QUALITY CONTROL

Quality Control is the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill the requirements for quality.

7 TOOLS OF QUALITY CONTROL

Pareto charts: used to identify the principal causes of problems. Ishikawa/fishbone diagrams: charts of cause and effect in processes. Stratification: layer charts which place each set of data successively on top of the previous one. Check sheets: to provide a record of quality.

Cont.

Histograms: graphs used to display frequency of various ranges of values of a quantity. Scatter graphs: used to help determine whether there is a correlation between two factors. Control Charts: used as a device in SPC

Pareto Charts

Fish Bone Diagram [Cause Effect Diagram]
CAUSES CAUSES

PROBLEM / EFFECT

CAUSES

CAUSES

Checksheet
Monday
Billing Errors Wrong Account Wrong Amount

Can be used to keep track of defects or used to make sure people collect data in a correct manner.

A/R Errors
Wrong Account Wrong Amount

Histogram
Number of Lots
Can be used to identify the frequency of quality defect occurrence and display quality performance.

0

1

2

3

4

Data Ranges

Defects in lot

Scatter Diagram
12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 10
Can be used to illustrate the relationships between quality behavior and training.

Defects

20

30

Hours of Training

QUALITY ASSURANCE
Quality Assurance is all systematic and

planned actions which are necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy the given requirement for quality.

QUALITY MANAGEMENT
Quality Management is a systematic set

of operating procedures which is accepted company wide, documented, implemented and maintained while ensuring the growth of business in a consistent manner .

Statistical Quality Control (SQC)
Statistical Quality Control is a method of measuring and controlling the process of outputs in terms of the specification by adopting statistical techniques ,such as sampling and sampling error measurement, control charts, statistical analysis of results, cause and effect studies etc

ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING
Acceptance sampling involves testing a batch of data to determine if the proportion of units having a particular attribute exceeds a given percentage. The sampling plan involves three determinations: (1) batch size; (2) sample size; and (3) maximum number of defects that can be uncovered before rejection of the entire batch. This technique permits acceptance or rejection of a batch of merchandise or documents under precisely specified circumstances.

Cont..

Purposes

Determine quality level Ensure quality is within predetermined level
Economy Less handling damage Fewer inspectors Upgrading of the inspection job Applicability to destructive testing Entire lot rejection (motivation for improvement)

Advantages
   


Cont.

Disadvantages
Risks of accepting “bad” lots and rejecting “good” lots  Added planning and documentation  Sample provides less information than 100-percent inspection

SAMPLING PLANS
Sampling plans consist of a sample size and a decision rule. The sample size is the number of items to sample or the number of measurements to take. The decision rule involves the acceptance limit(s) and a description of how to use the sample result to accept or reject the lot.

Operating Characteristic Curve
1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 1 2

Probability of acceptance

a = .05 (producer’s risk) n = 99 c=4

 =.10
(consumer’s risk)

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 11 12

AQL Percent defective

Acceptable Quality Level (AQL)
The acceptable quality level of a sampling plan is a measure of the level of quality routinely accepted by that sampling plan. It is defined as the percent defective (defectives per hundred units X 100%) that the sampling plan will accept 95% of the time. This means lots at or better than the AQL are accepted at least 95% of the time and rejected at most 5% of the time

Statistical Process Control (SPC)

 

Uses statistics & control charts to tell when to adjust process Developed by Shewhart in 1920’s Involves
  

Creating standards (upper & lower limits) Measuring sample output (e.g. mean wgt.) Taking corrective action (if necessary)

Done while product is being produced

Control Charts
Control Charts is a graphical representation of the characteristic of a process around the central line and one or more control limits. It may be used in statistical quality control whether the inspections is for attributes or for variables. When the method of inspection is for attributes, the inspector simply notes the presence or absence of some quality characteristics and records the count of those with and without it, but if the quality characteristics is measured by the inspector and a record is kept for each measurement , so that the variation between each is known, then the inspection is for variables.

Control Chart

Process Control Charts
Plot of Sample Data Over Time
80

Sample Value

60 40 20 0 1 5 9 13 Time 17 21

Sample Value UCL Average LCL

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful