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CNAP Semester 3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing


Cisco Regional Networking Academy

Version 3.0

Compare store-and-forward and cut-through switching Understand the differences between hubs, bridges, and switches Describe the main functions of switches List the major switch frame transmission modes Describe the process by which switches learn addresses Identify and define forwarding modes Define LAN segmentation

Table of Content
1 Introduction to Ethernet/802.3 LANs 2 Introduction to LAN Switching 3 Switch Operation



Ethernet/802.3 LAN Development

Thick Ethernet
Limited to 500m before signal degradation Limitations on number and placement of stations Expensive, large and difficult to pull through buildings 10Mbps shared bandwidth

Thin Ethernet
Limited to 185m before signal degradation Less expensive and still difficult to pull through buildings 10Mbps shared bandwidth

Ethernet/802.3 LAN Development (cont.)

Each node has 10Mbps Each node share 10Mbps



Elements Of Ethernet/802.3 Networks

All nodes on a shared Ethernet media transmit and receive data using a data frame broadcast method

Elements Of Ethernet/802.3 Networks

Half-duplex Networks

Network Latency
There is the time it takes the source NIC to place voltage pulses on the wire and the time it takes the receiving NIC to interpret these pulses. There is the actual propagation delay as the signal takes time to travel along the cable. Latency is added according to which networking devices, whether they are Layer 1, Layer 2, or Layer 3, are added to the path between the two communicating computers.

The Benefits Of Using Repeaters

Full-duplex Transmitting
10 or 100 Mbps Full-Duplex 10 or 100 Mbps 10 or 100 Mbps 10 or 100 Mbps

Full-duplex Ethernet allows the transmission of a packet and the reception of a different packet at the same time. This connection is considered point-to-point and is collision free Full-duplex Ethernet offers 100% of the bandwidth in both directions


LAN Segmentation

Isolate traffic between segment achieve more bandwidth

LAN Segmentation With Bridges

LAN Segmentation With Routers

LAN Segmentation With Switches

Switches eliminate the impacts of collisions through the micro-segmentation Work with existing 802.3(CSMA/CD)

Basic Operations Of A Switch

A 4 Data A to B C 3


1 2 3 4


Forward packets based on forwarding table - Based on MAC address


Basic Operations Of A Switch

Data A to B

Data A to B
C 3

Data A to B


Operate at layer 2 Learn stations location by examination source address

1 2 3 4 A x B C


Basic Operations Of A Switch

1 4 2 Interface 3

1 2 3 4 A x B B X C - Send out all port when destination address is broadcast, multicast, unknown - Forwards when destination on different segment

Data B to A


Basic Operations Of A Switch

A 4 Data B to A C 3


1 2 3 4 A x B X C


Ethernet Switch Latency

Latency is the period of time from when the beginning of a frame enters to when the end of the frame exits the switch. Latency is directly related to the configured switching process and volume of traffic.

Layer 2 And Layer 3 Switching

Switching is the process of receiving an incoming frame on one interface and delivering that frame out another interface Layer 2 switching is based on MAC address information. Layer 3 switching is based on network layer addresses or IP addresses. Layer 3 switching is a function of the network layer. Traffic flow in a switched or flat network is inherently different from the traffic flow in a routed or hierarchical network.

Symmetric And Asymmetric Switching

Two Switching Methods

Store-and-forward The entire frame is received before any forwarding takes place. Latency occurs while the frame is being received. Latency is greater with larger frames The switch is able to check the entire frame for errors Cut-through The frame is forwarded through the switch before the entire frame is received. At a minimum the frame destination address must be read before the frame can be forwarded. This mode decreases the latency of the transmission, but also reduces error detection

Two Forms Of Cut-through Switching

Fast-forward Fast-forward switching offers the lowest level of latency. Fast-forward switching immediately forwards a packet after reading the destination address. Fragment-free Fragment-free switching filters out collision fragments before forwarding begins. Fragment-free switching waits until the packet is determined not to be a collision fragment before forwarding.

Frame Transmission Modes

How Switches And Bridges Learn Addresses

Reading the source MAC address of each received frame Recording the port on which the MAC address was received If the address is not found, the bridge forwards the frame out all ports except the port on which it was received. If the address is found in an address table and the address is associated with the port on which it was received, the frame is discarded. If the address is found in an address table and the address is not associated with the port on which it was received, the bridge forwards the frame to the port associated with the address.

How Switches And Bridges Filter Frames

Bridges are capable of filtering frames based on Layer 2 fields Most Ethernet bridges can filter broadcast and multicast frames Today, bridges are also able to filter according to the network-layer protocol

LAN Segmentation Using Bridging

Why segment LANs?

Microsegmentation Implementation

Switches And Collision Domains

The network area where frames originate and collision is called the collision domain. A switch builds a switching table by learning the MAC addresses of the hosts that are connected to each switch port. When two connected hosts want to communicate with each other, the switch looks up the switching table and establishes a virtual connection between the ports. The virtual circuit is maintained until the session is terminated.

Switches And Broadcast Domains

Broadcasting is when one transmitter tries to reach all the receivers in the network When a device wants to send out a Layer 2 broadcast, the destination MAC address in the frame is set to all ones The broadcast domain at Layer 2 in referred to as the MAC broadcast domain. The MAC broadcast domain consists of all devices on the LAN that receive frame broadcasts by a host to all other machines on

The basic operations of a switch The differences between Layer 2 and Layer 3 switching Symmetric and asymmetric switching Memory buffering Store-and-forward and cut-through switchings The differences between hubs, bridges, and switches The main functions of switches Major switch frame transmission modes The process by which switches learn addresses The frame-filtering process LAN segmentation Microsegmentation using switching