particular amino acid.

Transfer or T- RNA

The unpaired regions form 3 loops. Each kind of tRNA carries (at its 3′ end) one of the 20 amino acids At one loop, 3 unpaired bases form an anticodon. Base pairing between the anticodon and the complementary codon on a mRNA molecule brings the correct amino acid into the growing polypeptide.

tRNA (transfer RNA) - transports specific amino acids to ribosome during protein synthesis (translation).
Anticodon - specific
sequence of 3 nucleotides; complementary to an mRNA codon.

Amino acid accepting end

Anticodon sequence determines the specific amino acid that binds to tRNA.


Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) There are 4 kinds. In eukaryotes, these are 18S rRNA. One of these molecules, along with some 30 different protein molecules, is used to make the small subunit of the ribosome. 28S, 5.8S, and 5S rRNA. One each of these molecules, along with some 45 different

proteins, are used to make the large

subunit of the ribosome

rRNA (ribosomal RNA) - associates with proteins to form ribosomes.

large subunit

small subunit

Subunits are separate in the cytoplasm, but join during protein synthesis (translation).

Preview of Protein Synthesis

 messenger

RNA (mRNA) is formed next to an activated gene  mRNA migrates to cytoplasm

 mRNA

code is “read” by ribosomal RNA as amino acids are assembled into a protein molecule  transfer RNA delivers the amino acids to the ribosome

RNA: Structure and Function

RNA smaller than DNA (fewer bases)
transfer RNA (tRNA) 70 - 90 bases  messenger RNA (mRNA) over 10,000 bases  DNA has over a billion base pairs

Only one nucleotide chain (not a helix)
ribose replaces deoxyribose as the sugar  uracil replaces thymine as a nitrogenous base

Essential function
interpret DNA code  direct protein synthesis in the cytoplasm



The language of amino acids is based on codons
1 codon = 1 codon = 3 mRNA nucleotides 1 amino acid

How many codons are in this sequence of mRNA?

Using this chart, you can determine which amino acid the codon “codes” for!

Which amino acid is encoded in the codon CAC?

Find the first letter of the codon CAC

Find the second letter of the codon CAC

Find the third letter of the codon CAC

CAC codes for the amino acid histidine (his).

What does the mRNA codon UAC code for?

Tyr or tyrosine

Notice there is one start codon AUG. Transcription begins at that codon!

Notice there are three stop codons. Transcription stops when these codons are encountered.

Although we do have proofreading mechanisms in place, sometimes mutations occur and a protein is not translated properly.

Are there possible consequences to such errors in transcription? Well, errors in transcription will lead to the wrong codon and incorrect translation of amino acid and erroneous protein SO……. One disease we see as and example on this is…….

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