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Gender effects in young musicians‘ mastery-oriented achievement behavior and their interactions with teachers

Margit Painsi Richard Parncutt
Department of Musicology University of Graz

Structure of presentation Theoretical Background Method Results Conclusion Further research .

..Aims Investigation of gender differences in.. and the relationship between them Can motivational training improve achievement behavior? .. their teachers„ implicit theories of musical ability attribution patterns and feedback style .... young musicians„ achievement behavior . ..

Determining factors of pupils„ achievement behavior Carol Dweck (2001) Beliefs of school children Implicit theories Attribution patterns Achievement goals Beliefs of school teachers Implicit theories Attribution patterns .

„Meaning System“ Approach Dweck und Leggett (1988) Implicit self-theories involve personal attributes such as  intelligence musical ability  Implicit theories  motivational framework  meaning system  attributions Implicit self theories can be: •entity theories (talent) • portray personal attribute as relatively fixed •incremental theories (practice) • portray attribute as relatively malleable .

new strategies .“Meaning System” Approach Implicit theory Entity theory (talent) Goal choice Performance goal Ability Effort Luck Easiness of task Lack of ability  helpless behavior Incremental theory (practice) Learning goal Ability Effort Attributions of Success Attributions of Failure Not enough effort  more effort.

.enable pupils to have a lot of successes .avoid challenging tasks . expectations and attribution patterns Incremental Theorists .confront pupils with challenging tasks ...give self-worth protecting feedback ..Impact of teachers„ implicit theories on their.emphasize learning tasks ..give motivational feedback Entity Theorists .

9 Boys Age 12 – 14 15 Teachers Regional music schools in Styria (Mureck.Method Part of a larger project called Motivation and stress management training for children and teachers in music schools Project aim Evaluate a course on motivation and stress management strategies    impact on pupils‟ achievement behavior practicability as part of school curriculum acceptance by teachers and pupils Training phase: 8 weekly sessions 10 Girls. Leutschach. Deutschlandsberg) Data collection: • before first session • after 4th session • right after concert (after 8th session) • 3 days after concert .

1999) . 2000) Self-Regulation Self-Regulation Scale (Schwarzer.Measures Attribution Attribution Questionnaire (Painsi. 2003) for success and failure in music related contexts Implicit Theories Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale for Children – Self Form (Dweck. 2000) Goal Choice Questionnaire Goal Choice Items (Dweck.

Teachers„ Attributions of Success 4 p=.024 0 Ability Effort Luck Task Difficulty Mothers' Influence Fathers' Influence Teachers' Influence .5 p=.5 p=.5 Scale 0-4 1 0.009 3 Mean ratings 2.5 2 Girls Boys 1.058 3.

5 p=.5 Scale 0-4 1 0.Teachers Attributions of Failure 4 3.5 2 Girls Boys 1.049 3 Mean ratings 2.5 0 Ability Effort Luck Task Difficulty Mothers' Influence Fathers' Influence Teachers' Influence .

Teachers – Stereotyped thinking Attributions of success • Girls are successful because they work hard • Teachers think that behind every successful boy is a supportive mother Attributions of failure • Boys could avoid failures. confidence and achievement . if they worked harder Impact on feedback • Girls get feedback that protects their self-worth • Boys get motivational feedback Teachers do not consiously differentiate between boys and girls when they evaluate talent. effort.

5 Scale 0-5 0 Beginning Middle End .5 Pupils of teachers with incremental theory Pupils of teachers with entity theory Learning goals 1 0.5 2 * * 1.Effect of teacher beliefs on student goals 3 T * Performing goals 2.

5 * T 2 1.5 0 Beginning Middle End .5 * Girls Boys 1 Scale 0-3 * 0.Self-regulation 3 2.

Conclusion Impact of teachers„ theories on pupils achievement behavior Teachers„ gender stereotypes influence their behavior but not their conscious statements? Pupils of teachers who hold an incremental theory of ability improve their goal choice? Boys improved more on self-regulation? .

Further research Larger sample Control group with placebo training Development of measurements for self-efficacy Observation of interactive behavior between teacher and student Differentiation between boys and girls but also between different achievement behavior types .