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• Soil used to - Support structures - Highway and airport pavements - Dams etc. • Some soils useful in their natural state,others must be excavated, processed and compacted • Some important physical properties have direct effect on ease or difficulty of handling earth, selection of equipment and production rates of equipment • As a contractor usually concerned with five types of soils - gravel, sand, silt, clay and organic matter
TYPES OF SOILS
- Rock like material - Size is > 6mm. - if it is > 25 cm -- Boulders
– Size is > 0.05mm < Gravel - Granular and non-cohesive - Strength not affected by moisture content
– Very find sand - Non-cohesive materials - Little or no strength - Compacts very poorly
TYPES OF SOILS
– – – – Cohesive materials High strength when dry Considerable change in volume with moisture content When combined with granular soil, the strength of soils are increased greatly
• Organic matter
Partly decomposed vegetable matter – if present should be removed and replaced with a more suitable soil. • There may be need to blend soils in natural condition with other soils to produce desired properties • Specifications based on Proctor compaction test
SOIL COMPACTION TESTS
• Determine % moisture required for maximum compacted density - optimum moisture content • Standard - 2.6 Kg falling from 310 mm height
No. of layers - 3 • Modified - 4.89 Kg. falling from 450 mm height No. of layers - 5
Standard and Modified Compaction Curves
SOIL COMPACTION TESTS • Modified proctor gives a higher density at a lower moisture content than the standard • With heavier equipment modified proctor test may be more nearly correct • Specification may call for 100% compaction or 95% compaction based on proctor test • Field test . .Sand cone test • Nuclear gauge is used for determination of moisture and density of soils.
Nuclear Gauge for Density and Water Content .
Advantages of nuclear method • Decreases the time required for a test to a few minutes. from as much as a day • Does not require removal of soil samples from site • Provides means of performing density tests on soil containing large-sized aggregates. • Reduces the effect of personal element and possible errors • Can be used to measure moisture and density of soils at depths upto 60m • Care should be exercised in operating machine .
better the performance but costs more money • Contractor concerned with meeting specification • Specification governing compaction can be of various forms . or lift. of from 10 cm to 30 cm of soil is compacted by means of several passes of heavy mechanized compaction equipment • Denser the compaction. a uniform layer.SOIL COMPACTION • Most widely used method of soil strengthening • Usually.
1. METHOD ONLY SPECIFICATION • Specifications direct contractor to – – – – Place the soil in lifts of a specified depth Specified moisture content Specified type of roller Making a specified number of passes over each lift • Contractor has no choice except to comply with specifications • Owner is obliged to accept the responsibility for the results .
2. . METHOD AND END RESULT SPECIFICATIONS • Should be used only when extensive predesign tests have been performed on the soil samples • The specified method may result in excessive costs because compacting operation will continue after adequate compaction. Compaction may be discontinued before adequate density is attained • The above two methods may not permit a contractor to make use of methods which he has found to be economical and effective and thus may result in higher costs.
END RESULT ONLY SPECIFICATIONS • Owner is interested primarily in the end result • Contractor permitted to select his own methods . • Can serve as a guide to less experienced contractor 4.3.based on experience.SUGGESTED METHOD AND END RESULT SPECIFICATIONS • Leaves a contractor free to select any reasonable method and equipment .
TYPES OF COMPACTING EQUIPMENT Compaction attained by applying energy to a soil by one or more of the following methods: kneading action static weight vibration impact explosives .
including the three above Self-propelled vibrating plates and/or shoe Manually propelled vibrating plates Manually propelled compactors Vibratory compactors for deep sand .TYPES OF COMPACTING EQUIPMENT • • • • • • • • Tamping rollers Smooth-wheel rollers Pneumatic-tyred rollers Vibrating rollers .
Feet penetrate the soil to produce a kneading action and a pressure to mix and compact the soil from the bottom to the top of the layer. of projective steel feet are welded A unit may consist of one or more drums mounted on more and more axles. The weight of a drum may be varied by adding water or sand. .TAMPING ROLLERS • Of sheeps foot type or modifications • May be towed or self-propelled • Hollow steel drum on whose surface a no.
Self-propelled Tamping Roller with Blade .
TAMPING ROLLERS • With repeated passage the penetration decreases. • Effective in compacting clays and mixtures of sand and clay • Can’t compact granular soils • Depth of compaction limited to approx length of feet • Modified tamping rollers .grid rollers . until the roller is said to walk out of the fill.
Tractor Pulled Ballasted Grid Roller .
in tons or kgs • Some rollers may be ballasted with water or sand to increase the weight • If designated 8-12 tons.SMOOTH WHEELED ROLLERS • May be classified by weight. minimum weight 8 tons and maximum weight 12 tons • Specs may be of two types – designation by weight – designation by weight per cm of roll (40 kg/cm) • Specifying weight only does not mean necessarily indicate the compressive pressure .
• Effective in compacting granular soils • Also effective in smoothing surfaces of soils that have been compacted by tamping rollers. these rollers tend to form a crust over the surface may prevent adequate compaction in lower portions of a lift. .SMOOTH WHEELED ROLLERS • In cohesive soils.
PNEUMATIC-TYRED ROLLERS • Apply the principle of kneading action to effect compaction below the surface • May be self propelled or towed • Small or large-tyred units • Small-tyred units usually have two tandem axles with four to nine tyres on each axle • Rear wheels are spaced to travel over the surfaces between the front wheels • Wheels may be mounted in a manner that will give them a wobbly-wheel effect to increase kneading action .
• Four methods of indicating the compacting ability of pneumatic rollers – the gross weight of the unit – the gross weight per wheel – the weight per inch of tyre width – the air pressure in the tyres .PNEUMATIC-TYRED ROLLERS • Large-tyred rollers utilise two or more big earthmoving tyres on a single axle • Sizes may vary from 15 to 200 tons gross weight and tyres air pressure may vary from 80 to 150 psi (5. they are capable of compacting all types of soils to greater depths.5 to 10.5 kg/cm2 or 550 to 1050 Kpa) • Because of the heavy loads and high tyre pressures.
50-ton Pneumatic Roller .
and sizes of tyres – Tyre inflation pressure .PNEUMATIC-TYRED ROLLERS • Since the area of contact between the tyre and ground surface over which it passes varies with the air pressure in the tyre. the first 2 methods are unsatisfactory • Therefore should specify – The gross weight – No.
Kg .Ground Pressure at Varying Wheel Loads and Air Pressures 950 800 650 500 350 500 1000 1500 760 Kpa 620 Kpa 480 Kpa 2000 Wheel load .
Pressure Bulb Theory of Load Distribution .
tire should be inflated to the maximum specified value for the final pass • Adequate compaction possible with fewer passes .PNEUMATIC-TYRE ROLLERS WITH VARIABLE INFLATION PRESSURE • The initial passes should be made with relatively low tire pressures to increase floatation and ground coverage • As soil is compacted.
5 to 4 Kmph .000 per minute • Slow speeds permit a greater flow of vibratory energy into the soil • Better compaction efficiencies and economy are attained by moving at slow speeds . gravel and large stones respond well to compaction produced by a combination of pressure and vibration • On vibration the particles settle to increase density of the mass • Vibrations may vary from 1.000 to 5.VIBRATING COMPACTORS • Sand.2.
Vibratory Rollers .
MANUALLY OPERATED VIBRATORY PLATE COMPACTORS • In locations where large units are not practical • Self propelled for consolidating soils and asphalt • Rated by – – – – centrifugal force exciter revolutions per min. lift feet per minute travel .
propelled in that each blow moves than ahead slightly to contact new soils .MANUALLY OPERATED VIBRATING TAMPING COMPACTOR • Where large units are not practical MANUALLY OPERATED RAMMER COMPACTOR • For compacting cohesive or mixed soils • Impact rates up to 850 per minutes • Self .
of passes required w = width compacted per pass S = Compactor speed ( Km / hr) L = Compacted lift thickness(cm) E = job efficiency .ESTIMATING COMPACTOR PRODUCTION Production (m3 / h) = 10 * w *S * L * E P Where P = no.
1m. Field test have shown that the required density can be achieved with four passes of the roller operation at an average speed of 5km/hr. . One bank cubic meter equals to 0.Example • A self propelled tamping foot compactor will be used to compact a fill being constructed of clay material. The compacted lift will have a thickness of 150mm. The scraper production estimated for the project is 390 bank cubic meter per hour. how many rollers will be required to maintain this production? Assume a 50min-hour efficiency.The compacting width of this machine is 2.83 compacted cubic meter.
granular soil. saturated. the shock and vibration cause the particles to move to a new denser and more compact pattern • Even small pressures are then effective in realigning them in to a compact mass . of the soil is temporarily transferred to the liquid • In dry soil. a sudden shock or vibration causes localized spontaneous liquefaction and displacement of soil particles • Wt.DENSIFICATION OF NEW SOIL BY EXPLOSIVE VIBRATION • In loose.
either dry or completely saturated • Otherwise less densification because of capillary tension • These effects can be overcome by flooding or ponding the area • Increase in density more pronounced at deeper elevations • Vibratory compactors may have to be used for upper layers • successive changes produce smaller effects • Densification is different from blasting since the energy from explosion must be contained entirely with in the ground • Spacing.result . depths. sizes and installations to be considered .EXPLOSIVE VIBRATION • Max.
SOIL STABILIZATION • Many soils are subjected to differential expansion & shrinkage when they undergo changes in moisture content • Some soils move and rut when subjected to moving wheel loads. we should stabilize them to reduce the volume changes and strengthen them to the piont where they can carry the imposed load even when saturated • Stabilization: Any treatment of soil which renders it more stable • Two kinds of stabilization: – Mechanical – Chemical . • If pavements are to be constructed on such soils.
Blending and mixing heterogeneous soils to produce more homogeneous soils – If soils to be used in a fill are heterogeneous. stabilization often referred to when compaction is preceded by the additional and mixing of an inexpensive admixture . can use such equipment as a power shovel to excavate through several layers – After placing in a fill further blending by several passes with a disc harrow. or as it is placed in a fill. • May be added in place to a soil in its natural position. METHODS OF SOIL STABILIZATION 1 . such as in a borrow pit.stabilization agent.SOIL STABILIZATION • In construction. .
Disk harrow used to blend soil .
METHODS OF SOIL STABILIZATION • 2 . can replace portion of the lime Lime is expensive. Incorporating lime or lime .by product in the production of electricity using coal studies have shown that fly ash. unlike portland cement Will continue to gain strength for years Studies have shown that lime stabilized soils are extremely durable Fly ash .fly ash into soils that are high in clay content – – – – – – – – – Chemical process where soil is improved with the addition of lime Clays and silty-clays become soft when water is present Lime should be intimately mixed with the soil Cementing reaction is a very slow process. whereas fly ash is cheap . of suitable quality.
Self-propelled soil-pulverized stabilizer .
is mixed with granular soils. or may serve as base courses for high-type pavements . • Should allow the volatile oils to evaporate from the bitumen before finishing and rolling the material • Soils treated in this manner may be used as finished surfaces for low-traffic density secondary roads.SOIL STABILIZATION • Asphalt as an emulsion or a cutback. ASPHALT .3. usually in amounts of 5 to 7 percent of the volume of the soil. • Moisture content of the soil must be low at the time the asphalt is added.
after is mixed . – Material should be compacted within 30 min. followed by the compaction – if adequate moisture not present. mix into the soil.Spread the portland cement uniformly over the surface of the soil. CEMENT-SOIL STABILIZATION • Effective as long as the soils are predominately granular with only minor amounts of clay particles.4.usually 5 to 7 % of dry weight of soil • Fly ash may be utilized to replace a portion of the portland cement • Construction method .with a pulverizer -type machine. to a specified depth. • Good for soil with plasticity index less than about 10 • Amount of cement . should sprinkle the surface with water during the processing operation.
Spreader being used to uniformly apply cement during soil-cement stabilization project .
Water truck connected to a soil stabilizer for adding water during a soil-cement pulverizing and mixing operation .