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Fibre made by chemical processes, unknown in nature. There are two kinds. One, a regenerated synthetic fibre, is made from natural materials that have been chemically processed in some way; rayon, for example, is made by processing the cellulose in wood pulp. The other type is the true synthetic fibre, made entirely from chemicals. Nylon was the original true synthetic fibre, made from chemicals obtained from petroleum (crude oil). Fibres are drawn out into long threads or filaments, usually by so-called spinning methods, melting or dissolving the parent material and then forcing it through the holes of a perforated plate, or spinneret.
NYLON POLYESTER ACRYLIC SPANDEX OLEFIN
synthetic substitute for silk
Science of Nylon
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Produced on February 28, 1935 by Wallace Carothers at DuPont. Most common Synthetic Polymer made entirely from coal, water and air. First used in a nylon-bristled toothbrush. First commercially successful polymer.
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Condensation Copolymer formed by reacting equal parts of a diamine and a dicarboxylic acid. Made through a chemical process called Ring Opening Polymerization. Has amide groups in the backbone chain.
Types of Nylon & Properties
Nylon 6,6 Pleats and creases can be heat-set at higher temperatures Difficult to dye Nylon 6 Better dye Affinity Softer Hand Greater elasticity and elastic recovery Better weathering properties; better sunlight resistance
Characteristics of Nylon
Wrinkle Resistance Strength Absorbency Abrasion Resistance Sunlight Resistance Effect of Heat Excellent Very Good Poor Excellent Good Can be heat-set at 150 C. Can be ironed at 130 C – 150 C. Softens at 170 C – 180 C. Melts at 250 C Excellent Excellent
Stability to repeated laundering Wash-and-wear
Resistance to alkalies Resistance to acids Effect of bleach Pressed Crease Retention Resistance to pilling Resistance to perspiration Resistance to mildew Resistance to moth/insects
Good Decomposes in cold & hot concentrated mineral acids. Oxidizing bleach can all be used with reasonable care. Good Poor to good Very good Excellent Excellent
Nylon Quick Facts
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Maximum Temperature: 210°F 99°C Minimum Temperature: -94°F -70°C Autoclavable: No Melting Point: 420°F 216°C Tensile Strength: 5,800 psi Hardness: R92 UV Resistance: Good Translucent Rigid Specific Gravity: 1.13
Some Major Nylon Fiber Uses
i) Apparel: Blouses, dresses, foundation garments, hosiery, lingerie, underwear, raincoats, ski apparel, windbreakers, swimwear, and cycle wear .
Home Furnishings: Bedspreads, carpets,
Industrial and Other Uses: Tire cord, hoses, conveyer and seat belts, parachutes, racket strings, ropes and nets, sleeping bags, tarpaulins, tents, thread, monofilament fishing line, dental floss .
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Very strong even when wet. Dimensionally stable. Unaffected by alkalies. Unaffected by mildew and moths. Can be heat set to retain pleats. Water borne stains. Washes easily & dries quickly. Need little or no ironing.
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Damaged by sunlight. Build up static electricity. Oils stains are difficult to remove. Melts in fire. Low ironing temperature is required.
Nylon Fiber Producers
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Fiber Innovation Technology, Inc. Fiber Science, Inc. Honeywell Resins & Chemicals LLC. INVISTA; Kordsa International, LLC. Nylstar, Inc.; Palmetto Synthetics; Polyamide High Performance, Inc. (Formerly Acordis); Premiere Fibers Inc.; Solutia Inc.; Unifi-Sans Technical Fibers, LLC; Universal Fiber Systems LLC; Wellman, Inc.
The Dupont Company, is the most famous pioneer of the nylon
General Nylon Fiber Care Tips
Most items made from nylon can be machine washed and tumble dried at low temperatures. Use warm water and add a fabric softener to the final rinse cycle. o Remove articles from dryer as soon as tumbling cycle is completed. o If ironing is required, use warm iron.
INTRODUCTION OF THE FIBRE
FORMED FROM WET OR DRY SPINNING OF COPOLYMERS CONTAINING ATEAST 85% ACRONITRILE UNITS.
USED AS SUBSTITUTE FOR WOOL-BECAUSE OF SOFT, BULKY AND NON ALLERGIC NATURE OF FIBRE
DYEING ON THIS FABRIC GIVES VERY LIGHT COLOUR THEREFORE DYED WITH CARRIERS LIKE COPPER , PHENOL ETC.
DEFINITION OF ACRYLIC FIBRES
ACC TO FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION :
“ A MANUFACTURED FIBRE IN WHICH THE FIBRE FORMING SUBSTANCE IS ANY LONG CHAIN SYNTHETIC POLYME COMPOSED OF ATEAST 85% BY WEIGHT OF ACRYLONITRILE UNITS(-CH2-CH[CN]-)x.”
PROPERTIES OF THE FIBRE
•SOFT ,BULKY AND NON ALLERGIC –USED AS WOOL SUBSTITUTED. •TENDENCY TO SOFTEN AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND BECOME THERMOPLASTIC. •LOW ABRASION RESISTANCE. •LACK OF INTERNAL STABILITY. •EASY WASHABILITY AND HIGHLY RESILENT.
HIGH FASTNESS VALUE, EASILY ABLE TO DYE.
A NATURAL LOOK AND A WARM FEEL.
QUICK DRYING TO MOVE MOISTURE FROM BODY SURFACE.
RESISTANCE TO MOTHS, OIL STAINS AND CHEMICALS
TENSILE STRENGTH (GRAMS/DENIER) – DRY TENSILE STRENGTH (GRAMS/DENIER) – WET BREAKING ELONGATION (PERCENT) – DRY BREAKING ELONGATION (PERCENT)-WET SPECIFIC GRAVITY SOFTENING POINT MELTING POINT LIMITING OXYGEN INDEX (%)
ACRYLIC 2.5 – 4.0 2.0-3.5 20-55 26-60 1.16 – 1.18 235 – 255 DECOMPOSES 18.2
PRODUCTION OF THE FIBRE
IT IS FORMED FROM WET OR DRY SPINNING OF COPOLYMERS CONAINING ATLEAST 85% ACRYLONITRILE UNITS.
THE POLYMER IS FORMED BY FREE RADICAL POLYMERISATION.
POLYMER IS DISSOLVED IN SOLVENTS LIKE N,N DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE OR AQUEOUS SODI UM THIOCYNATE TO IMPROVE THE ABSORPION OF DYES TO THE FIBRE.
THEN METERED THROUG MULTI HOLE SPINNERETTE AND RESULTANT FILAMENTS ARE COAGULATED IN AQ SOLUTION OF SAME SOLVENT.
FIBRE IS THEN WASHED, STRECHED, DRIED AND CRIMPED.
ACRYLIC FIBRES ARE PRODUCED IN A RANGE OF DENIERS(115).
ACRYLIC FIBRES ARE USED IN STAPLE OR TOW FORM.
ACRYLIC FIBRES ARE MODIFIED TO GIVE SPECIAL PROPERTIES TO SUIT END USES.
PRODUCTION OF ACRYLIC FIBRE
TOW AND STAPLE FIBRE PRODUCTION PROCESS
APPLICATION OF THE FIBRE
• APPAREL: SWEATERS,SOCKS,FLEECE WEAR, CIRCULAR KNIT APPAREL, SPORTSWEAR AND KIDS WEAR.
HOME FURNISHING: BLANKETS, CARPETS, AREA RUGS, UPOLSTERY, DRAPERY,PILE LUGAGE, OUTDOOR FURNITURE.
INDUSTRIAL USES: ASBESTOS REPLACEMENT, CONCRETE AND STUCCO REINFORECEMENT. FIBERFILL AND STUFFING, PROTECTIVE AND COATED FABRICS, NON-WOVENS, FILTER BAGS, AND OTHER MISCELLANEOUS AREAS
OTHER USES: CAFT YARNS, SAL COVER CLOTH, WIPE CLOTH
ACRYLIC A SUBSTITUTE FOR WOOL FOR KNIT WEAR
HIGH HEAT RETENTION SIMILAR PROPERTIES OF WOOL BUKLY FASTNESS TO LIGHT VERY GOOD SHAPE RETENTION DURABILITY EASY CARE AND QUICK DRY QUALITIES
WHY ACRYLIC IS USED IN SPORTS WEAR
LOW WATER ABSORPTION QUICKER WATER TRANSPORT LIGHT WEATHER RESISTANCE.
ACRYLIC FIBRE CARE
WASH DELICATE ITEMS BY HAND IN WARM WATER
STATIC ELECTRICITY CAN BE REDUCED BY USING A SOFTENER.
MACHINE DRY AT LOW TEMPERATURE SETTING AND REMOVE FROM TUMBER AS SOON AS TUMBLING CYCLE.
USE MODERATELY WARM IRON IF NEEDED.
OVER VIEW OF THE ACRYLIC FIBRE INDUSTRTY
GLOBAL ACRYLIC STAPLE FIBRE PRODUCTION CAPACITY STANDS AT 3,127 THOUSAND TONS. OF THIS, NEARLY HALF IS IN ASIA, AND WITH CHINA ACCOUNTING FOR ALMOST A QUARTER OF GLOBAL CAPACITY. JAPAN, ON THE OTHER HAND, SHARES JUST 9.5% OF GLOBAL CAPACITY WHICH HAS SEEN CONSISTENTLY
THE GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF ACRYLIC STAPLE FIBRE TOUCHED 2,791 THOUSAND TONS IN 2006-07 .
ACRYLIC ACCOUNTS FOR 8% OF ALL CHEMICAL FIBRE PRODUCED IN THE WORLD. THE SHARE HAS FALLEN DRAMATICALLY FROM 15% IN EARLY 1980S.
DURING THE LAST 5-YEAR PERIOD ENDED 2005, ASF PRODUCTION HAS INCREASED AT A RATE OF 1.25% PER ANNUM, THE SLOWEST GROWTH RATE AMONG ALL CHEMICAL FIBRES PRODUCTION.
The name "polyester" refers to the linkage of several monomers (esters) within the fiber Polyester is the general name for any group of widely used synthetic products. Polyesters are strong, tough materials that are manufactured in a variety of colours, shapes and sizes. . Polyester fibers are the first choice for apparel and are used in trousers, skirts, dresses, suits, jackets, blouses and outdoor clothing Blends with cotton and virgin wool are very popular. They are often referred to as the "classical blend". This is normally a combination of 55% polyester and 45% wool. History Structure Manufacturing Properties Applications Maintenance and Care
First U.S. Commercial Polyester Fiber Production: 1953, DuPont Company
Polyester began as a group of polymers in W.H. Carothers' laboratory. Carothers was working for duPont at the time when he discovered that alcohols and carboxyl acids could be successfully combined to form fibers. Polyester was put on the back burner, however, once Carothers discovered nylon. A group of British scientists--J.R. Whinfield, J.T. Dickson, W.K. Birtwhistle, and C.G. Ritchie--took up Carothers' work in 1939. In 1941 they created the first polyester fiber called TERYLENE. In 1946 duPont bought all legal rights from the Brits and came up with another polyester fiber which they named DACRON. Polyester was first introduced to the American public in 1951. It was advertised as a miracle fiber that could be worn for 68 days straight without ironing and still look presentable. In 1958 another polyester fiber called KODEL was developed by Eastman Chemical Products, Inc. Today, polyester is still widely regarded as a "cheap, uncomfortable" fiber, but even now this image is slowly beginning to change
Two that are currently produced commercially are Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and Poly-1, 4, cyclohexylene dimethylene (PCDT). . Polyester is a smooth fiber with an even diameter. The fiber diameter usually ranges from 12-25 micrometers (10-15 denier). The undyed fiber is slightly off-white and partially transparent. The fibers are approximately 35% crystaline and 65% amorphous.
Polyester is currently defined as: "Long-chain polymers chemically composed of at least 85 percent by weight of an ester and a dihydric alcohol and a terephthalic acid." The name "polyester" refers to the linkage of several monomers (esters) within the fiber. Esters are formed when alcohol reacts with a carboxylic acid:
Close up of a polyester fiber
Most polyester is made from petroleum from which the constituent acids and alcohols are derived. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF POLYESTER FIBER PRODUCTION — The most common polyester for fiber purposes is poly (ethylene terephthalate), or simply PET. PET is made by reacting ethylene glycol with either terephthalic acid or its methyl ester in the presence of an antimony catalyst. The reaction is carried out at high temperature and vacuum to achieve the high molecular weights need to form useful fibers. PET is melt spun.
SYNTHESIS OF POLYESTER
1) POLYMERIZATION Condensation polymerization occurs when the acid and alcohol are reacted in a vacuum at high temperatures. The polymerized material is extruded in the form of a ribbon onto a casting trough or cooling wheel. After the ribbon hardens, it is cut into chips. 2) SPINNING The chips are dried and then put into hopper reservoirs for melting. Polyester is a "melt spun" fiber, which means that it is heated, extruded through the spinnerets, and cools upon hitting the air. From there it is loosely wound around cylinders. 3) DRAWING The fibers are then hot stretched until they are about five times their original length in order to decrease their width. The fiber is then wound onto cones as filaments or is crimped and then is cut into staple lengths.
SYNTHESIS OF POLYESTER
VARIATIONS OF THE BASIC POLYESTER
Different fibers can be created by doing one or more of the following: 1) ADDING A DELUSTERANT -Polyester is a naturally bright fiber, but can be made dull or semi-dull by the addition of a delusterant. 2) CHANGING THE SHAPE OF THE SPINNERET -The simplest and most common shape is a circle, but by changing the shape of the spinneret, square, oval, and bean-shaped fibers can be formed. One can even create a hollow fiber. The different shapes affect the hand and strength of the fiber. 3) DRAWING IT OUT MORE- Drawing out the fiber to five times its original length is normal, but polyester can be stretched even further to create the now-popular micro fiber. Drawing it out may also affect the strength, elasticity, and dye ability. 4) ADDING DYE- In its natural state, polyester is a slightly transparent off-white. Adding dye at the manufacturing stage can create brilliant colors like electric blue and atomic red. 5) CRIMPING - When the fiber is drawn out it is long and smooth. Crimping can give the fiber more texture and bulk and can increase its insulation properties, as well as its elasticity.
After the fiber itself is created, it is made into a yarn. There are two types of polyester yarns – Filament yarns are made by taking the long polyester filaments, grouping them together, and then twisting them to make them thicker and stronger. A monofilament yarn has just one, long polyester fiber that is not twisted. Spun yarns are produced in much the same way that a cotton or wool yarn is produced. The long filaments are fist cut into short pieces called staples. These are then combined together and spun to create a yarn made up of thousands of short filaments.
At this stage, polyester can also be combined with other fibers to produce a variety of effects. Polyester and cotton is probably the most famous and popular blend. The polyester helps the fabric retain its shape and resist stains and wrinkles. The cotton makes the fabric more absorbent and comfortable. Polyester is combined with wool to give it wrinkle-resistance and shape retention in all kinds of weather. Since polyester is stronger than wool, it increases the durability and life of the fabric. The wool contributes good draping characteristics and elasticity. Polyester and rayon is another popular blend fabric. Here again the polyester makes the fabric more resilient and durable, and helps it keep its shape. The rayon adds a different texture, has a good hand, is good for draping, and is absorbent. Polyester and nylon produce a strong fabric because of nylon's strength and abrasion resistance and polyester's wrinkle-free properties. This combination produces a yarn that is strong, durable, stable, easy to launder, and resistant to mildew and insects. Problems with this blend, however, are that pilling may occur, and it does not have a very good hand. Furthermore, since neither nylon nor polyester is very absorbent, the fabric may feel wet and clammy in warm or humid weather
After the yarns are made, they are shipped out to textile mills to be woven into fabric. Polyester can be made into both woven and knitted fabrics.
Finally, after the fabric is made, one or more of the following finishing processes is often used to improve the quality of the fabric: Heat setting - creates a permanent shape Singeing - improves the hand, reduces pilling, and increases smoothness Anti-static finish - reduces static electricity Water and stain repellency - increases comfort and makes it easier to clean; also used for rainwear Resin finishes - increases ease of care Calendaring - increases smoothness and reduces pilling Embossing - creates a design and/or luster
Moisture regain: The moisture regain of polyester is low, ranges between 0.2 to 0.8 percent. Although polyesters are non-absorbent, they do not have wicking ability. In wicking, moisture can be carried on the surface of the fiber without absorption Specific gravity: The specific gravity 1.38 or 1.22 depending on type of polyester fibres is moderate. Polyester fibres have a density greater than polyamide fibres and lower than rayon. Fabrics made from polyester fibres are medium in weight
Heat effect: The melting point of polyester is close to that of polyamide, ranging from 250 to 300°C. Polyester fibers shrink from flame and melt, leaving a hard black residue. The fabric burns with a strong, pungent odor. Heat setting of polyester fibres, not only stabilizes size and shape, but also enhances wrinkle resistance of the fibres
Effect of alkalies: Polyester fibres have good resistance to weak alkalies high temperatures. It exhibits only moderate resistance to strong alkalies at room temperature. Effect of acids: Weak acids, even at the boiling point, have no effect on polyester fibres unless the fibres are exposed for several days. Polyester fibres have good resistance to strong acids at room temperature. Prolonged exposure to boiling hydrochloric acid destroys the fibres, and 96% sulfuric acid and causes disintegration of the fibres. Effect of solvents: Polyester fibres are generally resistant to organic solvents. Chemicals used in cleaning and stain removal do not damage it, but hot m-cresol destroys the fibres, and certain mixtures of phenol with trichloromethane dissolve polyester fibres. Oxidizing agents and bleachers do not damage polyester fibres.
Polyester fibres exhibit good resistance to sunlight, and it also resists abrasion very well. Soaps, synthetic detergents, and other laundraids do not damage it. One of the most serious faults with polyester is its oleophilic quality. It absorbs oily material easily and holds the oil tenaciously.
POLYESTER FIBER CHARACTERISTICS
Strong Resistant to stretching and shrinking Resistant to most chemicals Crisp and resilient when wet or dry Wrinkle resistant Mildew resistant Abrasion resistant Easily washed . It is Polyester fibres are particularly resistant to light and weather and can withstand climatic effects. They can be used where lightness and fineness are primary requirements. Polyester fibres have good moisture transport and dry quickly. They are easy care. High tenacity ensures above-average wear qualities.
POLYESTER FIBER USES
Apparel: Every form of clothing shirts, running shorts, track pants, windbreakers, and lingerie. Home Furnishings: Carpets, curtains, draperies,floor coverings,sheets and pillow cases, wall coverings, and upholstery Other Uses: Fancy yarn, power belting, ropes and nets, thread, tire cord, auto upholstery, sails, floppy disk liners,thermal bonding and fiberfill for various products including pillows and furniture
General Polyester Fiber Care Tips
On care labels polyester fibres are often given the abbreviation:
Most items made from polyester can be machine washed and dried. Use warm water and add a fabric softener to the final rinse cycle. Do not bleach. Use gentle cycle while washing. Machine dry at a low temperature and remove articles as soon as the tumbling cycle is completed. Wash with light colours. If ironing is desired, use a moderately warm iron. Most items made from polyester can be dry-cleaned
(POLYPROPYLENE AND POLYETHYLENE)
Olefin fiber is a manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of ethylene, propylene, or other olefin units. Olefin fiber is a generic description that covers thermoplastic fibers derived from olefins. Olefins are products of the polymerization of propylene and ethylene gases. Polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) are the two most common members of the family. Polypropylene is extremely versatile as a fiber-forming material, whereas polyethylene is not as good a fiber-forming high polymer material. Since its introduction into the textile industry in the 1950s, the list of successful products and markets for polypropylene fiber has increased exponentially
OLEFIN FIBER CHARACTERISTICS Able to give good bulk and cover
Abrasion resistant Colorfast Quick drying Low static Resistant to deterioration from chemicals, mildew, perspiration, rot and weather Thermally bondable Stain and soil resistant Strong Sunlight resistant Dry hand; wicks body moisture from the skin Very comfortable Very lightweight (olefin fibers have the lowest specific gravity of all fibers)
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF OLEFIN FIBER PRODUCTION
Olefin fibers (polypropylene and polyethylene) are products of the polymerization of propylene and ethylene gases. For the products to be of use as fibers, polymerization must be carried out under controlled conditions with special catalysts that give chains with few branches.
Of the two, polypropylene is the more favored for general textile applications because of its higher melting point; and the use of polypropylene has progressed rapidly since its introduction.
The fibers resist dyeing, so colored olefin fibers are produced by adding dye directly to the polymer prior to or during melt spinning A range of characteristics can be imparted to olefin fibers with additives, variations in the polymer, and by use of different process conditions
Polypropylene fibers are composed of crystalline and non-crystalline regions. The speculates developed from a nucleus can range in size from fractions of a micrometer to centimeters in diameter. The a-axis of the crystal unit cell is aligned radically and the chain axis is homogeneously distributed in planes perpendicular to this radial direction. Each crystal is surrounded by non-crystalline material. Fiber spinning and drawing may cause the orientation of both crystalline and amorphous regions. These highly anisotropic microfibrillar structures lead to anisotropic fiber properties.
World consumption of Polypropylene in nonwovens 1998-2007
2.5 2 Consumption in 1.5 Million Tons 1 0.5 0 Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2005
PROCESSING METHODS OF POLYOLEFINS
There are six important processing methods for Polyolefins, these are: Injection molding Rotational molding Blow molding Extrusion Blown film extrusion Cast film extrusion
MANUFACTURE OF PP FIBER/FILAME
Polypropylene chips can be converted to fiber/filament by traditional melt spinning, though the operating parameters need to be adjusted depending on the final products. Spunbonded and melt blown processes are also very important fiber producing techniques for nonwovens.
PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE
CRYSTALLINITY OF PP FIBER MECHANICAL PROPERTIES THERMAL PROPERTIES DYEABILITY
OTHER PROPERTIES OF PP
In general, PP fiber has excellent chemical resistance to acids and alkalis, high abrasion resistance and resistance to insects and pests. PP fiber is also easy to process and inexpensive compared to other synthetic fibers. Its low moisture absorption helps aid the quick transport of moisture.
CURRENT U.S. OLEFIN FIBER PRODUCERS
American Fibers and Yarns Company American Synthetic Fiber Color-Fi FiberVisions Foss Manufacturing Co TenCate Geosynthetics Universal Fiber Systems LLC
SOME MAJOR OLEFIN FIBER USES
Apparel: Activewear and sportswear; socks; thermal underwear; lining fabrics Automotive: Interior fabrics used in or on kick panel, package shelf, seat construction, truck liners, load decks, etc. Home Furnishings: Indoor and outdoor carpets; carpet backing; upholstery and wall coverings; furniture and bedding construction fabrics Industrial: Carpets; disposable, durable nonwoven fabrics; ropes; filter fabrics; bagging; geotextiles
Because of its superior performance characteristics and comparatively low-cost, PP fiber finds extensive use in the nonwovens industry. PP is a very important fiber in nonwoven processing and dominates in many nonwoven markets. The main application areas include: nonwoven fabrics, particularly absorbent product coverstock markets, home furnishings and automotive markets.
GENERAL OLEFIN FIBER CARE TIPScan be readily removed by spotting with lukewarm Most stains on fabric
water and detergent.
Bleaches can be used if needed. If fabric is laundered, it should be line dried or tumble dried with gentle heat or no heat. Olefin dries very rapidly. Do not iron. (For specific instructions, refer to garment's sewn-in care label.)
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