Infection Prevention

in Health Care
Basic Practices
Dr.T.V.Rao MD

Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Teaching and Learning Module ONE
• The Programme Created for Schedule of training module at Travancore Medical College, Kollam Kerala as a part of Infection Control Programme organised by Infection Control Committee
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Nurses Role in Infection Control
Follow correct sanitization, disinfection and sterilization procedures Help patient understand basic disease prevention Administer immunizations and educate patients about immunizations

Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Three Levels of Infection Control
 Sanitization – cleaning and scrubbing instruments and equipment to remove contaminated materials and microorganisms  Disinfection – second level used on instruments and equipments that come in contact with intact mucous membrane

Sterilization – complete destruction of all microorganismspathogenic, beneficial, and harmless- surface of instrument and equipment
Dr.T.V.Rao MD

Sanitization Methods
Collecting instruments – place in container with water and neutral pH detergent until you can get to them. Use utility gloves always and mask, eye protection and protective clothing if blood, body fluids or tissue are present
Dr.T.V.Rao MD

Sanitization Methods (cont.)
 Drain disinfectant or detergent solution  Rinse each piece under hot running water  Scrub each item using hot, soapy water and small plastic brush  Pay careful attention to hinges, ratchets and nooks
Dr.T.V.Rao MD

Standard Precautions
• Apply standard precautions to all patients regardless of their diagnosis, and to all contaminated equipments and materials. • Use judgment in determining which protective barriers are necessary.
Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Sanitization Methods (cont.)
Rinse instruments individually and place each one on a clean towel. Roll all instruments in the towel to remove moisture Place instruments either in trays or bins for storage or wrap for sterilization
Dr.T.V.Rao MD

Wear gloves when handling instruments. Disinfection solution must cover every surface. Used if instrument does not penetrate a patient’s skin or mucous membranes
Enamelware Endotracheal tubes Glassware Laryngoscopes and nasal specula
Dr.T.V.Rao MD

Standard Precautions
1. Hands Hygiene 2. Use Personal protective equipment's
• • • • • (PPE) Gloves Gowns Masks Eye protection Face Shields
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Discard needles and other sharps in
.Discard needles and other sharps in the sharp containers which are located as
close as possible to the area of use. Don't

recap needles, If any ,use the Scoop method (one hand method).

Dr.T.V.Rao MD



Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Never Recap Needle You are Likely to Injure

Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Sharps containers
• • • • • Should be easily accessible At or below the level of the eyes Kept away from the pathways Not to be kept on the grounds. Should Not be overfilled more than 3/4 full. • Never to be shake to get more space
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CLEANING SPILLS (e.g. Blood & body fluids)

• Wear gloves and other PPE • Absorb: Wipe up the spill with an absorbent towel.Clean with detergent. • Apply disinfectant to the contaminated area using sodium hypochlorite( Clorox 1: 10= 1 volume+9 water volumes) contact time 5-10min. • Absorb Clorox and wash with water.
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Hand Hygiene • Alcohol-based Hand Rub • Use of gloves does NOT replace hand washing. • Gloves must be changed inbetween patients.
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• When to wash your hands :
• If hands are visibly dirty . • Soiled hands with blood or body fluids. • After contact with: blood ,body fluids, secretions or mucus membranes.
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When to wash your hands?

• After contact with intact or nonintact skin. • After handling items potentially contaminated (equipments) • In-between patients . • After removing gloves. • After using bathroom.
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When to wash hands

• Before direct contact with patient. • Before donning (sterile) gloves. • Before preparing or handling medications. • Before handling clean dressing.
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When to use alcohol-based hand rub

• If hands are NOT visibly soiled alcohol rub could be used instead of hand washing. • If hand are visibly soiled (contaminated) ,they should be washed first.
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PPE: Personal Protective Equipment's:

• Gloves donning & removal • Other PPE donning &removal • Donning & removal of N95 mask
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Transmission-Based Precautions
• Used in addition to Standard

Precautions for Specified Patients
• Designed for the Care of Patients known

or suspected to be infected by
epidemiologically important pathogens

spread by: airborne, droplet, or contact
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Droplet Precautions
• For infectious agents with droplet nuclei > 5 microns, through cough or sneezing:

• Examples:
– Pertussis – Influenza. – Meningococcus meningitis.

• Precaution Details:
– Private room – Surgical Mask if within 1 meter of patient.
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For effective segregation of waste, provision of different types of waste containers in all clinical areas, is necessary.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Never Forget Simple Washing Saves Many Lives

Dr.T.V.Rao MD


• Programme Created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for Benefit of Nursing Staff in Health Care
• Email •
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