Starting System Principles

Uses battery power

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AUTOMOTIVE STARTING SYSTEMS
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Starter Circuit Electric DC Motor (starter motor) Solenoid or Relay Gear Drive Switches & Controls Wiring Testing Removing Starter
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STARTING SYSTEM PARTS
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Battery Ignition switch Solenoid Starting motor

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STARTER CIRCUIT


Battery / Cables Magnetic Switches Solenoids

• Pull in Windings • Hold in Windings • Pinion Gear

Starter Relay
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Starter Circuit Simplified 5 .

flywheel Complete the starter circuit 6 .Starter Solenoid Functions      * Close battery to starter connection * Push pinion gear into fly wheel * Bypass the resistance wire of ignition circuit Move the starter drive into mesh w.

Starting System Action  Turn key  Current flows to Solenoid  Energizes solenoid  Connects current to starter motor nion forward  Turns starter  Motor turns flywheel  Turns crankshaft  Moves pistons up and down  1 7 .

Starter System Action cont. 8 .

Starter Motor Fundamentals     Converts Electrical Energy From Battery Into Mechanical Energy TORQUE 9 .

    DC MOTOR Basic Components Housings and End Frames Pole Shoes (magnets) Field Coils • (windings) x 3 or 4    Armature (spins) Commutator Brushes x4 10 .

MOTOR OPERATION  Magnetic Field Action • made of invisible lines of force (flux) • flow through wire • flow around wire • alike charges repel • Dissimilar Charges attract(spinning action) • Used to produce motion 11 .

DRIVE MECHANISM  Positive engagement • Movable pole shoe  Solenoid-actuated • Gear reduction drive 12 .

Simple Electric Motors    Wire loop field Set up between poles POLE SHOES 13 .

Changing Electricity Into Motion    Place windings inside pole shoes Current through loop Fields act upon each other 14 .

Commutators and Brushes  Used to keep motor spinning • by controlling current passing through windings commutator  Sliding electrical connection • • • • • • Between motor windings and brushes Many segments Insulated from each other Ride on comutator (slide on commutator) Carry current to spinning windings 15  Motor brushes .

Commutators and Brushes  Increasing Motor Power • several windings • wires  Commutator • several segments • constant smooth motion 16 .

Armatures  Must produce HIGH torque • turning power • relatively high speed 17 .

Starter Armature parts       shaft supports windings/armature inside housing Core (holds windings in place) • • • made of iron (Fe) increases magnetic field strength Commutator for brush contact Windings • wires 18 .

Field Windings         stationary insulated wires wrapped in circular shape creates strong magnetic field around motor armature 5-10 x stronger than perminate magnets field in pole shoes acts against field in armature = motor spins 19 .

Pinion gear mechanism    Pinion gear Clutch Housing 20 .

Starter Pinion Gears    Small gear on armature shaft Engages to flywheel Meshes  Fly Wheel Turns Engine 21 .

Overrunning Clutch      Locks pinion gear in one direction Releases it in other direction Spiral grooves in shaft Allows starter motor to crank the engine Protects the starter from damage if the starter is cranked while the engine is running 22 .

Starter Solenoid   High current relay Makes electrical connection between • Battery & starter   Electromagnetic switch Handle VERY HIGH currents 23 .

Starter Solenoid Operation        Key turned (start position) Current flows through solenoids windings Produces magnetic field Pulls plunger and disc into coil windings Causes disc to touch both high current terminals Completes circuit battery to starter Current of 150-200A 24 .

Solenoid 25 .

Key Released     Current disconnected Magnetic field collapses Plunger slides back Starter shuts off 26 .

Increasing Motor Power      Several windings Wires Comutator Several segments Constant smooth motion 27 .

RELATED MOTOR TERMINOLOGY    Left hand or right hand rule Torque Current Draw 28 .

Pinion gear meshes with the flywheel ring gear.STARTER DRIVE END      Connects the armature shaft to the flywheel.running clutch for protection. Usually shifted out by the solenoid. Returned to the rest position by a spring. Contains an over. 29 .

Pushes the starter drive(pinion) into mesh with the flywheel ring gear.SOLENOID     A linear motor Contains two windings a pull-in and a hold-in winding. Completes the circuit to the motor. 30 .

CONTROL CIRCUIT   Starting Safety Switch Neutral Safety Switch • On • transmission On Clutch 31 .

Starting Motor Types       classified by: kind of pinion gear engagement moveable pole shoe solenoid Movable pole shoe uses a yoke “Y” moves pinion gear hinged shoe on starter frame yoke links pole shoe & pinion gear 32 .

Internal Motor Circuits   3 common internal connections Series • • • • maximum torque torque decreases throughout cranking Less torque More constant torque series/shunt good toque constant speed  Shunt  Compound • • • 33 .

brake on LOCATION Connected in series with the ignition switch and solenoid • shifter or transmission 34 .Neutral Safety Switch      prevents cranking unless in P or N Ford .

Starter Relay  Uses small current to control •a LARGER • current Computer controls circuit (mV) 35 .

Starter Types   Starter Mounted Solenoids plunger moves shift lever • GM/Chrysler     Permanent Magnet Starter Use high strength permanent magnets NOT CONVENTIONAL WINDINGS = MORE torque 36 .

Starter Motor Torque    Must turn engine all components Can Not Stall Reduction starter • extra set of gears • increase rotating force • higher speeds • higher torque • more constant cranking speeds 37 .

STARTER TESTING        Preliminary Tests Safety Precautions Troubleshooting Procedures Battery Load Test Cranking Voltage Test Cranking Current Test Insulated Resistance Test     Starter Relay Bypass Test Ground Circuit Resistance Test Voltage Drop to Control Unit Test Components 38 .

Problems  Starter relay or solenoid clicks • low battery charge Plunger stuck Poor engagement Low battery Internal short 39  Whining • • • •  Grinding Slow turn  .

Battery Load Test    VAT 40 All Accessories on ½ CCA 40 .

Test  Cranking Voltage • • • • DVOM across battery  Cranking Current Test Inductive Pick Up Current draw 150-200 AMPS  Voltage Drop Test 41 .

Tests      Test Relay Ground Circuit Resistance Test Starter Relay Bypass Test Ground test Bench test 42 .

Starter Motor Disassembly 43 .

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