This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Collective Behavior –activity involving a large number of people that is unplanned, often controversial, and sometimes dangerous.
Collective behavior is diverse. Collective behavior is variable. 2. Much collective behavior is transitory. 3. .STUDYING COLLECTIVE BEHAVIOR Collective behavior is complex and difficult to study for three reasons: 1.
a large number of people whose minimal interaction occurs in the absence of well defined and conventional norms. as in the case of crowds and riots. . Collectives are two types: A localized collectivity refers to people physically close to one another. A dispersed collectivity or mass behavior involves people who influence one another despite being spread over a large area.Collectivity .
THREE KEY DIFFERENCE ON HOW COLLECTIVITIES DIFFER FROM SOCIAL GROUPS 1. People in collectivities have little or no social interaction. 2. Collectivities generate weak and unconventional norms. . 3. Collectivities have no clear boundaries.
LOCALIZED COLLECTIVITIES : CROWDS Crowd – a temporary gathering of people who share a common focus or attention who influences one another. Herbert Blumer (1969) identified four categories of crowds: 1. A casual crowd – aq loose collection of people who interact a little. .
as illustrated by a country auction. An expressive crowd forms around an event with emotional appeal. A conventional crowd – results from deliberate planning. a college lecturer. 3.2. such as religious revival. . or a presidential inauguration. a rock band concert.
such as an audience rushing the doors of a concert hall.4. An acting crowd is a collectivity motivated by an intense. single minded purpose. or fleeing from a mall after hearing gunshots. .
Lynch Mobs – typically composed of poor whites who felt threatened by competition from freed slaves.MOBS AND RIOTS Mob – a highly emotional crowd that pursues a violent or destructive goal. . Lynching Mobs – most notorious example of mob behavior in the United States.
violent. a social eruption that is highly emotional. and undirected. except perhaps to express dissatisfaction.A highly energized crowd with no particular purpose is riot. . violent action is ignited by some minor incident that cause people to start destroying property and harming other persons. A riot usually has no clear goals. The cause of most riots is some long standing anger or grievance.
people forget about personal responsibility and give in to the contagious emotions of the crowds. Shielded by the anonymity found in large numbers. .CROWDS. MOBS. AND SOCIAL CHANGE Explaining Crowd Behavior Contagion Theory French sociologist Gustave Le Bon(18411931) – crowds have a hypnotic influence on their members.
CONVERGENCE THEORY Convergence theory holds that crowd behavior comes not from the crowd itself but from the particular people who join in. a crowd is a convergence of like minded individuals. From this point of view. . Convergence theory says the opposite. claiming that people who wish to act in a certain way come together to form crowds.
EMERGENT NORM THEORY Ralph Turner – Lewis Killian (1987) developed the emergent norm theory of crowds dynamics. . Crowd begin as collectivities containing people with mixed interest and motives. distinctive patterns of behavior may emerge. These admit that social behavior is never entirely predictable but if similar interest draw people into a crowd.
. RUMOR and GOSSIP Rumor – unconfirmed information that people spread informally. often by word of mouth.DISPERSED COLLECTIVITIES: MASS BEHAVIOR Mass Behavior is refers to collective behavior among people spread over a wide geographic area.
Rumor thrives in a climate of uncertainty. but gossip interest only a small circle of people who know a particular person. Charles Horton Cooley explained that rumor involves some issue many people care about. . GOSSIP – rumor about people’s personal affairs.RUMOR HAS THREE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS: 1. 2. That is why rumors spread widely but gossip tends to be localized. Rumor is unstable 3. Rumor is difficult to stop.
. and even some college lectures may include propaganda in an effort to steer people toward thinking or acting in some specific way.PUBLIC OPINION AND PROPAGANDA Public Opinion – widespread attitudes about controversial issues. commercial advertising. We offer information to enlighten others. Political speeches. Propaganda – information presented with the intention of shaping public opinion.
with plenty. ( Higher rates of social mobility also cause people to use their appearance to make a statement about themselves. .FASHION AND FADS Fashion – is a social pattern favored by a large number of people. with plenty of money to spend on luxuries. they attract lots of attention. The German sociologist Georg Simmel explained that rich people usually stand out as the trendsetters.
. How do fads differ from fashions? Fads capture the public imagination but quickly burn out. Because fashions reflect basic cultural values like individuality and sexual attractiveness. Therefore.Fad – is an unconventional social pattern that people embrace briefly but enthusiastically. they tend to say around for a while. a fashion but rarely fad becomes a more lasting part of popular culture.
PANIC AND MASS HYSTERIAN Panic – form of collective behavior in which people in one place react to a threat or other stimulus with irrational. . Mass Hysteria or Moral Panic – a form of dispersed collective behavior in which people react to a real or imagined event with irrational and even frantic fear. frantic. and often self destructive behavior.
generally unexpected. earthquakes. and forest fires are all examples of natural disaster. which is widely regarded as an accident but is more accurately a failure to control technology. that caused extensive harm to people and damage to property. A second type is the TECHNOLOGICAL DISASTER.DISASTERS . hurricanes. Disaster are of three types. Flood.it is an event. .
SOCIAL MOVEMENTS it is an organized activity that encourages or discourage social change. TYPES of SOCIAL MOVEMENTS Alternative Social Movements – the least threatening to the status quo because they seek limited change in only a part of the population. . Their aim is to help certain people alter their lives.
Sometimes pursuing specific goals. Redemptive Social Movements – also target specific people. . seeking transformation of an entire society. these social movements reject existing social institutions as flawed in favor of a radically new alternative. Revolutionary Social Movements – the most extreme of all. but they seek radical change. sometimes spinning utopians dreams.
Relative Deprivation is a perceived disadvantage arising from specific comparison.CLAIMS MAKING It is a process of trying to convince the public and public officials of the importance of joining a social movements to address a particular issue. DEPRIVATION THEORY – holds that social movements seeking change arise among people who feel deprived. .
. Culture Theory-the recognition that social movements depend not only on material resources and the structure of political power but also on cultural symbols.Mass – Society Theory William Kornhauser’s mass – society theory argues that social isolated people seek out social movements as a way to gain a sense of belonging and importance.
human labor. or even get off the ground – without substantial resources. Structural Conduciveness 2. money. aces to media etc. Structural Strain . communication.Resource Mobilization Theory Points out that no social movements is likely to succeed. STRUCTURAL STRAIN THEORY 1.
Mobilization for action 6. Precipitating Factors 5. Lack of social concern . Growth and spread of an explanation 4.3.
POLITICAL ECONOMY THEORY Social movements arise in capitalist societies because the capitalist economic system fails to meet needs of the majority of people. Workers organize to demand higher wages. Social movements arise as a response to such conditions. and people march in opposition to spending billions to fund wars of social welfare progams. citizens rally for a health care that protects anyone. .
.NEW SOCIAL MOVEMENTS THEORY “ New social movements theory suggest that recent social movements in the post industrial societies of North America and Western Europe had a new focus.
Save your best for the last quiz! .