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•VALVES •FIRE HYDRANTS •WATER METERS •PUMPS
WATER METERS .
5. 4. 3. They allow the system to demonstrate accountability.Why are meters important? Water meters are important to a utility for several reasons: 1. They allow a utility system to monitor the volume of finished water it puts out. 2. They are fair for all customers because they record specific usage. They make it possible to charge customers in proportion to the amount of water they use. They encourage customers to conserve water (especially as compared to flat rates). 6. . They aid in the detection of leaks and waterline breaks in the distribution system.
Different types of velocity meters are Rotary. Velocity meters can be successfully used for measuring high flows. will give the discharge through the meter.although they are available in small sizes.(or the volume of flow) over the period of time. •Automatic arrangements are then made to record the integrated discharge. •This measured velocity when multiplied by the area of flow cross section .Turbine and Venturi meters.Meters are classified into two basic types: VELOCITY and POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT Velocity meters: •Such basically measure the horizontal velocity of water flowing through them. They are therefore widely used for measuring the supplies of industries and trades.These are not generally used for small domestic supplies. .
The no.The velocity of flow and therefore the discharge is thus proportional to the speed of the shaft .which in turn will revolve the shaft.the radial vanes are rotated in clockwise direction. When the water enters and passes through the meter with a certain velocity. of revolutions will depend on the velocity of the flow.1.Rotary Meters consists of radial vanes attached to a shaft and enclosed in a casing.
Venturi meters have a section that has a smaller diameter than the pipe on the upstream side.2. Flow rate can be determined by measuring the difference in pressure. Difference in pressure before water enters the smaller diameter section and at the smaller diameter “throat” is measured.The no. its velocity is increased as it flows through a reduced cross-sectional area. of revolutions made by the turbine wheel will give the discharge as in rotary meters.and consists of turbine wheel which is rotated by the moving water. 3. Venturi meters are suitable for large pipelines and do not require much maintenance .Turbine meters is smilar to rotary meters.The change in pressure is proportional to the square of velocity. Based on a principle of hydraulics. as water flows through the pipe.
The rotating motion of the disk is then transmitted to the register that records the volume of water that went through the meter. as it passes a known volume of liquid through the cylindrical chamber. .Disc Meters have a round disc that is located inside a cylindrical chamber. The disk nutates. or wobbles.Positive or Displacement Meters: 1. The disc is mounted on a spindle.
This is moved up and down by hand. a vacuum gets created in the cylinder.below the piston.Simultaneously.On the next upstroke . thus withdrawing water into the space below the piston.the piston valve V2closes and the water above the piston comes out of the spout. Reciprocating pumps: Simplest is the hand operated well pump.the check valve V1 opens.The cycle is thus continued . On the upstroke. . the water above the piston is forced out of the spout.a nd at the same time .thereby opening the check valve V1 at the base of the pump.On the downstroke .the check valve V1gets closed and the piston valve V2 gets opened.and continuous supply of water can be obtained. In such a pump piston reciprocates in a closed vertical cylinder.thus permitting water to enter the cylinder above the piston.DISPLACEMENT PUMPS: These work on the principal of mechanically inducing vacuum in a chamber and thus sucking in a certain amount of water which is then mechanically displaced and forced out of chamber.permitting water to enter the space above the piston.
the rotary motion is used in place of a reciprocating motion as in used in reciprocating type of displacement pumps.It is then forced out through the discharge pipe.The water enters through the suction pipe and is trapped between the cams(or he teeth of the gears)and the casing.The rotating elements fit the casing closely.Rotary Pumps: In rotary type of displacement pumps. Which mesh together and rotate in opposite direction.The rotary motion is obtained by using two cams or two gears. .as the gears rotate.A definite quantity of water depending on the size and shape of the gears is thus is raised with each revolution.
Radial flow and mixed flow machines are called centrifugal pumps. Electrical energy is converted to potential or pressure energy of water.as to force the water outward in the direction at right angles to its axis. CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS – COMPONENTS Centrifugal force is made use of in lifting water .The shape of the impeller may be such . . whereas the axial flow machines are called axial flow pumps.ROTODYNAMIC/VELOCITY PUMPS: these have wheels type rotating element called impeller. Centrifugal pumps are the most common and widely used.(radial flow). or to give water an axial as well as radial velocity(mixed flow) or to force the water in the axial direction alone (axial flow).