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Cause and Effect Essay

Irma Mokhtazar

Causes – why things happen Effects – what happens as a result .Irma Mokhtazar Definition A type of essay that aims to explain the causes and effects of an event or situation.

Irma Mokhtazar Possible topics Discuss the causes and effects of traffic congestions Write about both causes and effects Discuss the causes of traffic congestions Write only about the causes Discuss the effects of traffic congestions  Write only about the effects .

Irma Mokhtazar Accidents Tardiness Poor road condition Causes & effects of traffic jams Stress Traffic light malfunction Loss of time CAUSES EFFECTS .

Format (One-sided) Causes only Introduction Background info + thesis statement Cause #1 Cause #2 Cause #3 Irma Mokhtazar Effects only • Introduction • Background info + thesis statement Effect #1 Effect #2 Effect #3 Conclusion Conclusion .

road conditions and traffic light malfunction. frequent tardiness to the work place and much loss of time. • Traffic jams are caused by the following factors: accidents. road conditions and traffic light malfunction.Irma Mokhtazar Thesis statement Causes only Effects only • Traffic jams are caused by accidents. • Traffic jams have resulted in the increased level of stress. • Increased level of stress. frequent tardiness to the workplace and much loss of time are some of the major effects of traffic jams. .

One Effect • Introduction • Background info + thesis statement Irma Mokhtazar One Cause. Multiple Effects • Introduction • Background info + thesis statement Cause #1 Cause #2 Effect #1 Cause #1 Effect #1 Effect #2 Conclusion Conclusion .Format Multiple Causes.

Format Two Causes. Two Effects • Introduction • Background info + thesis statement Irma Mokhtazar Cause #1 Cause #2 Effect #1 Effect #2 Conclusion .

One Effect One Cause. • The main cause of traffic jams is accidents. Multiple Effects • Traffic jams are caused by factors such as accidents and poor road conditions. which may result in people arriving late for work. which will result in people arriving late for work and having unnecessary stress. .Irma Mokhtazar Thesis statement Multiple Causes.

can’t sleep at night  can’t focus in class Domino #3 .Format Causal Chain / Domino effect • Introduction • Background info + thesis statement Irma Mokhtazar Thesis statement Domino #1 . .think about boyfriend  can’t sleep at night Domino #2 .can’t focus in class  poor results Conclusion Mention the FIRST and the LAST part of the chain Thinking about your boyfriend leads to poor results in Intermediate English.

Body paragraphs • * - Irma Mokhtazar Must be supported by at least two supporting details Poor road conditions potholes due to heavy vehicles road works during the day The main cause of traffic congestions is poor road conditions. Another reason that contributes to poor road conditions is road works that are performed during the day. there are many potholes in the road that slow down traffic. For one. potholes and road works are definite contributing factors to poor road conditions. Hence. the heavy loads they carry cause the surface of the road to break up. forming hollows. To block a lane or a few lanes during peak hours will cause tremendous traffic backlog as drivers driving on a four-lane highway may be forced to squeeze into two lanes. These potholes are mostly caused by heavy vehicles that use the roads on a daily basis. . Sometimes.

Irma Mokhtazar Transitional signals / discourse markers that express CAUSES • • • • • • • • • as since because because of owing to / due to is/are the reasons for is/are responsible for contribute to the first reason/cause is .

Irma Mokhtazar Transitional signals / discourse markers that show EFFECTS • • • • • • • • • therefore thus hence so consequently as a consequence as a result …is/are the effect(s) of… The first effect is… .

Irma Mokhtazar Conclusion • Re-state thesis statement • Give suggestions. make recommendations .

Explain the major causes for the high dropout rate in college. 3. Explain the causes for the popularity of fast food restaurants. . Discuss the effects of sleeping late. 4. 2. Discuss the causes of these problems. People who stay in condominiums may face some problems. Explain the effects of a fanatical devotion to a specific sport / famous person. Some people prefer to stay up at night and only sleep when it is almost morning. 1.Irma Mokhtazar 1. Choose one topic. 5.