POWER SHOVELS

• Used predominately for hard digging above track level and loading haul units. • Front dump and bottom dump buckets
Bottom dump - More versatile - Greater reach and dump clearance - Easier to position for dumping - Less spillage However heavier than front-dump buckets.

• Limited ability to dig below the track level.Very efficient when digging from track level up to about the height of the shipper shaft. • Capable of developing a high breakout force.

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CECE specifies 2:1. . • Heaped Capacity – Both PCSA and SAE use a 1:1 angle of repose.SIZE OF A SHOVEL • Indicated by the size of the bucket (m3) • Bucket rating standards – Power Crane and Shovel Association (PCSA) – Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) – Committee on European Construction Equipment (CECE) • Struck Capacity – Volume actually enclosed by the bucket with no allowance for bucket teeth.

Must be corrected to average bucket payload based on the characteristics of the material being handled.Fill Factors • Rated heaped capacities represent net section bucket volume. .

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• Use of optimum depth of cut will yield more production. . • Digging face .easily forced when excavating a bank or hill side.POWER SHOVEL • The vertical distance that permits the bucket to obtain a full load without undue crowding or hoisting is known as the optimum depth of cut. • Varies with the shovel size and type of soil excavated. • Shovel must have a vertical face to dig against for effective digging.

. • Job condition under which the shovel will operate.Selecting A Power Shovel Two primary factors are • Cost per cubic meter of material excavated.

Production Estimating Factors affecting the output • Class of material • Depth of cut • Angle of swing • Job conditions • Management conditions • Size of hauling unit • Skill of operator • Physical condition of shovel .

Production = C  S  V  B  E C = Cycles /hr S = swing factor V = heaped bucket volume (m3 LM) B = bucket fill factor E = job efficiency .PRODUCTION ESTIMATING • For Hydraulic shovels no PCSA production table is available.

Swing with load 4-6 sec. • Studies for highway projects: Actual production time = 50-70% (30-45min/hr) . Dump load 2-4 sec.PRODUCTION ESTIMATING Typical cycle time elements: Load bucket 7-9 sec. Return swing 4-5 sec.

Haul unit exchange 5.Lack of haul unit to load 6.Operator breaks .Handling oversize material 3.Clean up of the loading area 4.PRODUCTION ESTIMATING • Factors causing loss of production: 1. 2.Short moves to position for digging.

easy to load materials . blasted rock. Higher % . gravel. Lower % .40% .PRODUCTION ESTIMATING • Optimum height of cut ranges from 30 to 50% of maximum digging height. Common earth .sticky clay.hard to load materials . loam etc.sand.

0*0. angle of swing is 75 deg.m/hr.3*1. Job efficiency is 0.m LM Production = 150*1.8 = 290cu.LM .0 Avg.bucket fill factor is 1.m Front dump bucket common earth .3cu.05 ( table 3-6) Bucket volume = 2.8 Standard cycles = 150/60 min(table3-6) Swing factor = 1.3cu.05*2.PRODUCTION ESTIMATING EG: Shovel size = 2.

Maintenance of equipment 2.Haul unit sizing and numbering 7.Haul road condition 5.Loading area lay out 6.Project house keeping 4.Availability of repair parts 3.Competency of field management .PRODUCTION ESTIMATING Factors that should be considered in deciding on efficiency factor: 1.

• Haul units should be approximately positioned. • Shovel operator should utilize the time between the departure of one haul unit and the arrival of the next to move up to the digging face and to smooth the excavation area .Lost time during the production cycle • Angle of swing should always be kept a minimum.Swing angle .PRODUCTION ESTIMATING Job Management • Two major factors controlling shovel production: .

Back filling the trench .Pulling trench shields . • Digs by pulling the dipper back toward the machine.Placing pipe .Laying pipe bedding . • Widely utilized for trenching work • In addition to excavating the trench it can perform other trenching functions: .BACKHOES • Primarily used for excavation below grade.

Conti… • For trenching best measure of production: Length of trench excavated per unit of time Dipper width should be chosen which matches the required trench width as closely as possible. • Other suitable backhoe applications: Excavating basements Cleaning road side ditches Grading embankments .

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Swing-Depth factor for backhoes Production = C*S*V*B*E C = cycles/hr S = Swing-depth factor V= Heaped bucket volume B= Bucket fill factor E= Job efficiency .PRODUCTION ESTIMATING • No PCSA production tables.Standard cycles per hour . • Nuwnally has given tables for .

depth.PRODUCTION ESTIMATING • In trenching work a fall-in factor should be applied to account for the work required to clean out material that falls back into trench walls. • Can be used to excavate hard material. class of material. working radius. . but should not be used as a sledge hammer to fracture rock. Job management • For selecting backhoe for a project. and dumping height. considerations: Max. Use tables.

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