You are on page 1of 68

Models and Theories

An Overview

Objective s
Find out how different leadership models and theories have emerged in the last 80 years plus based on research Critically reflect on the different models and theories and apply them in a different range of context in the future Appreciate the different leadership models and theories and realize their strengths and weaknesses in relation to one’s personal brand of leadership

appropriat e explore
research research findings findings

Process requestions, questions, conclusions, conclusions, comments comments

one’s one’s experience experience and and definition definition of of leadership leadership

one’s one’s leadership leadership tests tests results results

reflection reflection and and sharing sharing

an al y e z

te la re

y if ar cl

K-W-L what do I KNOW about leadership models and theories? what do I WANT to know about leadership models and theories? What did I LEARN about leadership models and .

distributed.Models and Theories of Theory Leadership Trait (30’s) Behavioral Theory (40’s and 50’s) Contingency Theory (60s and 70s) Transformational Theory (80s up) Others: emergent. . shared. level 5 leadership. etc.

Theories of Leadership (focus of research) 1930s 1940s/50s 1960s/70s Trait Behaviora l Contingency 1980s Transformatio nal trait trait s s skills skills follower follower s s context context ethical ethical styles/types styles/types of of leaders leaders .

defining leadership what is it all about? .

QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Imagining Leadership What does leadership look like? .

Test 1) .Leadershi p what is leadership? what are some of the needed capabilities in being a leader today? (cf.

Reflection 1 Looking at test 1 . b) interpersonal. c) cognitive. and d) skills and knowledge (do your best) Choose 2 CEOs from Article 1 and relate it to TEST 1 ranking leadership capabilities and your definition Figure out what capabilities these CEOs have based on your choices and definition of leadership Discuss your answers with the group .divide which capabilities refer to a) personal.


Leadership Functions what we do when we lead? what is expected of us when we lead? .

4 Main Functions Emotional Stimulation Executive Caring Meaning Attribution .

emotional stimulation .

executive function .

caring function .

meaning attribution .

what are the leadership functions that I am most comfortable with? least comfortable with? Based on the 2 CEOs chosen from Article 1 relate it now to the 4 main functions of leadership Figure out what leadership functions these CEOs exercised. Refer to test 2 to review some items Discuss your answers with the group .Reflection 2 Looking at test 2 .

Effective Leadership high in caring high in meaning attribution moderate in emotional stimulation moderate in .

1948. Mann 1959) studies identified certain personal characteristics that appear to differentiate leaders from followers basic premise is that leaders are born .Trait Theory a theory that concerns itself solely with leader characteristics (Stogdill.

what are the leadership traits that I consider my strengths? my limitations? Based on the 2 CEOs chosen from Article 1 relate it now to the leadership traits Figure out what leadership traits these CEOs would demonstrate during their life. Refer to test 3 Discuss your answers with the group .Reflection 3 Looking at test 3 .

facilitating goal attainment and recruitment of followers regardless of the context (5 usual traits) Intelligence self-confidence determination integrity sociability .Contribution of the Trait Theory Identified certain characteristics of the person as essential in demonstrating leadership behavior Leadership behavior .

doesn't smoke.Candidate A .He was kicked out of office twice.He is a decorated war hero. He's a vegetarian. Which do you prefer? Franklin Rooselvelt Candidate B . He's had two mistresses. Adolf Hitler . sleeps until noon. used opium in college and drinks a great deal of whisky every evening. Winston Churchill Candidate C . drinks an occasional beer and hasn't had any extramarital affairs. and consults with astrologists.Associates with crooked politicians. He also chain smokes and drinks quite a few martinis a day.

Behavioral Theory Leader Leader s s traits traits behavi behavi ors ors skills skills followe followe rs rs patterns of behaviors were grouped together as styles styles styles .

Continuum of Leadership Behavior autocratic democrati c ource: Tannenbaum and Schmidt) .

.Styles of Leadership a) I want both of you to .. delegative leadership . autocratic leadership b) Let’s work together to solve this.. participative leadershi c) You two take care of the problem .....Test 5 ..

Theory X and Theory Y Ohio State University and University of Michigan Researches . patterns of organization. and ways of getting jobs done) . respect and warmth) and b) Initiating Structure/Production Orientation (organizes and defines roles.Variations of Behavioral Theory McGregor (1960) .two dimensions: a) Consideration/Employee Orientation (friendship. channels of communication. mutual trust.

Effective Styles of Leadership e m p l o y e e o r Executive “This is good i Developer for the e “I’ll be your company and n mentor” you” t a Benevolent Bureaucrat t Autocrat “Let’s get i “We are this done and o doing a good over with” job” n production orientation .

” n half-way” t Deserter a “I will let Autocrat t them be” “ Do as I say” i o n production orientation .Ineffective Styles of Leadership e m p l o y e e o r Missionary Compromis “I’m here to i er care for e “Let’s meet you.

Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid .

the multiple linkage model of leadership. the pathsituation situation goal theory of leadership. and Vroom and Yetton’s normative . Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model. leadership substitute theory.Contingency Many leadership models not Theory only take into account the leader/follower relationship but also realize that situational variables affect leadership performance behaviors traits behaviors 6 MODELS: LPC Contingency traits model.

tasks .Hersey and Blanchard s u p p o r t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s Participati Selling ng Coaching JM-High JM-Low PM-Low PM-High Delegatin Telling g Directing JM-High JM-Low PM-High PM-Low *job maturity *psychological maturity directive .

Test 5) Discuss your answers with the group . Figure out what leadership behaviors/styles these coaches would show during their life. Consider their situations also (cf.what are the leadership behaviors/styles am I most comfortable with? least comfortable with? How would you consider the situation as a variable? Based on Article 2 concerning 2 basketball coaches relate it now to their leadership behaviors/styles and their situation.Reflection 4 Looking at test 4 and 5 .

there are isolated patterns of behaviors grouped into 4 categories as essential to leadership behaviors whatever the situation is . cause and effect were not considered fully behaviors vary as much as the situation changes however.Contribution/Limitation of Behavioral/Situational Theory almost the same issues with the trait approach.

4 Categories (11 Building Relationships behaviors) 1. Networking 2. Informing source: 11. Managing conflict Influencing People Making Decisions 4. Monitoring operations and environment 10. Clarifying roles Yukl . Planning and organizing 7. Problem solving 8. Supporting 3. Recognizing and rewarding 6. Motivating 5. Consulting and delegating Giving / Seeking nformation 9.

 three who were  deaf. two who were blind. how would  you come up with a  recommendation? What will  your group’s  recommendation be? . who had 8  kids already.  one mentally retarded. and  she had syphilis.What would you do? If you knew a teacher who  was pregnant.

Transformational Theory looks at the contingency model but with a difference introduce the variable of leaders having an ethical and moral obligation to their followers and to the mission of the organization geared towards follower growth and development .

QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. is it possible for one idea to change the world? what did you do to change the world? .

fullan. zohar. stephen covey Leaders as strategic visionaries .warren bennis.moxley. nelson .peter senge (systems thinking and learning organization Leadership and Spirituality .Variations of Transformational Charismatic Leadership (robert house) Leadership Transactional vs. Transformational (burns. james kouzes and barry posner.frye . bass) Servant Leadership (greenleaf) Distributed Leadership (belbin) Living Systems (wheatley) Level Five Leadership (jim collins) Leaders as catalyst of change .

.what are the leadership factors am I most comfortable with? least comfortable with? Based on Articles 1/2 concerning 2 basketball coaches or 2 CEOs chosen . Figure out what leadership factors these coaches/CEOs would demonstrate during their life. You may also use Article 3 as reference. Test 6) Discuss your answers with the group.Reflection 5 Looking at test 6.relate it now to the different leadership factors. (cf.

What motivate s leaders? .

Attitude reflects leadership Motivation shapes attitudes .QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.

basic basic motivations motivations values values shape bring about attitude attitude s s needs needs behavior behavior s s .

Reflection 6 Looking at test 6. . Figure out what leadership motivations these coaches/CEOs would demonstrate during their life. Test 6) Discuss your answers with the group. (cf.relate it now to the leadership motivations.what are the leadership motivations am I most comfortable with? least comfortable with? Based on Article 1/2 concerning 2 basketball coaches or 2 CEOs chosen .

What motivates leaders? need for: achievement affiliation power good leadership = power > achievement > affiliati .

Lasallian Leadership what did I learn so far? .

functions.Reflection 7 Looking at handout 2 . motivations.there are traits. Figure out what connections and inferences can you draw from the handout and what you have learned so far Discuss your answers with the group. behaviors. factors etc that are part and parcel of what Lasallian leadership is all about. . styles.

ministry CONTEXT PARC country community vision traditions culture ethics spirituality functions behavior s skills styles predisposition s motivation traits faith faith service service communion communion .

Personal Leadership Brand be yourself + more with skill .

why should anyone be led by you? .QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.

predisposi predisposi tions tions traits traits motivation motivation s s + + functions functions skills/beha skills/beha viors viors styles styles = Personal Personal Brand Brand of of Leadership Leadership faith faith service service communio communio n n vision vision ethics ethics spirituality spirituality ll a a m m s s a a s s ll s s ll ii o o a a n n n n ii ii .

Establishing the Desired Results Customers/Clients: who are they? what do they expect from you? what service are you offering them? Stakeholders: who are they? what do they expect from you? what can you do together to meet the needed expectations? what outcomes do you wish to complete together? what do they need from you? Organization: how can your team help execute on its strategy? .1.

trainors. parish community. parents. Pakistan. catechists. organize groups according to roles/responsibilities in view of providing catechetical formation and leadership capabilities Organization: the team will define their expectations and delegate responsibilities according to competencies . provide catechetical formation and leadership capabilities Stakeholders: Brothers.sample Customer/Client: marginalized youth in town A.

2. Decide what you wish to be known for? Choose 2-3 important
traits/motivations you wish to be known for? Choose 2-3 important capabilities, functions, styles, behaviors you wish to be known for? Choose 2-3 factors from the transformational leadership you wish to be known for? OR: Choose 6-8 words/phrases that you wish to be known for.

use the 6 words/phrases to reflect your desired identity

3. Define your identity

what you wish to be known for plus how do you wish to get your act together experiment with many combinations with the 6 words/phrases

collaborative independent deliberate innovative results-oriented strategic

independently innovative deliberately collaborative strategically results oriented

Construct your leadership brand statement I want to be known for being ____________ so that I can deliver _________.4. **You may draw a visual representation if you wish .

Pakistan. and strategically results oriented so that I can deliver effective educational outcomes for the catechetical formation and leadership capabilities in town A. deliberately collaborative.sample “I want to be known for being independently innovative.” .

Is this the brand identity that best represents who I am and what I can do? If you lived this declaration of leadership. would you see yourself as successful? Are you willing to tell others that this is your personal leadership brand? Critiquing Is this brand identity something that creates value in the eyes of my organization and key stakeholders? Is this something that is needed? .

Critiquing What risks am I taking by exhibiting this brand? What will the brand keep you from understanding and doing? Can I live this brand? Do you have the ability to translate the qualities you articulate in your leadership brand statement into day-to-day behavior? Can you make specific time commitments to live the leadership brand you espouse? Can you translate it into the decisions and choices you make? .

make sure you grow in maturity and selfawareness A brand is like your signature Leadership brand is a calling .Make it real by sharing it with others and inviting feedback from them Leadership Brand Brands evolve and are dynamic .

.Leadership as a calling QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.

Integration a lifelong endeavor = study. practical application. field experience. insights technical eclecticism approach theoretical integration approach common factor approach leadership as an art (creative synthesis) and a science (rigorous discipline) .

1981. 1971) Multiple Linkage Model (Gary Yukl.Variations of Contingency Theory Hersey and Blanchard (1977) Path Goal Leadership Theory (Robert House. 1978) Normative Leadership Theory (Vroom and Yetton) . 1989) Leadership Substitutes Theory (Kerr and Jermier.

Limitations of the Trait Theory focused on the leader per se and have minimized the impact of the followers and the situation assumed leadership was innate. cause and effect were not addressed failed to account why certain leaders would be effective in certain situations yet not in others it presumes that traits are stable across time. e.g.. universal traits? failed to offer a guideline for leadership development not an exact science. measurement of .

QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to this pictur . What does leadershi p look like? Why should anyone be led by you? QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a decompressor decompressor are needed to seesee this picture.

QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. .

behaviors functions traits styles motives cognitive Faith Faith Service Service personal interCommu Commu personal nion nion .