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LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND ITS APPLICATIONS

SIDDHANT MATHUR H12051 SONEE KANCHAN DAS H12052 SUJOY DAS H12053 SULAGNA CHAKRABORTY H12054 GROUP 11 SEC A HRM 2012-2014 SUNNY PAUL PURKAYASTHA H12055

WHAT IS LCA ?

Compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential

environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle.


This establishes an environmental profile of the system ISO (International Organization for Standardization ensures that an LCA is

completed in a certain way


Has its beginnings in the 1960s In early 1980s, interest in comprehensive studies waned because of the oil crisis LCA standards in the ISO 14000 series

In 1969, researcher s initiated an internal study for The CocaCola Company

When solid waste became a worldwide issue in 1988, LCA emerged as a analyzing

STEPS IN LCA

Goal Definition and Scoping

Life Cycle Inventory

Impact Assessment

Interpretation

GOAL AND SCOPE AN EXAMPLE (1/2) ISO 14041


Goal = Compare 2 writing utensils for classroom use.

Scope: Wooden Pencil ; Process Flow Diagram


T Lumber Forest/ Lumber Mill T Rubber T Sharpening T Manufacture T Retailer T Use T End of Life

Graphite
T Packaging T Brass

GOAL AND SCOPE AN EXAMPLE (2/2)


Goal = Compare 2 writing utensils for classroom use.

Scope: Mechanical Pencil ; Process Flow Diagram


T Oil PE / PP T Manufacture T Retailer T Use T End of Life

T Rubber T

Graphite
T Packaging T Spring

STEPS IN LCA

Goal Definition and Scoping

Life Cycle Inventory

Impact Assessment

Interpretation

LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY ISO 14042

1. Quantify

3. List

2. Assist

STEPS IN LCA

Goal Definition and Scoping

Life Cycle Inventory

Impact Assessment

Interpretation

LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LCIA) ISO 14043

Definition The Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) phase of an LCA is the evaluation of potential human health and environmental impacts of the environmental resources.

Applications Ecological, human health effects and resource depletion. Linkage between the product/process and its potential environmental impacts. Suitable for relative comparisons of the potential to cause human or environmental damage It is not an indicator of absolute risk or actual damage

STEPS IN LCA

Goal Definition and Scoping

Life Cycle Inventory

Impact Assessment

Interpretation

LIFE CYCLE INTERPRETATION ISO 14044

Systematic technique to identify, quantify, check, and evaluate information

from the results of the life cycle inventory and/or the life cycle impact assessment.
The results from the inventory analysis and impact assessment are

summarized during the interpretation phase.


. Identification of significant issues based on the results of the LCI and LCIA phases of an LCA
Evaluation

of the study consistency checks; and

considering

completeness,

sensitivity

and

Conclusions, limitations , reporting and recommendations.

BENEFITS/LIMITATIONS OF CONDUCTING AN LCA

BENEFITS
Helps

LIMITATIONS
of
Performing LCA can be time and

in selection product/process/service

Identifies

the transfer of environmental impacts from one media to another offs associated with products

Analyze the environmental trade Assess the human and ecological

effects of material consumption and environmental releases

resource intensive Gathering data and availability of data can greatly impact the accuracy of results LCA Should be used as one component of a more comprehensive decision process

STRATEGIC ADVANTAGES OF CONDUCTING LCA


Project development and improvement. Strategic planning and Public policy making.

Marketing and eco-declarations.


To help the brand measure and understand the GHG emissions related to its product portfolio

To identify opportunities to manage GHG emissions


Influence managed reductions elsewhere in the product lifecycles, and

Assess the impact of the brands innovation and portfolio strategies on its GHG footprint.

EXAMPLE 1: FAST LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF SYNTHETIC CHEMISTRY (FLASC) TOOL : UTILIZED BY GSK

FAST LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF SYNTHETIC CHEMISTRY (FLASC) TOOL


BACKGROUND, NEED AND SCOPE

A clear want for developing

a metrics that determines and

benchmarks the greenness or relative sustainability of synthetic processes for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) so that companies know which substance is relatively less harmful in the long run
Metrics should facilitate more informed and sustainable

business choices
Detailed environmental data are not available at an early

stage during R&D

FLSCA AND ITS USE BY GSK

FLASC (Fast Life cycle Assessment of Synthetic Chemistry) is a web-based tool which gives

concise and simple methodologies to scientists and engineers


It facilitates selection of better materials, greener chemistries and resources after comparing

the greenness of the processes / materials

FLASC was developed from a detailed assessment of the cradle-to-grave life cycle

environmental impacts associated with the manufacture of materials used in a typical pharmaceutical process
It helps GSK by making decisions in the preliminary stage of the R&D process, when

environmental, safety and health data is very limited

EXAMPLE 2: A PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE APPROACH TO SUSTAINABILITY IN FABRIC PRODUCTION BY LEVI STRAUSS AND CO.

A PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE APPROACH TO SUSTAINABILITY IN FABRIC PRODUCTION BY LEVI STRAUSS AND CO.
BACKGROUND, NEED AND SCOPE

In 2006, Levis was facing problems in the following areas:-

Environmental compliance programs


Supplier Code of Conduct program Global Effluent Guideline program Need for a credible, science-based method for measuring the full

environmental impact of the various products so that Levis could identify the set of priorities for our environmental work going forward
By taking a product-lifecycle approach to their work, they were able to

develop a set of strategies to address the greatest impacts of our business on the environment

LIFE CYCLE OF A COTTON JEANS

LEVIS 501 JEANS CLIMATE CHANGE

For the studied Levis 501 jeans (cradle to grave), the climate-change impact was highest at the consumer-use phase (58%)

LEVIS 501 JEANS CLIMATE CHANGE


Levis campus with the optimum water temperature (generally 20 C) and the

optimum machine type (generally side loaded) for its various jeans and other products
Levis estimated that reducing the number of washes of your jeans from 52 to 24

in an year can decrease climate change impact by 48 %, amount of energy used by about 40 % and can save around 1223.3 litres of water
Levi Strauss & Co. partnered with the Proctor & Gamble, makers of Tide

Coldwater to Save Energy and to co-promote their Signature by Levi Strauss & Co. jeans in Wal-mart stores
Product care labels

UNILEVER

ESTIMATING THE GREEN-HOUSE GAS FOOTPRINT OF KNORR

The worlds first life cycle GHG assessment at brands product portfolio level
The meta-product approach. Up to 16 product types or meta-products were assessed in each geographical region, with a total of 36 meta-products assessed globally. Then, the Knorr GHG footprint was derived by multiplying the impacts calculated per tonne of each product type with the sales volumes in 2007 Data for ingredients and processing technologies were gathered from the literature and suppliers

Data from Knorr factories were used for the manufacturing stage.
Aggregating the results for individual meta-products with their production volumes, the global Knorr brand GHG footprint in 2007 was estimated to be in the region of 35 million tonnes CO2e/annum (95% confidence interval)

WATER FOOTPRINT

Pilot studies on Unilever tea and margarine (not shown here) were amongst the first water footprints of

consumer products Estimation of water used to produce Unilevers raw materials Using WFN Water-Stat Use of Quantis database/ Modeling tool an exhaustive water database created in partnership with Ecoinvent, leading supplier of Life Cycle Assessment data, and several partner companies.

NESTLE WATERS

LCA APPROACH

The Global Environmental Footprint (GEF) tool was developed in 2008 for

Nestl Waters by RDC-Environment to carry out Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) with a multi-environmental criteria approach
Both the tool and the methodology associated with it underwent a critical

review by a panel of international LCA experts.


Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as water and energy consumption are

calculated using methods that meet the recommendations of the GHG Protocol :
ISO 14064-1 (GHG accounting and verification) ISO 14040-44 (LCA) quality standards.

* GHG emissions are calculated in grams of CO2 equivalent (eq).

BOTTLED WATER LIFECYCLE

PackagingExtraction & Transportation of raw materials Supply of packaging to Nestle Water Factories Manufacturing Transformation into bottles Product bottling Conditioning with secondary packaging material Storage until transportation DistributionTransportation & Storage at Wholesalers &Points-of-Sale Transportation from Retail to Consumer Destination Storage ( in cooling device) & Consumption Consumer disposal of empty packaging

BOTTLED WATER FOOTPRINT

PACKAGING

MANUFACTURING

DISTRIBUTION

CASE 5: LIFECYCLE ASSESSMENT OF XEROX SOLID INK MULTIFUNCTION PRINTER

TOTAL LIFETIME ENERGY INVESTMENT AND GLOBAL WARMING IMPACT

LCA of a 50 ppm solid ink multifunction printer in comparison to a 51 ppm laser

multifunction printer under similar operating conditions.


Solid ink multifunction printer studied exhibited 9% lower life cycle Cumulative Energy

Demand and 10% lower Global warming potential than the laser multifunction printer.
Color laser multifunction printers typically include replaceable parts and supplies such as

toner cartridges and waste toner bottles.


In the solid ink multifunction printer, the drum maintenance unit is the only replaceable

item. All remaining parts are designed to last the lifetime of the device.

IMPACT ASSESSMENT

RESULTS OF THE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE DERIVED


Solid ink technology produces up to 90% less post-consumer waste, and

requires fewer replacement parts and supplies than laser technology.


This implies that the solid ink multifunction printer uses less energy and materials

over the life cycle, and producing less waste in the customer environment.
For the organization, it implies direct reduction in manufacturing costs. For the customer, it means lesser spending on purchasing supplies and replacing

various parts over the lifecycle of the multifunction printer, making it a preferred product.
Also, this has direct implications on gaining customer share in near future as

customers become more aware of the difference in wastage caused and environmental impact.

CASE 5: LIFECYCLE ASSESSMENT OF DAIMLER

LCA: INTEGRAL PART OF DAIMLERS DFE

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: VEHICLE LEVEL (S400 HYBRID VERSUS S350 )

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: SYSTEM LEVEL (SMART ELECTRIC DRIVE VERSUS GASOLINE)

LCA: COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE DERIVED


Areas of application for LCA in the automotive industry Internal use of LCA as an instrument for environmentally oriented product and process

development
Publication of Life Cycle Assessments to document process related environmental

performance
Joint automotive industry studies and/or (funded) LCA-projects about questions of general

interest
Basic rules for LCA in the automotive industry All LCA studies shall be based on ISO 14040/44 and be complemented by full stakeholder

involvement.
European Automobile Manufacturers' Association(ACEA) recommends that only globally

accepted indicators are included in impact assessments.

REFERENCES

Life

Cycle Assessment : Principles Applications International Corporation

and

Practice,

Scientific

Life Cycle Assessment of the Industrial use of Expanded Polystyrene

Packaging in Europe, European manufacturers of Expanded Polystyrene


http://www.scienceinthebox.com/ Life Cycle Impact Assessment of Aluminum Beverage Cans,

Aluminum Association, Inc. Washington, D.C.


Life Cycle Assessments of Energy from Solid Waste, Finnveden,

Gran et. Al
LCA Performed by companies from their respective sites

THANK YOU!