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 Effect of undesirable changes of surroundings that have harmful effects on plants, animal and human being.

 The substances which contaminate air, water and soil are called pollutants.

Impacts on materials fall into four categories;

3. 4.

Discoloration Material loss Structural failure Soiling

Surface discoloration is the non-uniformity of

colour or hue on the surface of a single concrete

There are no valuation studies or material
inventories from which estimates of the costs of discoloration can be estimated

However, such costs are probably very small

A material loss; acid rain is leaving its mark on buildings, statues and other man-made structures.

Limestone and marble are particularly vulnerable

because acids attack their principal constituent, calcium
carbonate. These reactions produce water-soluble substances that easily leach out and weaken the structure.

Structural failure refers to loss of the load-carrying capacity of a component or member within a structure or of the structure itself.

Structural failure is initiated when the material is stressed to its strength limit, thus causing fracture or excessive deformations.

• In a well-designed system, a localized failure

should not cause immediate or even progressive
collapse of the entire structure.

•Ultimate failure strength is one of the limit
states that must be accounted for in structural

engineering and structural design.

Soiling is an optical effect (a darkening of reflectance) and

results primarily from the deposition of airborne particulate
matter to external building surfaces

The soiling on the brick consists of a thin but tenacious layer and follows a fairly regular pattern.


Sensitivity to air pollution


Brick Mortar Concrete limestone, marble) Natural stone (sandstone

very low moderate to high low
high (severely affected by SO2)

Very large very large very large large (especially culturally valuable objects) very small medium

Unalloyed steel Stainless steel

high (severely affected by SO2) very low


very low


Copper Lead Nickel and nickelplated

low very low high (especially in SO2 polluted environment) high (especially in SO2 polluted environment)

low low very low

Zinc and galvanised steel


Acid Rain

Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution soiling and
degradation of buildings in urban areas has been noticeable. The cause of this has often been attributed to the effects of air


The pollutants that form acid rain are principally sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides; both of these are released from

the combustion of fossil fuels like coal and oil. Since the
Industrial Revolution emissions of both have increased.

The list of materials affected by acid deposition

limestone, marble, zinc, nickel, paint and some plastics

Stone decay can take several forms, including the

removal of detail from carved stone, and the build-up of
black gypsum crusts in sheltered areas.

Metal corrosion is caused primarily by oxygen and moisture, although SO2 does accelerate the process

Most structures and buildings are affected by acid deposition to some degree because few materials are safe from these effects. In addition to atmospheric attack structures that are submerged in acidified waters such as foundations and pipes can also be corroded.

 It

mainly refers to loud and irritating sound which disturbs the peaceful life.

 Industries
 Traffic  Electrical

generators  Construction activities  Explosions


structures by developing

cracks. High intensity sound can break window panels.

These types of stones are commonly used for buildings and monuments- include granite, sandstone,limestone, marble and slate. Reviews have concluded that acid deposition damage to siliceous stones is negligible, and therefore attention is confined here to calcareous stones, i.e. limestone, marble and calcareous sandstones. These have been extensively used as building materials in Europe.

  

The deterioration of stone can be broken down into three processes: · Stage I (short term): This involves simple dissolution of calcium carbonate. · Stage II (medium term):This includes the dissolution of calcium carbonate plus the fall-out of less soluble granular particles within the matrix

· Stage III (long term):In sheltered areas where calcium sulphate is not intermittently washed away, there is a non steady build-up of salts. This results in the formation of a crust which may be followed by exfoliation. Whereas the formation of crusts is slow, exfoliation is very damaging.

The current opinion is that brick is unaffected by sulphur dioxide attack. However, the mortar component of brickwork is not. Mortar consists of sand, calcium hydroxide and other carbonate phases. The primary agent of mortar erosion is acid attack on the calcareous cement binder

Portland cement, the major binding agent in most concrete, is an alkaline material which is susceptible to acid attack. Potential impacts to concrete include soiling/discoloration, surface erosion, spalling and enhanced corrosion of embedded steel. However, for all these impacts (with the exception of surface erosion) damages are more likely to occur as a result of natural carbonation and ingress of chloride ions, rather than interaction with pollutants such as SO2 The main factor influencing the durability of concrete is the corrosion of embedded steel reinforcement.

In new concrete, these bars are protected from acid corrosion by the alkaline characteristics of the cementitious component of the concrete. As surface erosion does not affect structural integrity it has no impact on concrete durability. However, in badly prepared concrete, when carbonation has already led to steel corrosion, cracks will develop rendering the system more accessible to attack by SO2, as the corrosion products of steel occupy a greater volume than the steel.