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A metazoan  Lineage ~700MY old  Named after cindocytes – stinging cells

Most common type - nematocyst Symmetry is radial or biradial


Body plan simple, sac-like

Aquatic - mostly marine, some freshwater species  Show tissue level of organization

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 Symmetry
  

– radial
present cavity

No “head” Has oral & aboral ends Polyp (sessile) & medusa (free-swimming) body types

 Polymorphism

 Gastrovascular
 

single opening (mouth/anus) surrounded by tentacles H2O within serves as hydrostatic skeleton

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 

Stinging cell organelles, cnidae, prevalent on tentacles, epidermis, &/or gastrodermis  Nematocysts most abundant type Nerve net present, some sensory organs  Statocysts – balance organs  Ocelli – simple light sensors Muscle fibers present Reproduction  Asexual: budding (polyp)  Sexual: planula larvae (medusa, some polyp forms)  Individuals may be monoecious or dioecious No excretory or respiratory systems; diffusion suffices
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Mouth & anus are the same opening

Oral End 

Aboral End 

Oral End 

Pedal Disc Aboral End 

Digestion extracellular in gastrovascular cavity; smaller particles ingested intracellularly
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mollusks. Food  source for mollusks & fish Some ctenophores. arthropods Hydroids attach to underwater structures  Commensalism on mollusk shells  Aquatic organisms provide food source for cnidarians  Rarely provide food for human consumption 6 . & flatworms will eat hydroids w/ nematocysts  Habitats:   Coral reefs home to fish.

polyps sessile. sea anemones move on basal disc Locomotion: medusa move freely about. aboral end shaped. mouth upward ringed by tentacles Asexual reproduction: budding. at mercy of waves 7 . tentacles ring umbrella Reproduction sexual &/or asexual Medusa usually dioecious Sea anemones & corals Includes Scyphozoans are polyps – no medusa & Cubozoans stage Locomotion: Hydras move freely. Medusa: umbrella sessile.Polyp: hydroid form. fission. pedal laceration Sexual reproduction occurs too Body sac-like. mouth downward. free-swimming attached to substrate by pedal disc Body tubular.

 Cnidarians mostly voracious carnivores. but predatory capabilities hampered by body plan.  Polyps rely on stinging cells to capture/paralyze any organism the tide brings by  Medusa rely on stinging cells to do same even though they are free-swimming (realize inability to totally control where they swim) 8 .

Stinging cells triggered by mechanical or chemical stimuli 9 .

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stimulus causes H2O to rush in opening operculum 11 . Cell generates osmotic pressure up to 140 atm that causes the ejection to occur  Hydrostatic pressure increases as osmotic pressure decreases  Due to high osmotic pressure.

000 g and a penetration force of 20-33 kPa. High hydrostatic pressure launches the thread within 3 milliseconds with an acceleration power of 40.9 mm  Lost nematocyst must be replaced 12 . poison injected  Nematocysts are capable of penetrating up to a depth of 0. barbs point rear & anchor in victim’s tissue.

several thousand nematocysts discharging at once have a significant effect.While the amount of toxin expressed by a single nematocyst is minute. the toxin causes Na+ and Ca++ ion transport abnormalities. releases inflammatory mediators. and kidneys. and acts as a direct toxin on the myocardium.  Functionally. nervous tissue. disrupts cellular membranes. hepatic tissue.  13 .

fibrinolysins. and is degradable by proteolytic agents. kinins. vasoactive amines (eg. phospholipases. hyaluronidases. The protein component of the toxin tends to be heat labile. collagenases. the toxin may contain catecholamines. and antigenic proteins. histamine. nondialyzable. cardiotoxins. 14 . proteases. serotonin). neurotoxins. nephrotoxins. Specifically. dermatoneurotoxins. myotoxins.

This is especially true of the east coast of Australia during the warm summer months between November and May. they’re in the southern hemisphere. so their summer is during our winter) 15 . As the coastal population grows and more tourists come to the beaches. especially between latitudes 30° south to 45° north. One investigator reported 500. International Jellyfish stings occur in tropical oceans.000 annually along the Florida coast.    United States Jellyfish stings occur most commonly during the summer along coastal regions. the frequency of jellyfish sting is likely to increase. (Don’t forget.000 annual envenomations in the Chesapeake Bay area and 200. because of a high natural concentration of cnidarians.

and 18.6% had moderate effects. 80.Jellyfish stings usually are mild. Exact mortality and morbidity is not known because of underreporting and the lack of an international jellyfish sting registry. such as the box jellyfish or Portuguese man-of-war. except those caused by species in the South Pacific. a recent epidemiology study of 118 cases of jellyfish stings from the Texas gulf coast showed 0.8% had no effect.  16 .5% had minor effects.  However.

which makes it the most potent marine toxin. 17 . Box jellyfish venom has a median lethal dose of 40 mcg/kg. neuromuscular paralysis drowning. and cardiovascular collapse.  Box jellyfish venom has caused 72 deaths secondary to respiratory paralysis. The venom may kill a person weighing 70 kg within 3 minutes and is responsible for a mortality rate of 20%.

according to animal studies. inducing parasympathetic overstimulation and respiratory-cardiac arrest. approximately 5-10 mcg/kg of venom is required to induce cardiac arrest.  Most fatalities occur within 20 minutes of the envenomation. The pain and spasms spread centrally as the venom travels to the central circulatory system. 18 .

19 . The sting of the Portuguese man-of-war is more painful than a common jellyfish sting. This sting has been responsible for 2 reported deaths. It has been described as feeling like being struck by a lightning bolt. and some victims dread it more than a shark bite.

20 . allowing the jellyfish to sweep an area slightly larger than a basketball court. The Arctic jellyfish is the largest. with tentacles reaching 200 ft.

no centralized nervous system  Sense organs simple Statocysts & Ocelli 21 . Contains 2 nerve nets at base of epidermis and gastrodermis which connect  Nerve impulses carried by neurotransmitters via snapses   Transmission can go either direction Lack myelin sheath around axons  No  brain.

The statocyst is therefore useful for telling the animal whether it is upside down or not.Ctenophores. causing the mass to move when accelerated.  22 .The statocyst is a balance organ present in some aquatic invertebrates (Cnidarians. It consists of a sac-like structure containing a mineralized mass (statolith) and numerous innervated sensory hairs (setae). Deflection of setae by the statolith in response to gravity activates neurons. Bilaterians).” they are limited in their actions and responses to stimuli.  The statolith possesses inertia. providing feedback to the animal on change in orientation and allowing balance to be maintained.  Because organism has no “brain.

 The phylum Cnidaria includes the first multicellular animals to form eyes. 23 . Because of their basal position on the phylogenetic  tree. cnidarians provide an excellent system in which to study the evolution of the first multicellular animal eyes and the evolution of photosensory mechanisms. this group exhibits a diversity of eye designs ranging from a simple photosensitive sheet of cells to the complex image forming eyes of cubozoan jellyfish.

 The camera-type eyes of cubozoans represent the most highly evolved eyes in the Cnidaria.  These eyes resemble the proposed ancestral prototype eye.  Further they contain the visual pigments involved in phototransduction: rhodopsin and opsins. 24 .

 Class  Hydrozoa: Marine & freshwater. colonial. polyps only. most medusa forms Marine. toxin lethal to humans  Class   Class  Anthozoa Marine. no known polyp forms. no medusa form 25 . polyp & medusa forms  Class  Scyphozoa Cubozoa Marine. medusa form prominent.

crustaceans  Asexual rep – budding. America  Solitary polyps (typical form)  Eat larvae. Hydra & Obelia are good examples of this class  Hydra: Freshwater species. 16 in N.  Sexual Rep – prod of sperm/ova  Overwinter as cysts  26 . worms.

tentacles)  Eat crustaceans. & terminal polyps (zooids) Gastrozooids (feeding) Gonophores (reproduction) Dactylozooids (defense. larvae  Buds remain attached. reprod sexually Planula larva attach. Colony    has base. released  Medusa  – dioecious. incr colony size  Medusa produced by asex. forming new colony 27 . Budding. stalk. worms.

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planula zygote  Zygote develops. fertilization internal. Most “jellyfish” belong here  Medusa body form  Marine. free-swimming (mostly). forms buds (asexually) which produce new medusa 30 . open sea  Aurelia example of scyphozoan  Dioecious.

good hunters  Toxic venom 31 . Box “jellyfish” prominent “eyes”  Note  Medusa dom body form form unknown  Polyp  Strong swimmers.

Pedalium: flat blade at base of each tentacle (see arrow)  32 .

shallow water dwellers 33 . another is sea pens  Medusa  All body form not seen are marine. Sea anemones & coral found in this class.

mouth/anus slit shaped  Reproduction:   Sexual or asexual Monoecious & dioecious individuals Gonads internal. fertilization external  Zygote becomes a ciliated larva  Budding. Polyps   large. heavy Attach to substrate via pedal discs. pedal laceration. & fission may produce new individual asexually 34 . may burrow in sand/mud/silt Tentacles ring the oral opening.

Bonaire Giant Anemone  Note fluorescence 35 .

Commensal relationships between fish & anemone Clown fish  Pink Anemone Fish  Saddleback Clownfish 36 .

Brain Coral  Two types of corals: Zoantharian corals – true or stony corals  Octocorallian corals – soft corals. colonial   Both form coral reefs  structures produced by living organisms. produces massive calcareous formations that make ideal habitats for living corals and a great variety of other animal and plant life. In most reefs the predominant organisms are colonial cnidarians that secrete an exoskeleton of calcium carbonate. The accumulation of this skeletal material. broken and piled up by wave action and bioeroders. 37 .

Southeast Asia accounts for 32. with the Indo-Pacific region (including the Red Sea. while the Pacific including Australia accounts for 40. Indian Ocean.8%.6% of the world total.300 km2. Southeast Asia and the Pacific) accounting for 91. Coral reefs are estimated to cover 284. 38 .3% of that figure. Atlantic and Carribean coral reefs only account for 7.9% of the total.

Bahamas Barrier Reef .  The Andros.  The Belize Barrier Reef .second largest in the world. stretching from southern Quintana Roo. Australia.The Great Barrier Reef .second longest double barrier reef in the world.  Pulley Ridge . Egypt and Saudi Arabia.  The Red Sea Coral Reef . with a length of about 1500km.third largest in the world. Florida  39 .deepest photosynthetic coral reef. Mexico and all along the coast of Belize down to the Bay Islands of Honduras.located off the coast of Israel. Bahamas between Andros and Nassau. following along the east coast of Andros Island.largest coral reef system in the world.  The New Caledonia Barrier Reef . Queensland.

the relationship is responsible for coral reefs in the sense that without their symbionts. coral growth would be too slow for the corals to form impressive reef structures. 40  .  Because of this relationship. which admits more sunlight. but have a symbiotic relationship with single-celled algae called zooanthellae  these algal cells within the tissues of the coral polyps carry out photosynthesis and produce excess organic nutrients that are then used by the coral polyps. coral reefs grow much faster in clear water. Indeed.  Corals can get up to 90% of their nutrients from their zooxanthellae symbionts.The coral polyps do not photosynthesize.

Elkhorn Coral Star Coral Fluorescent Coral 41 .

 Cyanobacteria also provide soluble nitrates for the coral reef through the process of nitrogen oxigen. 42  . and they feed upon zooplankton that are carried past the polyps by water motion. zooanthellae. including inorganic nitrogen and phosporus. although they are located in nutrient-poor tropical waters. directly from the water. and other reef organisms provides an explanation for why coral reefs flourish in these waters: recycling ensures that fewer nutrients are needed overall to support the community.Coral reefs support an extraordinary biodiversity.  The process of nutrient cycling between corals. Corals absorb nutrients.

seaweed. primary productivity on a coral reef is very high. at 5-10g C m-2 day-1. which results in the highest biomass per square meter. 43 . Thus. sponges. coralline algae(especially small types called turf algae.  Producers in coral reef communities include the symbiotic zooxanthellae. marine worms.

it is attached not free floating 44 .Red Stalk Jellyfish Portuguese Man-o-War This scyphozoan is unusual.

Velella & Man-o-war are only scyphozoans with floats Note: Large float in this species 45 .

Orange Sea Pen 46 .

Sea Fan Arctic Jellyfish 47 .

x Jellyfish washed ashore 48 .

 prefer warmer H2O  About 100 species known Size range: few mm to 1.5m  Medusa contains 8 rows of fused cilia plates for locomotion  Some bioluminescent  Have 2 tentacles. Marine. only 1 species known to have nematocysts 49 .

long & retractable Surface bearing colloblasts which are sticky 50 . Comb  plates extend from aboral to oral end  Fused cilia along plate which beat from aboral to oral ends All plates beat in unison. moving food toward mouth  Two  tentacles.

No central nervous system  Statocysts present for balance  Sensory cells in epidermis Individuals are monoecious  Fertilization external  Some brood eggs  Larva free swimming 51 .

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Benthic Ctenophoran  “Tortugas Red” Comb Jelly 53 .