© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu

1
ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Image Acquisition
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
2
ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Electromagnetic Spectrum
The
wavelength
required to
“see” an
object must
be the same
size of
smaller than
the object
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
3
ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Image Sensors
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
4
ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Sensor Strips
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
5
ECE533 Digital Image Processing
An Example of Digital Image
Acquisition Process
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Digital Image Generation
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Image Sampling and Quantization
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Digital Image Representation
 An image is a function
defined on a 2D
coordinate f(x,y).
 The value of f(x,y) is the
intensity.
 3 such functions can be
defined for a color
image, each represents
one color component
 A digital image can be
represented as a matrix.


© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
9
ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Spatial and Gray Level Resolution
 Spatial resolution:
» # of samples per unit
length or area
» DPI: dots per inch
specifies the size of
an individual pixel
» If pixel size is kept
constant, the size of
an image will affect
spatial resolution
 Gray level
resolution:
» Number of bits per
pixel
» Usually 8 bits
» Color image has 3
image planes to yield
8 x 3 = 24 bits/pixel
» Too few levels may
cause false contour
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
10
ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Same Pixel Size, different Sizes
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Same Size, Different Pixel Sizes
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Varying Gray Level Resolution
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Size, Quantization Levels and Details
Isopreference curves
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Aliasing: Moiré Effect
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Zooming and Interpolation
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
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ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Sampling Theory
 A band-limited
continuous signal
can be
reconstructed
perfectly from its
discrete-time
samples if the
sampling rate is
above the Nyquist
rate
 Frequency domain
interpretation:
BL continuous
time signal
f
f
f
Sampled discrete
time signal
reconstructed
cont. time signal
© 2002-2003 by Yu Hen Hu
17
ECE533 Digital Image Processing
Sampling Theory Derivation
x
c
(t): Band-limited continuous time
signal
¬ X(O) = 0 for | O |> O
o
, X(O):
Fourier spectrum
Sampled at t = nT where T:
sampling period, and f
s
= 1/T:
sampling frequency
x(n) = x
c
(nT) has spectrum


Note that

X(e) = X(OT) is a periodic
extension of X(O)
To reconstruct, convolve with
inverse Fourier transform of an
ideal low pass filter, leading to a
sinc function in spatial domain.
Often approximate the sinc function
by pulse (sample and hold
circuit), followed by a low pass
filter.
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k
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