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1a Further Mechanics

Momentum concepts

Breithaupt pages 4 to 17

September 3rd, 2010

AQA A2 Specification

Lessons Topics

1 to 4

Momentum concepts Force as the rate of change of momentum F = Δ(mv) / Δt Impulse FΔt = Δ(mv) Significance of area under a force-time graph. Principle of conservation of linear momentum applied to problems in one dimension. Elastic and inelastic collisions; explosions.

Momentum. p momentum = mass x velocity p = mv m in kilograms (kg) v in metres per second (ms-1) p in kilograms metres per second (kg ms-1) Momentum is a VECTOR quantity – direction the same as the velocity .

ΣF α Δ(p) Δ(t) .Newton’s 2nd law (A2 version) The resultant force acting on an object is proportional to the rate of change of momentum of the object and is in the same direction as the resultant force.

Inserting a constant of proportionality ‘k ’ ΣF = k Δ(p) Δ(t) but: p = mv hence: ΣF = k Δ(mv) Δ(t) If the mass. m remains constant: ΣF = k m Δ(v) Δ(t) .

.but: Δ(v) = a (acceleration) Δ(t) hence: ΣF = k m a A force of one newton is defined as that required to cause an acceleration of 1 ms -2 with a mass of 1 kg. Inserting these values into: ΣF = k m a gives: 1 = k x 1 x 1 and so: k = 1 giving: ΣF = m a (the AS version of Newton’s 2nd law) Note: This simplified version only applies for an object of constant mass.

F = Δ(mv) / Δt F in newtons (N) Δ(mv) in kilograms metres per second (kg ms-1) Δt in seconds (s) .Force and Momentum Force is equal to the rate of change of momentum.

Calculate: (a) its initial momentum (b) the time taken to stop the car. (a) p = mv = 800 kg x 30 ms-1 momentum = 24 000 kg ms-1 (b) F = Δ(mv) / Δt 1200N = 24 000 kg ms-1 / Δt Δt = 24 000 kg ms-1 / 1200N time = 20 seconds .Question 1 A car of mass 800 kg moving at a velocity of 30 ms -1 is brought to rest by a braking force of 1200 N.

0ms -1 .0ms -1 is struck from behind by another vehicle. so: Δp = m Δv = 750 kg x (6. The impact lasts for 0.0 – 4. Calculate: (a) the change in momentum of the car due to the impact.30s force = 5000 N .Question 2 A car of mass 750kg travelling at a speed of 4.0) ms-1 momentum change = 1 500 kg ms-1 (b) F = Δ(mv) / Δt = 1 500 kg ms-1 / 0.30s and causes the speed of the car to increase to 6. (a) Δp = Δmv mass is constant. (b) the impact force.

Δp = FΔt = Δ(mv) Δp is measured in newton seconds (Ns) . Δp Impulse is equal to the change of momentum produced by a force over a period of time.Impulse. Impulse.

Impulse caused by a golf club (Breithaupt page 8) .

.Force – time graphs (Breithaupt page 6) Impulse is equal to the area under a force-time graph.

Calculation Example (Breithaupt page 9) .

Graph Question F/N 3. Area = impulse = 3N x (5 .2 )s impulse = 9 Ns = Δ(mv) = 6kg x Δ(v) therefore.0 2 5 t/s Calculate the impulse and change in velocity caused to mass of 6kg from the graph opposite. Δ(v) = 9 / 6 velocity change = 1.5 ms-1 .

. friction or air resistance) acts on the interacting bodies.Conservation of Linear Momentum The total linear momentum of an isolated system of bodies remains constant An isolated system is one where no external forces (e.g.

If after the collision the trolleys move off attached together calculate their common final velocity.Question A trolley of mass 4kg moving at 5ms-1 collides with another initially stationary trolley of mass 3kg. Initial total linear momentum of the system: = momentum of 4kg trolley + momentum of 3kg trolley = (4kg x 5ms-1) + (3kg x 0ms-1) = 20 kgms-1 .

Conservation of linear momentum: Final total linear momentum of the system must also = 20 kgms-1 (total mass x final common velocity) = 20 kgms-1 (4kg + 3kg) x v = 20 kgms-1 7v = 20 v = 20 / 7 Final common velocity = 2.86 ms-1 .

Elastic and inelastic collisions ELASTIC – KINETIC energy is conserved INELASTIC – Some (or all) KINETIC energy is transformed into thermal or other forms of energy. . In both types of collision both the total energy and momentum are conserved.

6 J Kinetic energy reduced – Collision INELASTIC .86 ms-1)2 = 3.5 x 8.Collision question continued Was the collision in the previous example elastic or inelastic? Kinetic energy = ½ x mass x (speed)2 Total initial KE = KE of 4kg trolley = ½ x 4kg x (5 ms-1)2 = 2 x 25 = 50 J Total final KE = KE of combined 7kg trolley = ½ x 7kg x (2.18 = 28.

Explosions KINETIC energy is increased Both the total energy and momentum are conserved .

If the bullet moves off at a speed of 250ms-1 calculate the recoil speed of the gun. Initial total linear momentum of the system: = momentum of the gun + momentum of the bullet = (3kg x 0ms-1) + (15g x 0ms-1) = 0 kgms-1 Conservation of linear momentum: Final total linear momentum of the system must also = 0 kgms-1 .Question A gun of mass 3kg fires a bullet of mass 15g.

1.Therefore: (bullet mass x velocity) + (gun mass x velocity) = 0 (0.3.015kg x 250ms-1) + (3kg x gun velocity) = 0 (3.75) + (3 x gun velocity) = 0 3 x gun velocity = .3.75 gun velocity = .75 / 3 = .25 ms-1 .25 ms-1 The MINUS sign indicates that the gun’s velocity is in the opposite direction to that of the bullet Gun recoil speed = 1.

Fendt Newton's Cradle .NTNU 2D Collisions .Internet Links • • • • • • • • • • • Effect of impulse .NTNU .Virginia Elastic & Inelastic Collisions .NTNU 2D collisions .NTNU Dropping a load onto a trolley .NTNU Collisions along a straight line .Explore Science Two dimensional collisions .NTNU 1D collision showing momentum and ke .netfirms Ballistic Pendulum .Fendt Gaussian gun .momentum .

. Redo the worked example on page 15 this time with the first rail wagon moving at 4ms-1 colliding with another now of mass 6000kg. 6. Redo the worked example on page 13 this time with the first rail wagon moving at 4ms-1 colliding with another now of mass 2000kg.0kg being fired from a gun of mass 1000kg. Define what is meant by (a) an elastic and (b) an inelastic collision. Explain how the principle of conservation of momentum applies in an explosion. What is meant by ‘impulse’? How can impulse be found graphically? Copy Figure 3 on page 6. 8. State the principle of conservation of momentum. Define what is meant by momentum. 7. State its unit. Explain how force is related to the rate of change of momentum. 2. 4. 3.Core Notes from Breithaupt pages 4 to 17 1. Redo summary question 1 on page 17 this time with a shell of mass 3. 9. 5.

4. Define what is meant by momentum. State its unit. Explain how force is related to the rate of change of momentum.Notes from Breithaupt pages 4 to 7 Force & Momentum 1. . 3. 5. Try the summary questions on page 7 6. Show how the version of Newton’s 2nd law of motion on page 5 can be used to derive the equation: F = ma Redo the worked example on page 7 this time with a force of 20N on a mass of 200kg. What is meant by ‘impulse’? How can impulse be found graphically? Copy Figure 3 on page 6. 2.

Notes from Breithaupt pages 8 to 10 Impact Forces 1. Redo the worked example on page 8 this time with a velocity increase of 25ms-1 over a time of 20ms. 3. Try the summary questions on page 10 . 4. Explain how the relationship between force and momentum change is relevant to vehicle safety.30kg moving at an initial speed of 15ms-1. 2. 5. Redo the worked example on page 10 this time with a ball of mass 0. Explain why a greater force is needed to send a ball back along its initial path than to deflect it at an angle.

Try the summary questions on page 13 3. Explain how the principle of conservation of momentum applies in a head-on collision. 2. .Notes from Breithaupt pages 11 to 13 Conservation of momentum 1. Redo the worked example on page 13 this time with the first rail wagon moving at 4ms-1 colliding with another now of mass 2000kg. Show how the version of Newton’s 3rd law of motion on page 11 can be used to derive the principle of conservation of momentum. 5. Explain how the principle of conservation of momentum can be verified experimentally. 6. 4. State the principle of conservation of momentum.

What is a totally inelastic collision? Explain how conservation of energy can still apply to an inelastic collision. What else is conserved in this type of collision? Try the summary questions on page 15 3. 4. Define what is meant by (a) an elastic and (b) an inelastic collision. 5.Notes from Breithaupt pages 14 & 15 Elastic and inelastic collisions 1. . 2. Redo the worked example on page 15 this time with the first rail wagon moving at 4ms-1 colliding with another now of mass 6000kg.

0kg being fired from a gun of mass 1000kg. Explain how the principle of conservation of momentum applies in an explosion. Try the other summary questions on page 17 . Redo summary question 1 on page 17 this time with a shell of mass 3. 2. 4.Notes from Breithaupt pages 16 & 17 Explosions 1. 3. Explain how the principle of conservation of momentum can be verified experimentally with an explosive interaction.

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