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KNES 510 Research Methods in Kinesiology
Research and Truth
There is no truth! Separation of science, philosophy and religion Aristotle, Plato, Socrates Einstein-dice
identify.Nature of Research Systematic – plan. design. collect data. evaluate Logical – examine procedures to evaluate conclusions Empirical – decisions are based on data (observation) Reductive – general relationships are established from data Replicable – actions are recorded 5 .
Unscientific Methods of Problem Solving Tenacity Intuition Authority The rationalistic method The empirical method 7 .
Scientific Method of Problem Solving Step 1: develop the problem (define and delimit it) – identify independent and dependent variables Step 2: formulate the hypotheses – the anticipated outcome Step 3: gather data – maximize internal and external validity Step 4(5): analyze and interpret results 8 .
Brown LE. Coburn JW. Effect of warm-up with different weighted bats on normal baseball bat velocity.Applied Research Montoya BS. 23(5):1566-1569. Zinder SM. Step 1: develop the problem – identify independent and dependent variables Step 2: formulate the hypotheses – the anticipated outcome Step 3: gather data – maximize internal and external validity Step 4(5): analyze and interpret results 9 . 2009. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.
Applied Research Basic research – type of research that may have limited direct application but in which the researcher has careful control of the conditions Applied research – type of research that has direct value to practitioners but in which the researcher has limited control over the research setting 10 .Basic vs.
Applied Research • Level I—Basic research – Goal: Theory-driven – Approach: Laboratory • Level II—Moderate relevance – Goal: Theory-based using relevant movements – Approach: Similar to real-world task or setting • Level III—Applied research – Goal: Immediate solutions – Approach: Real-world settings 11 .Continuum of Basic vs.
Experimental vs. Nonexperimental Research Experimental research – Treatments are given to subjects – Cause-and-effect questions Nonexperimental research – Treatments are not given to subjects – Participants are observed as they naturally exist 12 .
Examples – physical activity and heart disease – anabolic-androgenic steroids and liver cancer 13 . etc.Experimental vs. CausalComparative Studies Researchers may not be able to conduct experimental research due to ethical or legal concerns.
Experimental vs. CausalComparative Studies. Observe and describe some current condition 2. Look to the past to determine cause(s) 14 . cont’d Steps in causalcomparative (ex post facto) studies 1.
census Case study Longitudinal Correlational Historical 15 .Types of Nonexperimental Research Causal-comparative Survey (poll) – Sample vs.
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research Quantitative – data are gathered such that they can be quantified and subjected to statistical analysis Qualitative – data are gathered such that they can be analyzed through informed judgment 16 .
Quan vs. Qual 17 .
Variables in Experimental Studies Independent variable – Variable that is manipulated (treatment is administered) Dependent variable – Effect of the independent variable Simplest study has one independent variable and one dependent variable 18 .
Richardson. repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the difference in time-toexhaustion Condition 1 Pre and CHO Condition 2 Pre and CHO-Pro Time 2 Post and CHO Time 2 Post and CHO-Pro 19 . time (first test to exhaustion. CHO-Pro). cont’d Effect of Isocaloric CHO vs. CSUF) A 2 x 2. Master’s thesis.Variables in Experimental Studies. second test to exhaustion) x supplement (CHO vs. CHO-Pro Supplements on Time-toExhaustion (Kristy L.
extends existing knowledge 20 . appropriate organization and format.CSUF Department of Kinesiology Description of Thesis Thesis – written product of a systematic study of a significant problem…The finished product evidences originality. and thorough documentation Creates new knowledge. critical and independent thinking.
Discussion 6. Introduction 2. Tables and figures 21 . Methods 4. References 7.CSUF Department of Kinesiology Description of Thesis Format of thesis – Five-chapter format 1. Review of Literature 3. Results 5.
Similar to traditional format with some differences (i.CSUF Department of Kinesiology Description of Thesis – Journal format 1.e. the review of literature is part of the appendices) Thesis committee – one chairperson and two members Use of human subjects – requires submission of application to the CSUF Institutional Review Board (IRB) prior to collecting data 22 ..
handbook. In addition to the project. brochure. etc. videotape. a written review of literature is required 23 .CSUF Department of Kinesiology Description of Project Project – disseminates theoretical material for the practitioner or layperson in a given field Project committee – project chairperson and one committee member Typically in the form of a manual.
discussion. summary of lit review. tables and figures 24 .CSUF Department of Kinesiology Description of Thesis and Project Proposal-intro. methods and stats (slides) Defense-same as above with results.
CSUF Department of Kinesiology Description of Comp Exam Comprehensive exam – provides the student with the opportunity to synthesize and articulate the knowledge acquired throughout the graduate education and helps in preparing the student for his or her chosen profession 25 .
CSUF Department of Kinesiology Description of Comp Exam The student is required to complete the written comprehensive examination in the major area of academic concentration and minor The examination will be 3 hours in length for the major and 1 ½ hours for the minor The faculty member responsible for the specific section determines the number of questions One question examining research design and/or statistics is included in the major area 26 .
CSUF Department of Kinesiology Description of Comp Exam If all committee members are satisfied with written portion. a 90 minute oral exam is scheduled at least two weeks after written Further questioning on major/minor areas and statistics research design 27 .
Next Class Chapter 2 Get an article for your lit review Print out entire article Write (one page): – Abstract – Problem – Hypothesis 28 .