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# Prepared by; MARJORIE Q.

REFORMA IV-TANIGUE SEPTEMBER 5,2012

Pressure Pressure is defined as force per unit area. It is usually more convenient to use pressure rather than force to describe the influences upon fluid behavior. The standard unit for pressure is the Pascal, which is a Newton per square meter. For an object sitting on a surface, the force pressing on the surface is the weight of the object, but in different orientations it might have a different area in contact with the surface and therefore exert a different pressure.

Hello welcome to the world in pressure is the amount of force exerted on agiven area… .

There are many physical situations where pressure is the most important variable. Pressure in a fluid can be seen to be a measure of energy per unit volume by means of the definition of work. then pressure is the most important variable in getting the needle through your skin: it is better to have a sharp needle than a dull one since the smaller area of contact implies that less force is required to push the needle through the skin. then pressure is the key variable: if the knife is sharp.  Pressure calculation. then the area of contact is small and you can peel with less force exerted on the blade. the medium is treated as a continuous distribution of matter.   . This energy is related to other forms of fluid energy by theBernoulli equation. If you are peeling an apple. But when you deal with a gas pressure. When you deal with the pressure of a liquid at rest. it must be approached as an average pressure from molecular collisions with the walls. If you must get an injection.

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Across the cross-section of flow.  Fluid Kinetic Energy The kinetic energy of a moving fluid is more useful in applications like the Bernoulli equation when it is expressed as kinetic energy per unit volume  When the kinetic energy is that of fluid under conditions of laminar flow through a tube. the kinetic energy must be calculated using the average of the velocity squared . the kinetic energy is . which is not the same as squaring the average velocity. one must take into account the velocity profile to evaluate the kinetic energy. Expressed in terms of the maximum velocity vm at the center of the flow.

but we love this goofy “magic” trick with a kid and a grownup…and an audience. 1-2 liters in size. if you dare. or with technical worksheets. too. of course.     Warning all grownups: get your sense of humor ready for this science experiment. clean and dry Latex balloons Pin or tack . You can do this in a lab. which demonstrates fundamental physics of air pressure. What You Need: 2 plastic drink bottles.

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on our bodies. which play a significant role in day to day weather conditions. Variations in pressure generate winds. Pressure Activityscaffolding activityIntroduction: Introduction: Though you may not realize it. The purpose of this activity is to introduce characteristics of pressure. or pressure. the air has weight. Key words throughout this activity link directly to helper resources that provide useful information for answering the questions.  . and a brief analysis of an idealized pressure field. All the air molecules in the atmosphere exert a force. Atmospheric pressure is the force exerted by the weight of the air above an object or surface. high and low pressure centers.

 Characteristics of Pressure: 1) What are the different units of pressure? Which unit is used most by meteorologists?   2) Circle the correct response in the following sentence: Pressure (increases / decreases) with height. Please explain why pressure changes this way with height. 4) Pictured below are two imaginary columns of air molecules exerting pressure on the surfaces below them.   . The left column contains fewer air molecules than the right column. High and Low Pressure Centers: 3) Draw the symbol that represents a high pressure center on a weather map. Do the same for a low pressure center.

You may label the diagram in one of two ways. 1) by printing out a copy of this activity and marking your answers directly onto the printout or 2) by saving the image into your favorite graphics software and modifying the image using that graphics package. . mark your answers beneath the appropriate columns in the diagram above.Which column is more representative of the atmosphere above a high pressure center? Which one is more likely to be found over a low pressure? Using the correct symbols for labeling high and low pressure centers (see question #3).

  Analysis of a Pressure Field: 5) The diagram below is an idealized pressure field resembling those commonly found on surface weather maps. What are the green contours? What do they represent?  . The numbers along each contour indicate the pressure value in millibars for that particular contour. Use the diagram below to answer the following questions.

Draw an arrow (on the diagram above) to indicate the direction in which the pressure gradient force is pointing. Please use the correct symbols (see question #3). You may label your image in one of two ways. open the following map and create the latest map of isobars.  . On this map. 1) by printing out a copy of the image and marking your answers directly onto the printout or 2) by saving the image into your favorite graphics software and modifying the image using that graphics package. mark the positions ofhigh and low pressure centers (using the correct symbols). Examine the Current Pressure Field: 6) Using what you learned in questions 1-5. You may label the diagram in one of two ways.   Label the diagram above to indicate the positions of the high and low pressure centers. 1) by printing out a copy of this activity and marking your answers directly onto the printout or 2) by saving the image into your favorite graphics software and modifying the image using that graphics package.

 1.What is the pressure of the cylinder? .

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 1.what happened Pressure=force/area  .