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• • • • Taste Smell Vision Hearing/Balance
Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx
TASTE: how does it work?
• Taste buds on tongue on fungiform papillae (―mushroom-like projections) • Each ―bud‖ contains several cell types in microvilli that project through pore and chemically sense food • Gustatory receptor cells communicate with cranial nerve axon endings to transmit sensation to brain
M&M, Fig. 16.1
Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx
1 Human Anatomy. 16.Five taste sensations • • • • • Sweet—front middle Sour—middle sides Salty—front side/tip Bitter —back ―umami‖—posterior pharynx M&M. Head II: Throat/Larynx . Frolich. Fig.
2 Human Anatomy.Cranial Nerves of Taste Anterior 2/3 tongue: VII (Facial) Posterior 1/3 tongue: IX Glossopharyngeal) Pharynx: X (Vagus) M&M. Head II: Throat/Larynx . Fig. Frolich. 16.
Head II: Throat/Larynx . Frolich.Smell: How does it work? • Olfactory epithelium in nasal cavity with special olfactory receptor cells • Receptor cells have endings that respond to unique proteins • Every odor has particular signature that triggers a certain combination of cells • Axons of receptor cells carry message back to brain • Basal cells continually replace receptor cells—they are only neurons that are continuously replaced throughout life. Human Anatomy.
Head II: Throat/Larynx . 16.Olfactory epithelium just under cribiform plate (of ethmoid bone) in superior nasal epithelium at midline M&M. Fig.3 Human Anatomy. Frolich.
conjunctiva 3. Support of eye—lids. lashes. Lens and focusing—structures of eyeball and eye as optical device 4. Frolich. Retina and photoreceptors Human Anatomy. tears. Head II: Throat/Larynx .Vision 1. brows. Movement of eye—extrinsic eye muscles and location in orbit 2.
Head II: Throat/Larynx . Frolich.Movement of eye Eye movement simulator (http://cim.ucdavis.edu/ey es/version1/eyesim.htm) Human Anatomy.
turns III (Oculomotor) laterally Human Anatomy.Extrinsic eye muscles Muscle Movement Nerve Superior oblique Lateral rectus Medial rectus Inferior rectus Depresses eye. Frolich. turns laterally Turns laterally Turns medially Depresses eye IV (Trochlear) VI (Abducens) III (Oculomotor) III (Oculomotor) III (Oculomotor) Superior rectus Elevates Inferior oblique Elevates eye. Head II: Throat/Larynx .
16.4 Human Anatomy. Head II: Throat/Larynx .M&M. Frolich. fig.
Frolich. shield for perspiration • Eyelids (palpebrae): skin-covered folds with ―tarsal plates‖ connective tissue inside – Levator palpebrae superioris muscle opens eye (superior portion is smooth muscle—why?) • Canthus (plural canthi): corner of eye – Lacrimal caruncle makes eye ―sand‖ at medial corner – Epicanthal folds in many Asian people cover caruncle – Tarsal glands make oil to slow drying • Eyelash—ciliary gland at hair follicle—infection is sty • Eyelashes—touch sensitive.Support/Maintenance of Eye • Eyebrows: shade. thus blink Human Anatomy. Head II: Throat/Larynx .
Head II: Throat/Larynx . showing blood vessels underneath (bloodshot eyes) • Goblet cells in epithelium secrete mucous to keep eyes moist • Vitamin A necessary for all epithelial secretions—lack leads to conjunctiva drying up—‖scaly eye‖ Human Anatomy. Frolich.Support of Eye--conjunctiva • Mucous membrane that coats inner surface of eyelid (palpebral part) and then folds back onto surface of eye (ocular part) • Thin layer of connective tissue covered with stratified columnar epithelium • Very thin and transparent.
lysozyme (anti-bacterial) Human Anatomy. fig. Head II: Throat/Larynx M&M.5 . Frolich. antibodies.Support of eye--tears • Lacrimal glands— superficial/lateral in orbit. produce tears • Lacrimal duct (nasolacrimal duct) — medial corner of eye carries tears to nasal cavity (frequently closed in newborns—opens by 1 yr usually) • Tears contain mucous. 16.
7 Light path: Cornea Anterior segment Pupil Lens Posterior segment Neural layer of retina Pigmented retina Human Anatomy. Head II: Throat/Larynx . fig. Frolich. 16.Eye as lens/optical device M&M.
Frolich. attached at base to ciliary body • Pupil: opening in middle of iris • Retina: sensory layer that responds to light and transmits visual signal to brain Human Anatomy. begins focusing light • Choroid Internal to sclera/cornea – Highly vascularized – Darkly pigmented (for light absorption inside box) • Ciliary body: thick ring of tissue that encircles and holds lens • Iris: colored part of eye between lens and cornea. Head II: Throat/Larynx .Eye as optical device--structures • Sclera (fibrous tunic): is tough connective tissue ―ball‖ that forms outside of eyeball – like box/case of camera – Corresponds to dura mater of brain • Cornea: anterior transparent part of sclera (scratched cornea is typical sports injury).
Head II: Throat/Larynx .4 Human Anatomy. fig. Frolich. 16.M&M.
shu. 16. with age. Head II: Throat/Larynx ) .Detail: Aperture and focus APERTURE • Pupil changes shape due to intrinsic autonomic muscles – Sympathetic: Dilator pupillae (radial fibers) – Parasympathetic: sphinchter pupillae (animation of lens http://artsci. no close focusfar-sighted Human Anatomy.edu/biology/Student%20Pages/Kyle%20Keenan/eye/lensmovementnrve. less elasticity.html M&M. fig. Frolich.8 FOCUS • Ciliary muscles in ciliary body pull on lens to focus far away • Elasticity of lens brings back to close focus • Thus.
brown pigment at back appears blue after passing through iris/cornea Human Anatomy.Detail: eye color • Posterior part of iris always brown in color • People with brown/black eyes with pigment throughout iris • People with blue eyes—rest of iris clear. Frolich. Head II: Throat/Larynx .
not color-tuned – Cone cells have three types: blue.Details: Retina and photoreceptors • Retina is outgrowth of brain • Neurons have specialized receptors at end with ―photo pigment‖ proteins (rhodopsins) – Rod cells function in dim light. gene for one type of rhodopsin is deficient. and has intense cone cell population (low light night vision best from side of eye) • Blood vessels superficial to photoreceptors (retina is good sight to check for small vessel disease in diabetes) Human Anatomy. Frolich. red. usually red or green • Photoreceptors sit on pigmented layer of choroid. Pigment from melanocytes--melanoma possible in retina!! • Axons of photoreceptors pass on top or superficial to photoreceptor region • Axons congregate and leave retina at optic disc (blind spot) • Fovea centralis is in direct line with lens. green – In color blindness. Head II: Throat/Larynx . where light is focused most directly.
Frolich.10 Human Anatomy.Retina and photoreceptors M&M. Head II: Throat/Larynx . fig. 16.
17 • Outer Ear: auricle is elastic cartilage attached to dermis. Head II: Throat/Larynx . 16. gathers sound • Middle ear: ear ossicles transmit and modulate sound • Inner ear: cochlea.Ear/Hearing M&M. fig. Frolich. ampullae and semicircular canals sense sound and equilibrium Human Anatomy.
16. Frolich.Middle Ear • External auditory canal ends at tympanic membrane which vibrates against malleus on other side • Inside middle ear chamber – malleusincus stapes which vibrates on oval window of inner ear • Muscles that inhibit vibration when sound is too loud – Tensor tympani m. (inserts on stapes) M&M. Head II: Throat/Larynx . fig.19 Human Anatomy. (inserts on malleus) – Stapedius m.
fig.20 – Utricle. 16.—equilibrium Cochlear n.Y.Inner Ear/Labyrinth Static equilibrium.—hearing Sound vibrations Human Anatomy. linear motion 3-D motion. angular acceleration – 3 semicircular canals for X. Frolich. Head II: Throat/Larynx – Cochlea (―snail‖) .Z planes M&M. saccule are egg-shaped sacs in center (vestibule) of labyrinth Auditory Nerve (Acoustic) VIII receives stimulus from all to brain Vestibular n.
in life is spiral in shape) Human Anatomy.24 • Spiral organ is receptor epithelium for hearing • Range of volume and tone that are perceived astonishing • Basilar membrane running down middle – Thicker at start. vibrates at higher sound • (in figure shown uncoiled.Cochlea--how it works Which is more incredible? Retina or spiral organ? M&M. 16. Head II: Throat/Larynx . vibrates with lower sounds – Thinner at end. fig. Frolich.