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# Mass Properties

Mass property calculation was one of the first features implemented in CAD/CAM systems.

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Curve length
Cross-sectional area Centroid of a cross-sectional area Surface area Centroid of a surface area Volume Centroid of a volume

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Mass
Center of mass First moment of inertia Second moment of inertia Products of inertia

Ken Youssefi

Mechanical Engineering dept.

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P* = P + d x* = x + dx y* = y + dy z* = z + dz Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering dept. Mirror.Translation Geometric transformations are used in modeling and viewing models. Translation – all points move an equal distance in a given direction.Transformations .… are all based on geometric transformations. 2 . Typical CAD operations such as Rotate. Offset. Pattern. Extrude. Revolve. zoom.

cos(θ) 0 [ Ry] = 1 -sin(θ) 0 0 0 cos(θ) P* = [ R] P 3 . and axis of rotation Rewriting in a matrix form x* y* = z* cos(θ) -sin(θ) sin(θ) cos(θ) 0 0 1 x y z 0 0 P* = [ Rz] P 1 0 0 0 cos(θ) -sin(θ) sin(θ) cos(θ) sin(θ) [ Rx] = 0 Point P rotates about the z axis x* = x cos(θ) – y sin(θ) y* = x sin(θ) + y scos(θ) z* = z Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering dept.Rotation Rotation – This operation requires an entity. a center of rotation.Transformations .

it applies to open and closed curves. 4 .Curve Length Consider the curve connecting two points P1 and P2 in space. Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering dept. The exact length of a curve bounded by the parametric values u1 and u2.

The centroid of the region is located by vector rc. consider the area of element dA of sides dxL and dyL.…..Cross-Sectional Area A cross-sectional area is a planar region bounded by a closed boundary. The boundary is piecewise continuous To calculate the area A of the region R. C2. 5 . Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering dept. Integrate over the region. The length of the contour is given by the sum of the lengths of C1.Cn.

Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering dept. The major difference is that As is not planar in general as in the case of B-spline or Bezier surfaces.Surface Area The surface area As of a bounded surface is formulated the same as the crosssectional area. For objects with multiple surfaces. 6 . the total surface area is equal to the sum of its individual surfaces.

7 . Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering dept. The volume Vm of a multiply connected object with holes is given by.Volume The volume can be expressed as a triple integral by integrating the volume element dV The centroid of the object is located by the vector rc.

Mass Mass & Centroid The mass of an object can be formulated the same as its volume by introducing the density. replace volume by mass. . Ken Youssefi rc= ∫∫∫ r dm m m 8 Mechanical Engineering dept. m= ∫∫∫ ρdV m Assuming the density ρ remains constant through out the object we have. m=ρ Centroid ∫∫∫ dV = ρV V Same formulation as for volume. dm = ρdV Integrating over the distributed mass of the object.

9 . Substituting the centroid equation. Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering dept. So the first moment of a distributed mass of an object with respect to the XY. mass. we obtain. and YZ planes are given. or volume is a mathematical property that is useful in various calculations. the first moment of the mass about a given plane is equal to the product of the mass and its perpendicular distance from the plane.First Moment of Inertia First moment of an area. For a lumped mass. XZ.

about the axis.Second Moments of Inertia The physical interpretation of a second mass moment of inertia of an object about an axis is that it represents the resistance of the object to any rotation. The area moment of inertia represents the ability of the object to resist deformation. The second moment of inertia about a given axis is the product of the mass and the square of the perpendicular distance between the mass and the axis. 10 . Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering dept. or angular acceleration.

and z axes. Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering dept. we need to find the product of inertia for the area as well as its moments of inertia about x. 11 . y. To determine that.Products of Inertia In some applications of mechanical or structural design it is necessary to know the orientation of those axis that give the maximum and minimum moments of inertia for the area.

Even a 2D package (AutoCAD) calculates some of the mass properties. 12 .Mass Properties – CAD/CAM Systems CAD systems typically calculate the mass properties discussed so far. You are responsible for setting up the correct and units for length. angles and density SolidWorks Determine the mass properties Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering dept.

Mass Properties .SolidWorks Option button allows you to set the proper units Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering dept. 13 .

product of inertia. moments of area. surface area. True lengths.Mass Properties – Unigraphics NX5 Calculates volume. principal moment of inertia. circumference. mass. radius of gyration.. weight. areas. and principal axes. 2D Analysis Calculates and displays geometric properties of planar figures. 14 . are obtained. Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering dept. etc. This function analyzes figures after projecting them onto the XC-YC plane (the work plane).

Primarily. Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering dept. circumference. used for automotive body design. 15 .Mass Properties Unigraphics NX5 Calculates principal moment of inertia. are and center of gravity of Sections.

along with the Moments of Inertia. Calculates the radius of gyration. If only a single accuracy value is specified. Displays the calculated data for all of the Mass Properties options previously discussed in the Information window. and are important in rotational dynamics. Mechanical Engineering dept. The following table provides a brief explanation of the information. volume and mass of a 3D object. indicating that the mass property values are correct to within tighter tolerances than those specified. form the inertia tensor. Radius of Gyration Information Relative Errors Are estimates of the relative tolerances achieved in calculating the mass properties. Often the relative errors are less than the specified relative tolerances. The Products of Inertia.Mass Properties – Unigraphics NX5 When the software analyzes the selected bodies. then +/Range Errors are given. Ken Youssefi 16 . Centroid/1st Mom Moments of Inertia Products of Inertia Principal Axes/Moments Obtains the center of mass. Obtains the moment of inertia for certain 3D objects of uniform density about specified axes. The Principal Axes/Moments is an orthogonal system of three axes through the center of mass such that the three products of inertia relative to the system are all zero. the information window displays the analysis data. Area/Volume/Mass Obtains the total face area. or Centroid.

Mass Properties – Unigraphics NX5 Measure Bodies Output Ken Youssefi Mechanical Engineering dept. 17 .