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TPM as a Lean Initiative
• Competitive costs require
– Spending control – Defect control – Downtime reduction
• TPM = Total Productive Maintenance
– Proactive (with all employees involved) – Preventive – Predictive – Planned
– Reduce defectives / scrap – Reduction of lost production time – Lowest possible cost by reducing waste
Peak Performance Pull system / flow production
Rapid Changeover / Customer-driven lot size
Continuous Waste Reduction Lean Measures
Variation reduction / Six Sigma
In-Station Process Control Leadership by Example & Commitment Employee Involvement & Mutual Respect
• • • • Transportation Excess production Added processes Motion
• Waiting • Inventory • Non-conformance (defectives)
Causes of Waste • Excess Manning – Poor layout and material presentation – Rework and extra processes – Inconsistent / inefficient work methods • Excess Downtime – – – – Tooling condition Unreliable equipment Long changeovers Incapable process • Defectives .Rework or Replace – Incapable processes or process not compatible with customer expectations or design spec (design for mfg) – Tooling condition – Operator methods and errors .
Rework or Replace – Incapable processes or process not compatible with customer expectations or design spec (design for mfg) – Tooling condition – Operator methods and errors .Causes of Waste • Excess Manning – Poor layout and material presentation – Rework and extra processes – Inconsistent / inefficient work methods • Excess Downtime – – – – Tooling condition Unreliable equipment Long changeovers Incapable process • Defectives .
or instruction Transportation or movement Excessive inventory Inefficient machine processing and/or operation Producing defects Part or line changeover or machine setup Inadequate housekeeping Miscommunication or inadequate instruction .What is Waste (Muda)? Some of the main forms of waste are: Overproduction Waiting for materials. machines.
g. heat treatment.Identifying Waste in the Workplace Operational Activity Value added Operations • Any process that changes the nature. welding. This is where we make a profit! . Pressing. shape or characteristic of the product in line with customer requirements • e.
Identifying Waste in the Workplace Operational Activity Non-Value added Operations • Work carried out which is necessary under current conditions. but does not increase product value. tool change.g. Inspection. maintenance. This is where we make a loss! . • e.
Value Added and Non-Value Added operations • The objective is to raise the ratio of Value added operations to non-value added operations and eliminate waste. OPERATOR TIME WASTE NON-VALUE ADDED VALUE ADDED ELIMINATE MORE TIME FOR OTHER ACTIVITIES NON-VALUE ADDED VALUE ADDED .
7W – The Elimination of Waste The benefits in eliminating all waste: • Reduced costs • Greater Capacity • Bottlenecks are identified .
7W – 7 Types of Waste • 1 Over-production 2 Inventory 3 Transportation 4 Process 5 Idle Time 6 Operator Motion 7 Bad Quality .
Over-production Producing more than is needed hides a multitude of problems. .7W – 1. Excessive set-up times. risk of producing obsolete stock. machine faults.
7W – 2. all for an activity that adds no value to the product. Storage leads to stacking. . sophisticated computers. racking. Inventory Carrying stock attracts cost & storage problems. bar coding & automation.
These can be improved by changes to the work environment. Transportation This may appear unnecessary but does add value. Large transport is easily identified but small transport such as manual labour may not be so noticeable.7W – 3. .
trimming & moulding to a level that is beyond the required standard adds extra time that customers do not want to pay for.7W – 4. Process Adds cost but no value .g. .e.
or meetings to start. waiting for work from their previous set-up or waiting for cycles to finish.7W – 5. . waiting for products & services from preceding operations. Idle Time Typically.
stretching unnecessarily or awkwardly and walking between things. All of these take time or use time poorly. none add value. single handed operations where both should be used. . Operator Motion Typically.7W – 6.
. Bad Quality Rejects are always produced by systems and procedures created by management. If operators fail it is because the process allowed them to fail through inadequate training or because the process was not capable in the first place.7W – 7.
Produce work to the standard required. Put our efforts to the best possible use. Train to make quality work every time! . now we understand the 7 wastes. Plan our production processes. Carry only essential stock. Use transportation more wisely. we can: Produce only what is needed.7W – The Elimination of Waste So.
3. 2. scrap. Equipment breakdowns Defects. 5. 4. and rework Safety Issues Mini stoppages Reduced speed .Effective TPM Eliminates 5 Losses 1.
1. frequency. Predicts and prevents downtime by PM system 4. Develops Professional Maintenance skills . Builds a comprehensive Downtime Database by cause. Expands role of Operator as first point of early warning and prevention 5.What is TPM?? TPM is a Lean tool to optimize the effectiveness of manufacturing equipment and tooling. and duration 3. Starts with 5S / Visual Factory 2.
Operator Autonomous Maintenance Seven Steps of TPM Aut. Standardization Autonomous Inspection 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 General Inspection Initial Standards Countermeasures for Contamination Initial Clean-up . Mgt.
Predicts and prevents downtime by PM system 4. Professional Maintenance . frequency.TPM is Planned. Starts with 5S / Visual Factory 2. and duration 3. Expands role of Operator as first point of early warning and prevention 5. Predictive. & Preventive 1. Builds a comprehensive downtime data base by cause.
orderly workplace is fundamental to quality.5S Workplace A safe. efficiency. clean. and teams Sort (organize) Shine (clean) Set in order (make orderly and neat) Standardize (visual place for everything) Sustain (maintain the system) .
Shine. Set in Order. These are foundational to Kaizen (continuous improvement) and a manufacturing strategy based "Lean Manufacturing" (waste removing) concepts. 5S is one of the activities that will help ensure our company’s survival. Standardize and Sustain 5S represents 5 disciplines for maintaining a visual workplace (visual controls and information systems).What is 5S and why do we want to do it? 5S is short for: Sort. .
Sort . Standardize .The area is cleaned as the work is performed 4.Cleaning and identification methods are consistently applied 5.All unneeded tools.Work areas are safe and free of hazardous or dangerous conditions . Set in Order . Sustain . parts and supplies are removed from the area 2.5S 1.5S is a habit and is continually improved Also .A place for everything and everything is in its place 3. Shine .
Cleaned. organized and drawers labeled (less time and frustration hunting) Before 5S .Some 5S Examples After 5S .
5S Examples . parts and supplies are removed area 2. Set in Order .A place for everything and everything is place from the in its . Sort .Sort.All unneeded tools. Set in Order See the difference? 1.
Shine 3.5S Examples . .The area is cleaned as the work is performed (best) and\or there is a routine to keep the work area clean. Shine .
locker area.Cleaning and identification methods consistently applied are Departments have weekly 5S tours Every job has duties that use Sort. Standardize . etc . restrooms. parking lot.breakroom.5S Examples . Set in Order and Shine We all have common duties to do our part to keep all areas of the plant in shape .Standardize 4.
Sustain 5. . less confusion and less stress.The more you use it the easier it becomes and life just gets better and better.5S Examples . the work is easier. Our experience is that the more we do 5S the better the work environment becomes: cleaner.5S is a habit and is continually improved 5S is a simple concept with powerful results. Sustain . more organized. Use the 5S (work\home\play) . safer. You will get additional information on 5S so that you will be well equipped.
Life Without 5S .The Good. Bad and the Ugly First the Bad and the Ugly .
The Good .
5S Events focus on making 5S improvements. Muda-(pronounced “moo da”) .workplace .improvement Kaizen Event and 5S Event-Planned improvements to a specific area or process (usually take 3 to 5 days). removing and disposing of items not needed in the work area.Some New Words Red Tag-Process for tagging.waste Gemba-(pronounced “gim ba”) . Lean Manufacturing-concepts that seek continuous improvement by removing waste in processes Some Japanese words you need to know: Kaizen-(pronounced “ki zen”) .
Items are only produced to meet customer needs.A diagram of all processes needed to make and deliver the product to the customer. Use the 5 Step form of TOC to solve problems that you will encounter in your continuous improvement efforts. Value Stream Map .New Words Kanban-(pronounced “kon bon”) .Pull type inventory control system. The request to produce more is signaled from an upstream operation and/or customer orders. Problem solving and constraint management methods. OTHER PROBLEM SOLVING TOOLS TOC-Short for Theory of Constraints. .
Good ideas flow when the going gets tough. .Improvement (Kaizen) Principles Get rid of all old (false) assumptions. Look for wisdom from Ten people rather than one. Don't worry about being perfect even if you only get it half right “start NOW”! It does not cost money to do KAIZEN. If something is wrong “Fix it NOW”. Don't look for excuses. look for ways to make it happen .get to the root cause. Never stop doing KAIZEN. Ask "WHY" five times . .
TPM starts with 5S • You can’t see problems clearly when the workplace is in disarray • Cleaning and organizing the workplace helps the team to uncover problems • Making problems visible is the first step of improvement • Clean machines and workplace create pride & Safety .
reject. & employee managed . control fault) – Alerting Maint and team leaders – Provide real time “scoreboard” for employees • • • • • Machine down light visible from aisle Production status board (e.g.Downtime Visual Controls • Visual or audio alerts – Abnormality obvious at a glance (e. goal) Scrap counts and downtime minutes Located in clear view in shop (not in control room) Simple. actual counts vs. stoppage.g. self regulating.
and duration 3. Professional Maintenance . & Preventive 1. frequency. Expands role of Operator as first point of early warning and prevention 5. Starts with 5S / Visual Factory 2. Builds a comprehensive downtime data base by cause. Predictive. Predicts and prevents downtime by PM system 4.TPM is Planned.
g. C/O.g.) – Operator error – Materials .) – – – – – – – – Hydraulic / pneumatic Mechanical / lubrication Electrical / controls Shot-end components Slides Cores Inserts Ejector pins Downtime Database • Subcategories for Tooling (e.g. Tooling.• Categorize at a minimum by Equip.) • Subcategories for Other (e. Other • Segmented bar graph for E-T-O lost time • Subcategories for Equip (e.
Minimum Downtime Tracking Other Downtime by Cause 3500 ton Bay (avg min/shift per Machine) 120 100 80 O T E Tools Minutes 60 40 Equip 20 0 1Q02 2Q02 Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec .
TPM is Planned. and duration 3. Professional Maintenance . frequency. Builds a comprehensive downtime data base by cause. Expands role of Operator as first point of early warning and prevention 5. Predicts and prevents downtime by PM system 4. & Preventive 1. Predictive. Starts with 5S / Visual Factory 2.
target or historical normal output (B/W) • Database – MP2 / maintenance history – statistical probability (frequency & duration) • Physical prediction of impending failure – Sound (bearing) – Temperature (cooling water) – Flash (core pins) – Shot monitoring system – SPC on part geometry – Hydraulic pressure (ejector pins) – Spindle loads (amps) – Fluids / Lubrication analysis (milipore) – Vibration Signature Analysis Predictive Maintenance Tools .• Rate/hr vs.
seals • PM’s have instruction. packing.Preventive Maintenance System • History of downtime by major machine & tool – Downtime measurement & tracking – Mean Time Between Failures – Average downtime – Pareto of causes at component level (eg L/S or temp sensor) – Cost to maintain • Develop PM cards based on frequency of failure and magnitude of average lost time (start small & grow) – Limit & prox switches – Shot tip / sleeve – Critical frame and cylinder mounting bolts – Expendable tools – Valves. schedule/frequency & sign-off – PM’s / repairs done in window of opportunity when machine is down – Cycle count or date based execution of PM’s (eg cutter change) – PM status visual (work completed / not completed) . hoses.
& Preventive 1. frequency. Professional Maintenance .TPM is Planned. and improvements 5. Builds a comprehensive downtime data base by cause. problem solving. and duration 3. Predictive. Starts with 5S / Visual Factory 2.Maintenance Partnership) • Operator performs checks. Expands role of Operator as first point of early warning and prevention • One point lessons for operator awareness • Creates OMP (Operator . Predicts and prevents downtime by PM system 4.
M.TPM Production Operators • Clean & Check • Observe • Categorize Production Planning & Control • Schedule P. Active Planned Maintenance Process Manufacturing Engineers • Equipment Planning • Equipment Studies Quality Engineers • Standards & Calibrations .
OMP - Operator Maintenance Partnership • Operator training in TPM • Operator basic equip inspection & tooling checks • Operator basic cleaning • Operator lubrication check • One point lessons (capture knowledge) • TPM Board & TPM Tags (proactive operator involvement) TPM .
Safety-related request (priority) . and production – Identify abnormal machine conditions • Record problem discovered by operator • Record problem found during scheduled PM – Status tracking system of requested repairs – TPM visual management tool (hang tags) – Repair history for future problem solving • TPM Tag used for recording problem & fix – Blue Tag-Operator or Maint responsible to repair – Red Tag.TPM Tag System • Problem communication tool to and from maintenance. tool room.
The B tag is posted on the Maint WO status section of the TPM Board with est. 5. Repeat operator tags may indicate Maint needs to investigate. Operator/ supervisor removes C tag from machine and places ABC tags in Completed box. tags stay and maint is contacted. Hang A &B Tags on the TPM Tag status board by Machine location and area of responsibility to correct. Production Management Maintenance 7. Production management reviews the information. Abnormality Identified 2. If OK. maintenance completes back side of A tag and places both the A & B tag in the work completed box 9. If fixed immediately go to 6. Places tag in history file box located in the office Tag information is recorded and reviewed for continuous improvement of PM database by Production and Maintenance. If parts or time needed. Operator/Supervisor check to see if work was done.After work is completed. The A tag is MWO. timing. Contact noted on tag.Tag Process Operator/Supervisor 1. If not OK. Also reviews the comments and takes actions if required. 6.Maintenance evaluates problem. . Hang C-tag as close to the defect as possible 4. 8. maint pulls A tag from board. Fill out Tag Red= Safety Blue= Prod/Maint 3.
Predictive. Predicts and prevents downtime by PM system 4. Preventive & Planned 1. Starts with 5S / Visual Factory 2. and duration 3. Professional Maintenance . Builds a comprehensive downtime data base by cause.TPM is Proactive. Expands role of Operator as first point of early warning and prevention 5. frequency.
Professional Maintenance • • • • • • • • • Equip Safety Skill building Cross-training Area Maintenance WC MRO stores Maint Mgmt System Down alarms Radios Planned PM .
Operator Autonomous Maintenance 7 Steps T P M Aut. Mgt. Standardization Autonomous Inspection 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 OIL General Inspection Prepare Temporary Standards Countermeasures for Contamination Initial Clean-up .
TPM Initial Focus 5S TPM I Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 TPM II Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7 prerequisite for TPM I .
• Temporary Check Sheet For Clean-Up. Start-up. Lubrication. and Shut-down: – – – – – – What items need to be done Who will perform the check How often to check Where the location is to be checked What to use for the inspection or cleaning Target time to complete the task .STEP 3: Prepare Temporary Standards This step is to enhance the equipment reliability & maintainability.
• TPM = Total Productive Maintenance TPM Summary Peak Performance – Proactive (all employees involved) – Preventive – Predictive – Planned Continuous Waste Reduction • TPM is an integral part of JLF Total Quality production System 5S Visual Factory TPM Standardized Work .
TPM is a Lean tool for Quality and Productivity .
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