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EGYPTIAN MULTIPLICATION

The Ancient Egyptian used pencil and paper method for multiplication which was based on doubling and addition. Unique method which they correctly viewed as repeated addition. Based on doubling and is also known as the didactic method.

Starting with one and doubling, they obtained a neverending sequence of numbers: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 These numbers are the powers of two: 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, Egyptians figured out is that any integer can be written as a sum of the powers of two without repeating any of them For example, 14 = 8 + 4 + 2 23 = 16 + 4 + 2 + 1 45 = 32 + 8 + 4 + 1 160 = 128 + 32

EGYPTIAN MULTIPLICATION OF 22 x 65
Suppose we want to multiply 22 x 65.

1
2

65
130

Write 1 and 65, meaning 1 lots of 65 Work down, doubling both numbers until the left side gets as close as possible to, but not larger than 22.

4 8 16

260 520 1040

Look for the numbers on the left that add up to 22 (16+4+2). Cross out the other rows of numbers.
Add up the remaining numbers on the right to get the final answer.

1
2 4

65
130 260

8 16

520 1040

1430

EGYPTIAN MULTIPLICATION OF 43 x 78
Suppose we want to multiply 43 x 78.

1
2

78
156

Write 1 and 78, meaning 1 lots of 78 Work down, doubling both numbers until the left side gets as close as possible to, but not larger than 22.

4 8 16 32 64

312 624 1248 2496 4992

Look for the numbers on the left that add up to 43 (32+8+2+1). Cross out the other rows of numbers.
Add up the remaining numbers on the right to get the final answer.

78

2
4 8 16 32

156
312 624 1248 2496

3354

EGYPTIAN MULTIPLICATION

1 2 8 32

78 156 624 2496

43 X 78 344 301

3354

3354

1. If Ms. Nelly has to give 18 lectures in a week, how many lecture she has to give in a year?

2. An athlete jogs 26km in a day, how far will he jog in 66 days?

3. A potter makes 45 pots in a week, how many will he make in one and half year?

1. If Ms. Nelly has to give 18 lectures in a week, how many lecture she has to give in a year? 1 2 4 52 104 208

8
16

416
832

2. An athlete jogs 26km in a day, how far will he jog in 66 days?

1 2 4 8 16 66 132 264 528 1056

1716

1716 km in 66 days

3. A potter makes 45 pots in a week, how many will he make in one and half year?
One and half year = = = 52 weeks + (52 2) weeks 52 weeks + 78 26 weeks

weeks

1 2

78 156

4
8 16 32

312
624 1248 2496

3510