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Group Members:

Academic Advisor
Dr. Basim Abu-Jdayil
Student name ID
Aysha Housani 200503484
Maha Al Shehhi 200509462
Hessa Al Shehhi 200509582
Mona Thabet 200521150
United Arab Emirates University
College of Engineering
Graduation Project II Course
First Semester- Fall 2010






Introduction
Problem Statement and Purpose
Objective
Process selection
Material balance
Energy balance
Detailed Design
Process Economics
Safety and environmental issues
Project Management
Conclusion






Petrochemical Phthalic Anhydride
Large Scale Industries
Produced either by O-xylene or Naphthalene, where both of them are available from
oil industries that are extensively available in the UAE
Plasticizer industries Pigments industries
Phthalic anhydride
Phthalic Anhydride is not available in UAE
Its imported from other countries
Problem Statement And Purpose
UAE
In 2009 imported 27.5
Ton/day
OBJECTIVE
Objective
Plant production 70 ton/day
UAE need 27.5 ton/day
To produce PA the commonly types process are by
O-xylene
Naphthalene
Liquid-phase oxidation
Fixed bed vapor-phase
oxidation
Fluidized bed vapor-phase
oxidation
Fixed bed vapor-phase
oxidation
Process
Criteria
Oxidation of O-xylene
using a fixed bed vapor-
phase
Oxidation of Naphthalene
using fluidized bed vapor-
phase
Raw material Cost Lower
Higher
(it is in an impure form)
Raw material availability More available
Less available
(coal tar naphthalene)
Safety:
1. CO
2
emission
2. Processing
Temperature

Less
Higher (350 to 500)

More
Lower (340 to 385)
PA Yield
Higher (Complete
combustion)
Lower
Combination
Vanadium Pentoxide [V
2
O
5
]
& Titanium Dioxide [TiO
2
]
Advantages:
Able to operate higher O-xylene concentration without:

Reducing the selectivity for the partial oxidation reaction which produces PA
Increasing the formation of by-products

Steady State
Air
(900 kmol/hr)
O-xylene
(25
kmol/hr)
PA
(20 kmol/hr)

MA
O
2
+ N
2
+CO
2
+ H
2
O
H
2
O
Compressor
Reactor
Gas separator
Distillation
1
2
14
10
13
Stream# 1 2 10 13 14
Mass Flow (kg/hr) 25976.8 2654.2 25480.5 230.3 2920.2
Molar flow
(Kmol/hr)
900.4 25.0 906.2 5.75 19.7
Average Molecular weight
(kg/hr)
28.85 106.17 28.12 40.06 148.3
Component flowrate
(kmol/hr)
O-xylene 0.0 25.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Oxygen 189.1 0.0 79.4 0.0 0.0
Nitrogyn 711.3 0.0 711.3 0.0 0.0
Carbon Dioxide 0.0 0.0 35.8 0.0 0.0
Water 0.0 0.0 79.6 4.2 0.0
Maleic Anhydride 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.6 0.1
Phthalic Anhydride 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 19.7
General equation of the energy balance
Calculation of energy balance
the amount of the energy supplied
the amount of the steams
E-101 E-102 E-104 E-105 E-106 R-101
Q (kJ /hr) 1.87 x10
6
1.67x10
6
8.20x10
5
4.65x10
5
7.56x10
5
3.85x10
7

Utilities mps mps hps cw mps
Molten
salt
Flow rate
(kg/hr)
989.28 931.58 522.18 795.4 400 614,000
E-101 E-102 E-104 E-105 E-106 R-101
Q (kJ/hr)
1.97x10
6
1.84x10
6
7.23x10
5
4.8x10
5
7.76x10
5
3.74x10
7

Utilities
mps mps hps - - -
Flow rate (kg/hr) 1,010 948 445
- - -
Q
calculated

(kJ/hr)
Q*
(kJ/hr)
% Error
Utility
calculated
(kg/hr)
Utility*
(kg/hr)
% Error
E-101 1.87 x10
6
1.97x10
6
5.08 989.28 1,010 2.05
E-102 1.67x10
6
1.84x10
6
9.24 931.58 948 1.73
E-104 8.20x10
5
7.23x10
5
13.42 522.18 445 17.34
E-105 4.65x10
5
4.80x10
5
3.13 795.4 - -
E-106 7.56x10
5
7.76x10
5
2.58 400 - -
R-101 3.85x10
7
3.74x10
7
2.94 614,000 - -

DETAILED DESIGN
Compressor Design
DETAILED DESIGN
Compressor Type
1.5x10
4
CFM
3
DETAILED DESIGN
Compressor Power
Work (kJ/hr) 2,901,560
Efficiency % 75
Shaft Power (kW) 1075

Fluid power (kW) 806
Stream : 1

1
=900.4 kmol/hr
T
1
=25 C
P
1
=1 atm

Stream : 3

3
= 900.4kmol/hr
P
3
= 3 atm


DETAILED DESIGN
Pump Design
DETAILED DESIGN
Pump Power
O-xylene flow rate (Kg/hr)
2654.2
Density (kg/m3)
877.5
P
1
(Pa)
100,000
P
2
(Pa)
300,000
Specific Work (J/kg)
231
Fluid Power (kW)
0.17
Pump Type Reciprocating pump
Efficiency % 80
Shaft Power (kW) 0.212
DETAILED DESIGN
Heat exchanger
heater condenser vaporizer Re-boiler
DETAILED DESIGN
Heat exchanger
Shell and tube heat exchanger
Easily cleaned
The configuration gives a large surface area in small
volume
The construction of shell and the tubes can be
made of different materials
The variation of the pressure and pressure drops
over a wide range
Type of design U-tube Fixed tube sheet
Temperature High temperature differential which may
require
High temperature
difference required at
extremes of about 93
0
C
Clean Cleaning chemically and difficult to clean
mechanically
Cleaning chemically
and mechanically
Number of tube pass Any particle even number possible Normally no limitation
Suitable for : - For any application that the fluid
should be free of suspended particle
- Clean service or easily cleaned
condition in both tube side and shell
side.
Condenser , liquid-
liquid , gas gas , gas
liquid cooling or
heating , re-boilling
Cost Relatively cheap Relatively expensive
Heat exchanger
DETAILED DESIGN
DETAILED DESIGN
Heat exchanger
3
5
Saturated steam
condensate steam
air
4
6
Saturated steam
condensate steam
O-oxylene
Saturated steam
condensate steam
mixture
Mixture : MA , PA , water
E-101 E-102 E-104
13
14
Fixed tube sheet Double pipe U-tube
Steam : condensation Steam : condensation Steam : condensation
O-oxylene : vaporization mixture : vaporization Air : heating (one phase)
Carbon steel
DETAILED DESIGN
U Estimated
Heat exchanger
To find Heat transfer area (A)
F Obtained from charts
DETAILED DESIGN
Heat exchanger
Standard E-101 E-102 E-104
OD (m) 0.0254 0.019 0.019
Tube passes 4 2 2
Shell passes 2 1 1
ID (m) 0.0170 0.016 0.016
triangle spacing (m) 0.0254 0.0254 0.0254
L (m) 4.9 4.9 4.9
DETAILED DESIGN
Heat exchanger
Heat transfer coefficient
condensate
Tube-side coefficient
shell-side coefficient
One phase
shell-side coefficient
vaporization
Tube-side coefficient
DETAILED DESIGN
Heat exchanger
Calculating U
DETAILED DESIGN
Heat exchanger
Heat Exchanger E-101 E-102 E-104
Range of U
(W/m
2
.
o
C)
30 300 300 900 300 900
h
i
(W/m
2
.
o
C) 1,093.86 17,452.33 3770.89
h
o
(W/m
2
.
o
C) 49.47 1,797.09 2,867.57
U (W/m
2
.
o
C) 45 685 675
Area (m
2
) 375.18 12.53 3.55
Number of tubes 1,023 43 13

DETAILED DESIGN
Reactor Design
DETAILED DESIGN
Reactor Design
O H CO O H C
CO O H O H C O H C
O H O H C O H C
2 2 2 10 8
2 2 3 2 4 2 10 8
2 3 4 8 2 10 8
5 8 5 . 10 3
4 4 5 . 7 2
3 3 1
+ +
+ + +
+ +
DETAILED DESIGN
Reactor
Assumptions:
Rate constant independent of Temperature
second order based on
O-xylene
Oxygen
1
2
Effect of pressure drop on the flow rates is neglected
3
steady state
4
DETAILED DESIGN
Reactor
Mole balance equations
Stoichiometry equation of each reactant component
Conversion profile with the weight of the catalyst
Temperature change with the weight of catalyst
POLYMATH 6.1 software
Catalyst weight
DETAILED DESIGN
Conversion profile with the weight of the catalyst
W=8,725 kg
x=1
DETAILED DESIGN
Temperature profile with the weight of the catalyst
DETAILED DESIGN
Reactor size
where
steel type 316
Reactor size
Reactor design specification value
V
packing
(m
3
)
8.9
V
reactor
(m
3
)
11.125
D
tube
(m)
1.68
L
tube
(m)
5.03
Number of tubes
5,495
P (atm)
0.1
DETAILED DESIGN

Distillation Column
DETAILED DESIGN
DETAILED DESIGN
Distillation column
Trayed column Packed column
Trayed Column
Selection of column internals are:
Liquid loads are high 1
1
Multiple liquid phases including water
Types of tray:
Sieve tray.
Bubble Cap tray.
Valve tray.
Others like :Dual flow tray , Baffle tray.
Selection the type of tray based on:
Liquid flow rate.
Pressure exerted by the gas.
DETAILED DESIGN
Calculating the minimum number of theoretical stages using the
Fenske equation
X
LD
: mole fraction of light key(MA) in distillate.
X
LW
: mole fraction of light key(MA) in bottom.
X
HD
: mole fraction of heavy key (PA)in distillate.
N
min
= 7
) ( / ] . [
. min av L
HD
LD
HD
LD
Log
x
x
x
x
Log N o =
5 . 0
. . .
) (
w L D L av L
o o o =
Distillation column
DETAILED DESIGN
DETAILED DESIGN
Minimum Reflux Ratio
) 1 /( ] ). ( [
min
=
AB AB
FB
DB
FA
DA
Fx
Dx
Fx
Dx
F
L
o o
4 . 4
min
= L
76 . 0
min
min
= =
D
L
R
14 . 1 95 . 0
.
=
act
R 1.2 R
min
R
actual
1.5 R
min

Distillation column
To estimate the maximum allowable superficial vapor
velocity and the column area :
Distillation column
DETAILED DESIGN
Plate Spacing : 1.37 m
Vapor Velocity in the column: 0.0504 m/s
The maximum vapor rate: 0.052 0.06 m
3
/s
m 1.2 - 1.15

. 4
= =
v
w
c
u
V
D
t
Calculating Diameter
DETAILED DESIGN
Distillation column
DETAILED DESIGN
Distillation Column
3 1 * ) 1 ( + + = spacing plate N Height
actual
tray actual tower
P . N P A = A
bar 007 . 0 P
tray
= A
Calculating Height of tower:
DETAILED DESIGN
Distillation Column
Tray Spacing (m)
1.37
Type of Trays
sieve
Internals
17 tray
Column Diameter (m)
1.15 1.2
Column Height (m)
26
P (Tower) (bar)
0.119
MOC
316 SS
PROCESS ECONOMICS
Cost
Capital Cost Operating Cost
Capital Cost
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
2
1 2
I
I
C C
Where:

C
1
purchased cost of the equipment in a past record
C
2
purchased cost of the equipment for the current time
I
1
chemical engineering purchase index in a past record
I
2
chemical engineering purchase index for the current time
CAPCOST
PROCESS ECONOMICS
Where:
C total purchased cost of the equipment in a current time
Lang factor
Capital Cost
=3.1 for predominantly solids processing plant
= 4.7 for predominantly fluids processing plant
= 3.6 for a mixed fluids-solids processing plant
has different values depend on the type of process plant
2

= C f C
PROCESS ECONOMICS
Capital Cost
Equipment Type
Purchased Equipment
Cost ($)
C-101 624,000
E-101 79,500
E-102 20,400
SC-101 159,835
E-104 3,960
E-105 & E-106 18,510
E-107 40,500
P-101 14,500
R-101 202,500
T-101 61,700
Total Purchased Cost ($) 1,225,405
Capital Cost ($) 4,448,222
15% of the total cost
30% of the
distillation tower
cost
PROCESS ECONOMICS
Operating Cost
Fixed costs Variable costs
Maintenance (labour and
materials)
Raw materials
Operating labour.
Miscellaneous operating
materials.
Laboratory costs. Utilities (Services)
Supervision. Shipping and packaging
Plant overheads.
Capital charges.
Rates (and any other local taxes).
Insurance.
Licence fees and royalty
payments.
PROCESS ECONOMICS
Operating Cost
Cost of manufacture
COM: Cost of Manufacture.
C
RM
: Cost of Raw Material.
C
WT
: Cost of Waste Treatment.
C
UT
: Cost of Utilities.
C
OL
: Cost of Operating Labor.
FCI: Fixed Capital Investment.
PROCESS ECONOMICS
Operating Cost
Cost of raw material
Raw material
Price of each
kg* ($/kg)
Amount (kg/hr) Price ($/hr)
Air
1.78x10
-4
25976.80 4.62
O-xylene
0.8122 2654.20 2152.05
C
RM
17,003,223$/yr
PROCESS ECONOMICS
Operating Cost
Cost of utilities
C
UT
920,275.75$/yr
Utility Electricity MP steam HP steam Cooling water
Each unit
Price
0.06 Kw 0.01371 $/kg 0.01664 $/kg 0.0148 $/kg
Amount 1,074.167 Kw 2,320.86 kg/hr 522 kg/hr 795.4 kg/hr
Total Price
$/hr
64.450 31.820 8.686 11.770
PROCESS ECONOMICS
Operating Cost
Cost of operating labour
PROCESS ECONOMICS
Operating Cost
Cost of waste treatment
waste water includes Maleic anhydride
treated using an activated sludge process
C
WT
107.4 $/yr
PROCESS ECONOMICS
Operating Cost
cost of manufacture
PROCESS ECONOMICS
Feasibility Study
SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
HAZOP study
Hazard and Operability study (HAZOP)
a study conducted to prevent any damages or to overcome and
respond on any sudden changes.
HAZOP study
Hazard and Operability study (HAZOP)
a study conducted to prevent any damages or to overcome and
respond on any sudden changes.
HAZOP outcome
Operating procedures for the equipments
SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
HAZOP study
Guide Word
Definition Example
Deviations
Way in which the process conditions
may depart from their process
intent.
(less/More of: Flow
rate, pressure,
Temperature
Causes
Why, and how, the deviations could
occur.
Valves failure,
leaking, blockage
Consequences
The results that follow from the
occurrence of Deviations
Process failure,
reduced product flow
rate
Action
Required
What Should be done to overcome
the Consequences
Installing Warning
instruments, closing
valves
SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
Reactor
Deviation Possible Causes Consequences Action required /Safeguards
No flow
Blockage in the
reactor inlet pipe.
- Pressure build up in
reactor
- Install pressure gage.
- Shutdown if blockage does
not clear itself
Rupture in the pipe
of the reactor.
- Release of explosive
mixtures to
atmosphere
- Regular checking of the
pipe.
- Emergency shutdown.
Less Flow
Low feed rate.
- Process
inconvenience but no
hazard.
- No action required
More Flow
High feed rate.
- Increased duty
downstream
- Install controller for feed.
SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
Reactor
Deviation Possible Causes Consequences
Action required
/Safeguards
More
Temperature
Inadequate cooling.
- Coolant (Molten
salt) temperature
rises.
- Install temperature
indicators in reactor.
- Increase molten salt
flow rate.
Low
temperature
Low feed
temperature
- More by-products
from reaction.
- Install temperature
indicators in reactor.
More
pressure
Partial blockage of
reaction tubes.
- Increased
pressure
downstream.
- Install pressure gage.
- Shutdown and clean
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
CONCLUSION

Missing information
to determine the
Detailed design.

No sufficient time to
complete each task.

Finding the actual
amount of PA needed
in UAE.
Phthalic
Anhydride
Raw
material
amount
Mass &
Energy
Balance
Equipment
sizing
Cost
HAZOP
study
Problem faced:
DETAILED DESIGN
Heat exchanger
F obtained from charts
E-101
4 tube passes 2shell passes
E-102 , E-104
2 tube passes 1shell pass



Compressor
Pump
DETAILED DESIGN
Heat exchanger
condensate
Tube-side coefficient
where
shell-side coefficient
DETAILED DESIGN
Heat exchanger
One phase
shell-side coefficient
DETAILED DESIGN
Heat exchanger
vaporization
Tube-side coefficient
Reactor
Component A:
Component B:
Reactor
Component C:
Component D:
Component E:
Component F:
Reactor
Conversion profile
Temperature change