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HEAD III: Special Senses

• • • • Taste Smell Vision Hearing/Balance

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

TASTE: how does it work?
• Taste buds on tongue on fungiform papillae (―mushroom-like projections) • Each ―bud‖ contains several cell types in microvilli that project through pore and chemically sense food • Gustatory receptor cells communicate with cranial nerve axon endings to transmit sensation to brain
M&M, Fig. 16.1

Human Anatomy, Frolich, Head II: Throat/Larynx

Five taste sensations • • • • • Sweet—front middle Sour—middle sides Salty—front side/tip Bitter —back ―umami‖—posterior pharynx M&M. Fig. 16.1 Human Anatomy. Frolich. Head II: Throat/Larynx .

Head II: Throat/Larynx .Cranial Nerves of Taste Anterior 2/3 tongue: VII (Facial) Posterior 1/3 tongue: IX Glossopharyngeal) Pharynx: X (Vagus) M&M. Fig.2 Human Anatomy. 16. Frolich.

Frolich. Head II: Throat/Larynx .Smell: How does it work? • Olfactory epithelium in nasal cavity with special olfactory receptor cells • Receptor cells have endings that respond to unique proteins • Every odor has particular signature that triggers a certain combination of cells • Axons of receptor cells carry message back to brain • Basal cells continually replace receptor cells—they are only neurons that are continuously replaced throughout life. Human Anatomy.

Fig. 16. Head II: Throat/Larynx .Olfactory epithelium just under cribiform plate (of ethmoid bone) in superior nasal epithelium at midline M&M. Frolich.3 Human Anatomy.

Support of eye—lids. Head II: Throat/Larynx .Vision 1. conjunctiva 3. Lens and focusing—structures of eyeball and eye as optical device 4. Frolich. Movement of eye—extrinsic eye muscles and location in orbit 2. lashes. tears. Retina and photoreceptors Human Anatomy. brows.

edu/ey es/version1/eyesim. Head II: Throat/Larynx . Frolich.Movement of eye Eye movement simulator (http://cim.ucdavis.htm) Human Anatomy.

Head II: Throat/Larynx .Extrinsic eye muscles Muscle Movement Nerve Superior oblique Lateral rectus Medial rectus Inferior rectus Depresses eye. Frolich. turns laterally Turns laterally Turns medially Depresses eye IV (Trochlear) VI (Abducens) III (Oculomotor) III (Oculomotor) III (Oculomotor) Superior rectus Elevates Inferior oblique Elevates eye. turns III (Oculomotor) laterally Human Anatomy.

4 Human Anatomy.M&M. Head II: Throat/Larynx . fig. Frolich. 16.

Frolich. thus blink Human Anatomy. shield for perspiration • Eyelids (palpebrae): skin-covered folds with ―tarsal plates‖ connective tissue inside – Levator palpebrae superioris muscle opens eye (superior portion is smooth muscle—why?) • Canthus (plural canthi): corner of eye – Lacrimal caruncle makes eye ―sand‖ at medial corner – Epicanthal folds in many Asian people cover caruncle – Tarsal glands make oil to slow drying • Eyelash—ciliary gland at hair follicle—infection is sty • Eyelashes—touch sensitive. Head II: Throat/Larynx .Support/Maintenance of Eye • Eyebrows: shade.

Support of Eye--conjunctiva • Mucous membrane that coats inner surface of eyelid (palpebral part) and then folds back onto surface of eye (ocular part) • Thin layer of connective tissue covered with stratified columnar epithelium • Very thin and transparent. showing blood vessels underneath (bloodshot eyes) • Goblet cells in epithelium secrete mucous to keep eyes moist • Vitamin A necessary for all epithelial secretions—lack leads to conjunctiva drying up—‖scaly eye‖ Human Anatomy. Head II: Throat/Larynx . Frolich.

5 . fig. Head II: Throat/Larynx M&M. lysozyme (anti-bacterial) Human Anatomy.Support of eye--tears • Lacrimal glands— superficial/lateral in orbit. antibodies. 16. produce tears • Lacrimal duct (nasolacrimal duct) — medial corner of eye carries tears to nasal cavity (frequently closed in newborns—opens by 1 yr usually) • Tears contain mucous. Frolich.

7 Light path: Cornea  Anterior segment  Pupil  Lens  Posterior segment  Neural layer of retina  Pigmented retina Human Anatomy.Eye as lens/optical device M&M. 16. Head II: Throat/Larynx . Frolich. fig.

Frolich. begins focusing light • Choroid Internal to sclera/cornea – Highly vascularized – Darkly pigmented (for light absorption inside box) • Ciliary body: thick ring of tissue that encircles and holds lens • Iris: colored part of eye between lens and cornea.Eye as optical device--structures • Sclera (fibrous tunic): is tough connective tissue ―ball‖ that forms outside of eyeball – like box/case of camera – Corresponds to dura mater of brain • Cornea: anterior transparent part of sclera (scratched cornea is typical sports injury). attached at base to ciliary body • Pupil: opening in middle of iris • Retina: sensory layer that responds to light and transmits visual signal to brain Human Anatomy. Head II: Throat/Larynx .

M&M.4 Human Anatomy. Head II: Throat/Larynx . fig. 16. Frolich.

edu/biology/Student%20Pages/Kyle%20Keenan/eye/lensmovementnrve.html M&M. Head II: Throat/Larynx ) . less elasticity. Frolich. no close focusfar-sighted Human Anatomy.8 FOCUS • Ciliary muscles in ciliary body pull on lens to focus far away • Elasticity of lens brings back to close focus • Thus.Detail: Aperture and focus APERTURE • Pupil changes shape due to intrinsic autonomic muscles – Sympathetic: Dilator pupillae (radial fibers) – Parasympathetic: sphinchter pupillae (animation of lens http://artsci.shu. with age. fig. 16.

Detail: eye color • Posterior part of iris always brown in color • People with brown/black eyes with pigment throughout iris • People with blue eyes—rest of iris clear. Frolich. Head II: Throat/Larynx . brown pigment at back appears blue after passing through iris/cornea Human Anatomy.

usually red or green • Photoreceptors sit on pigmented layer of choroid. Head II: Throat/Larynx . where light is focused most directly. red. Pigment from melanocytes--melanoma possible in retina!! • Axons of photoreceptors pass on top or superficial to photoreceptor region • Axons congregate and leave retina at optic disc (blind spot) • Fovea centralis is in direct line with lens. not color-tuned – Cone cells have three types: blue. gene for one type of rhodopsin is deficient. green – In color blindness. and has intense cone cell population (low light night vision best from side of eye) • Blood vessels superficial to photoreceptors (retina is good sight to check for small vessel disease in diabetes) Human Anatomy.Details: Retina and photoreceptors • Retina is outgrowth of brain • Neurons have specialized receptors at end with ―photo pigment‖ proteins (rhodopsins) – Rod cells function in dim light. Frolich.

Head II: Throat/Larynx . Frolich. fig.Retina and photoreceptors M&M.10 Human Anatomy. 16.

Ear/Hearing M&M. gathers sound • Middle ear: ear ossicles transmit and modulate sound • Inner ear: cochlea. 16. ampullae and semicircular canals sense sound and equilibrium Human Anatomy.17 • Outer Ear: auricle is elastic cartilage attached to dermis. Head II: Throat/Larynx . fig. Frolich.

Frolich.19 Human Anatomy. 16. (inserts on malleus) – Stapedius m.Middle Ear • External auditory canal ends at tympanic membrane which vibrates against malleus on other side • Inside middle ear chamber – malleusincus stapes which vibrates on oval window of inner ear • Muscles that inhibit vibration when sound is too loud – Tensor tympani m. Head II: Throat/Larynx . fig. (inserts on stapes) M&M.

—hearing Sound vibrations Human Anatomy.Z planes M&M.—equilibrium Cochlear n.20 – Utricle. Head II: Throat/Larynx – Cochlea (―snail‖) . Frolich. fig. 16. angular acceleration – 3 semicircular canals for X. saccule are egg-shaped sacs in center (vestibule) of labyrinth Auditory Nerve (Acoustic) VIII receives stimulus from all to brain Vestibular n.Y.Inner Ear/Labyrinth Static equilibrium. linear motion 3-D motion.

24 • Spiral organ is receptor epithelium for hearing • Range of volume and tone that are perceived astonishing • Basilar membrane running down middle – Thicker at start. vibrates at higher sound • (in figure shown uncoiled. Head II: Throat/Larynx . fig. in life is spiral in shape) Human Anatomy. Frolich. 16.Cochlea--how it works Which is more incredible? Retina or spiral organ? M&M. vibrates with lower sounds – Thinner at end.